Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curcumin on visfatin and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) expression levels in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Fifty-six male rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=16) and model group (n=40) and were fed on a normal diet or a high-fat diet, respectively. Equal volumes of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were intragastrically administered to the control group for 4 weeks. At the end of the 12th week, visfatin and ZAG protein expression levels were examined by immunohistochemistry. Visfatin mRNA levels were measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the model group showed significantly increased expression of visfatin in liver tissue (P < 0.01) and significantly decreased expression of ZAG (P < 0.01). These effects were ameliorated by curcumin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Visfatin and zinc-α2-glycoprotein may be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Treatment of NAFLD in rats by curcumin may be mediated by the decrease of visfatin and the increase of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To analysis the effects of passive smoking on the microstructure of tissues of the abdominal wall regarding microcirculation, using histopathological study of the tobacco exposed rats. METHODS: Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided in Control Group (CG = 8 animals) and Exposition Groups (EG = 16 animals). EG was exposed to cigarette smoke 4x/day for 120 days, while CG was preserved from exposure. Food, water and housing were similar for both groups. After 120 days, urine samples were collected before necropsy to analyze cotinine levels (ng/mL) in urine and blinded histopathological analysis of the abdominal wall performed to count arteries and veins in dermal and muscular fascia layer. RESULTS: No difference in weight was observed between both groups (P>0.05). Cotinine concentration was significantly higher in EG (P<0.05). In dermal layer, the average of vessels per animal was 8.72 (IC95%: 8.31-9.13) for CG and 11,23 (IC95%: 10.09-12.38) for EG. In muscular fascia layer the average of vessels per animal was 17.97 (IC95%: 15.79-20.15) for CG, whereas the average for EG was of 14,85 (IC95%: 12.71-17.01) (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Exposition to passive smoking may cause increase in the number of vessels in dermal layer, with the opposite effects at the muscular fascia layer.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of Botulinum Toxin A in different time of tobacco exposure. METHODS: 60 male, Wistar rats were divided into two tobacco exposure groups: a 2- month or a 4-month regimen. After this period, these two groups were subdivided as two: saline solution(SS) or botulinum toxin A(Bonta), at the time of the surgery. Seven days before the SS or Bonta injection, the animals were submitted to a random flap (3x10cm). On the seventh postoperative day, all animals were assessed for total flap area, viable area, and the viable/ total area ratio. RESULTS: This study showed a difference between groups 2-month saline vs. BontA injection (p=0.04); groups 4-month saline vs. BontA injection (p=0.001); groups 2-month saline vs. 4-month BontA (p=0.003), and, between groups 2- month BontA vs. 4-month saline(p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Botulinum Toxin A increased random flap viability in tobacco-exposed rats. Two months of tobacco exposure had the same effect as exposure for four months.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) in mice. METHODS: Fifteen nude mice were grafted subcutaneously in the left flank with MDA-MB-231 cells, then all mice were divided into control group (PBS), 3BP group (8 mg/kg), positive group (DNR: 0.8 mg/kg) when tumor volume reached approximately 100 mm3. 28 days later, tumors, livers and kidneys were stored in 4 % formalin solution and stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining. The Kunming mice experiment included control group (PBS), 3BP group (4mg/kg; 8mg/kg; 16mg/kg), positive group (DNR: 0.8 mg/kg). 24 hours later, the blood were used for the determination of hepatic damage serum biomarkers. Livers were stored in 4 % formalin solution for the later detection. RESULTS: 3BP at the dose of 8mg/kg had a good effect on inhibiting tumor growth in nude mice and did not damage liver and kidney tissues. Kunming mice experiment showed 3BP at the dose of 16mg/kg did damage to liver tissues. CONCLUSION: 3-Bromopyruvate at the dose of suppressing tumor growth did not exhibit hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in nude mice, and the effect on liver was confirmed in Kunming mice.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To assess and compare the histopathological effects of ozone therapy and/or methylprednisolone (MPS) treatment on regeneration after crush type sciatic nerve injury. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups. Four groups received the following regimens intraperitoneally every day for 14 days after formation of crush type injury on sciatic nerve: Group I: ozone (20mcg/ml); Group II: methylprednisolone (2mg/kg); Group III: ozone (20 mcg/ml) and methylprednisolone (2mg/kg); Group IV: isotonic saline (0.9%). The histomorphological evaluation was made after biopsies were obtained from the sites of injury. RESULTS: Significant differences were noted between groups in terms of degeneration (p=0.019), nerve sheath cell atrophy (p=0.012), intraneural inflammatory cellular infiltration (p=0.002), perineural granulation tissue formation (p=0.019), perineural vascular proliferation (p=0.004), perineural inflammatory cellular infiltration (p<0.001) and inflammation in peripheral tissue (p=0.006). Degeneration was remarkably