Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of a 10% gel of unripe banana (Musa sapientum) peel in treating surgical wounds in rats. METHODS: A longitudinal, prospective, randomized triple-blind study was conducted with 60 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) weighing approximately 400g. The animals were randomly divided into: control group (treated with gel containing no active ingredient) and study group (treated with 10% gel of unripe banana peel). The gel was applied every three days to a 4x4-cm surgical wound created on the back of each animal (day 0) in both groups. Tissue samples were collected for histological analysis on days 14, 21 and 28. RESULTS: On day 14, more extensive vascular proliferation (p=0.023), presence of mononuclear cells (p=0.000), fibroblast proliferation (p=0.012), re-epithelialization (p=0.000), and decreased presence of polymorphonuclear cells (p=0.010) were observed in the study group than in controls. No significant between-group difference in the presence of polymorphonuclear cells was found on day 21. Fibroblast proliferation was significantly greater (p=0.006) in the study group than in the control group on day 28. CONCLUSION: The 10% gel of unripe banana peel showed anti-inflammatory activity and stimulated wound healing in rat skin when compared with a gel containing no active ingredient.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare histologically the action of Mitomycin C and that of Clobetasol propionate for surgical wound healing in rats. METHODS: A circular skin fragment was surgically removed from 57 Wistar rats. Twenty-two animals were treated with Mitomycin C with topical medication in a single dose, 22 with Clobetasol propionate with a cream medication once a day for 15 days and 13 did not receive any medication. The animals were euthanized 30 and 60 days, and the scars subjected to histological examination. RESULTS: The histological analysis on the samples did not show statistically significant differences regarding the quantities of fibroblasts, fibrocytes and vascular proliferation in the three groups, in the evaluations after 30 and 60 days. In the treated groups with Mitomycin C and Clobetasol there was a decrease in collagen concentration over the 30-day period and an increase in collagen concentration over the 60-day period, in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The actions of Mitomycin C and Clobetasol were equivalent and not interfere in fibroplasias and in angiogenesis. Both drugs initially cause a decrease in collagen over a 30-day period and an increase over a 60-day period, demonstrating a delay in the wound healing.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To compare chronic physical stressed with normal tense animals regarding implant osseointegration in the rat mandible. METHODS: Thirty six Wistar rats were anesthesiaded and blunt instruments were used to expose and empty their alveolar inferior nerve. One implant (2.2 x 4mm) was installed into the mandibular canal. Following 72 hours, all rats were equally divided in: Control Group analyzed in 18 days (CG18); Control Group analyzed in 33 days (CG33); Stressed Group with stress during 18 days (SG18) and Stressed Group with stress during 33 days (SG33) - The animals from Stressed Groups (CG 18 and CG33) were placed individually in plastic pipes (PVC) during 12 hours daily to physical restraint. Histomorphometric analysis included bone-implant-contact (BIC) and bone area (BA). RESULTS: In relation to BIC - CG18 (49.8+20.3); SG18 (29.0+16.5) - and BA - CG18 (50.13+21.2); SG18 (23.8+7.8)-, there was a bone repair delayed in SG18 when compared with CG18 (p<0.05). After 33 days, BIC - CG33 (59.6+26.8); SG33 (49.52+17.3)- and BA - CG33 (41.90+17.4); SG33 (43.91+14.7)- showed no difference between groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Chronic physical stress interfere with the initial stage of osseointegration in the rat mandible, but not the final process.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of normal mesenteric lymph (NML) from mice on the spleen injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. METHODS: Mice in the LPS and LPS+NML groups received an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (35 mg/kg) and kept for 6 h.. The mice in the LPS+NML group received NML treatment at 1 h after LPS injection. Afterward, the splenic morphology, the levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), phosphorylation mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and inflammatory mediators in splenic tissue were investigated. RESULTS: LPS injection induced spleen injury, increased the levels of LBP, CD14, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interferon γ (IFN-γ), and decreased the IL-4 content in the spleen. By contrast, NML treatment reversed these changes. Meanwhile, the LPS challenge decreased the phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK, extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK and JNK were further decreased by the NML administration. CONCLUSION: rRdThe normal mesenteric lymph treatment alleviated lipopolysaccharide induced spleen injury by attenuating LPS sensitization and production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate if low level laser therapy (LLLT) can decrease spinal cord injuries after temporary induced spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion in rats because of its anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: Forty eight rats were randomized into two study groups of 24 rats each. In group I, ischemic-reperfusion (I-R) injury was induced without any treatment. Group II, was irradiated four times about 20 minutes for the following three days. The lesion site directly was irradiated transcutaneously to the spinal direction with 810 nm diode laser with output power of 150 mW. Functional recovery, immunohistochemical and histopathological changes were assessed. RESULTS: The average functional recovery scores of group II were significantly higher than that the score of group I (2.86 ± 0.68, vs 1.38 ± 0.09; p<0.05). Histopathologic evaluations in group II were showed a mild changes in compare with group I, that suggested this group survived from I-R consequences. Moreover, as seen from TUNEL results, LLLT also protected neurons from I-R-induced apoptosis in rats. CONCLUSION: Low level laser therapy was be able to minimize the damage to the rat spinal cord of reperfusion-induced injury.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of metformin on renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and inflammation after kidney ischemia/ reperfusion in rats. METHODS: Eighteen SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham (S), Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and Metformin (E). Before establishing the I/R model, group E was administered metformin for three days, while groups S and I/R were administered equal volumes of saline. After three days, a right nephrectomy was performed on all groups, after which the left kidneys of groups E and I/R rats were subjected to 45 min renal ischemia. Renal function, histology, and cell apoptosis were assessed. AMPK, pAMPK, COX-2, and Caspase 3 were also detected. RESULTS: Compared to I/R group, Caspase 3 and COX-2 levels were decreased in group E. COX-2, Caspase3 and pAMPK levels were higher in groups E and I/R than in group S. The pAMPK level of group E was higher than that of I/R group, while COX-2 and caspase 3 were lower in group E than they were in the other groups. There was no significant difference between E and I/R groups in AMPK levels. CONCLUSION: Metformin preconditioning attenuated the inflammation caused by ischemia/reperfusion and inhibited the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To assess whether deoxycholic acid (DOC) and lithocholic acid (LCA) administered in a period of six months in a concentration of 0.25% may have a carcinogenic role in mice colon. METHODS: The study used C57BL6 female mice divided into four groups. The control group received a balanced diet and the others received diets supplemented with 0.25% DOC, 0.25% LCA and 0.125% DOC+0.125% LCA, respectively. After euthanasia, the lesions found in the resected gastrointestinal tracts were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined microscopically. RESULTS: No gastrointestinal tract changes were observed in the control group, while hyperplastic Peyer's patches in the small intestine, flat adenomas with mild dysplasia and chronic colitis at the level of the colon were found in all three test groups. The colonic lesions prevailed in the proximal colon. The highest number of flat adenoma lesions (8), hyperplasia of Peyer's patches (25) and chronic colitis (2) were found in mice fed with diet and LCA. CONCLUSION: Precancerous or cancerous pathological lesions could not be identified. Instead, adenomatous colonic injuries occurred in a shorter period of time (six months), compared to the reported data.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate whether scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT) can differentiate mediastinitis from aseptic inflammation associated with sternotomy. METHODS: Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups: S (control) -partial upper median sternotomy with no treatment; SW (control) - sternotomy and treatment of sternal wounds with bone wax; SB - sternotomy and infection with Staphylococcus aureus; SWB - sternotomy with bone wax treatment and bacterial infection. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-CFT was performed eight days after surgery and images were collected 210 and 360 min after infusion of the radiopharmaceutical. RESULTS: No animals exhibited clinical signs of wound infection at the end of the experiment, although histological data verified acute inflammatory response in those experimentally infected with bacteria. Scintigraphic images revealed that tropism of 99mTc-CFT to infected sternums was greater than to their non-infected counterparts. Mean counts of radioactivity in bacteria-infected sternal regions (SB and SWB) were significantly higher (p = 0.0007) than those of the respective controls (S and SW). CONCLUSION: Scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled ceftizoxime is a method that can potentially detect infection post sternotomy and differentiate from aseptic inflammation in animals experimentally inoculated with S. aureus.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of Botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) on skin flap viability in healthy, tobacco-exposed and diabetic rats. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats (250-300g) were randomly divided into six groups: control+saline (C1), control+BoNTA (C2), tobacco-exposed+saline (T1), tobacco-exposed+BoNTA (T2) diabetes+saline (D1) and diabetes+BoNTA (D2). A dorsal cutaneous flap (3×10cm) was performed. Survival area and total area of the flaps were measured. Lumen diameter, external arterial diameter and lumen/wall thickness ratio were recorded. RESULTS: Survival area increased in control group with BoNTA injection compared with control animals injected with saline (C2 x C1; 0.9±0.1 vs0.67±0.15, p= 0.001). A similar result was found in diabetes group injected with BontA (D2 x D1; 0.97±0.2 vs 0.61±0.24, p=0.018). No difference was observed in skin flap viability in tobacco-exposed groups (T2 x T1; 0.74±0.24 vs 0.64±0.21, p=0.871). Lumen diameter (p= 0.004), external arterial diameter (p = 0.0046,) and lumen/wall thickness ratio (p= 0.003) were increased in diabetes+BoNTA-treated animals. This effect was not observed in control or in tobacco-exposed groups. CONCLUSIONS: Botulinum toxin A increased skin flap viability in control and diabetic rats on the seventh post-operative day. Increased lumen diameter, external arterial diameter, and lumen/wall thickness ratio were observed in the diabetes+BoNTA group. BoNTA had no effect in the tobacco-exposed group on the seventh postoperative day.
Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate a new, low-cost, reusable balloon trocar device for dissection of the preperitoneal space during endoscopic surgery. METHODS: Twenty swine (weight: 15-37 kg) were randomized to two groups, according to whether the preperitoneal space was created with a new balloon device manufactured by Bhio-Supply (group B) or with the commercially available OMSPDB 1000(r) balloon device manufactured by Covidien (group C). Quality and size of the created preperitoneal space, identification of anatomic structures, balloon dissection time, total procedure time, balloon resistance and internal pressure after insufflation with 300 mL of ambient air, balloon-related complications, and procedure cost were assessed. RESULTS: No significant differences in dissection time, total procedure time, or size of the created preperitoneal space were found between the groups. Balloons in group B had a significantly higher internal pressure compared to balloons in group C. None of the balloons ruptured during the experiment. Three animals in group C had balloon-related peritoneal lacerations. Despite a higher individual device cost, group B had a lower procedure cost over the entire experiment. CONCLUSION: The new balloon device is not inferior to the commercially available device in terms of the safety and effectiveness for creating a preperitoneal space in swine.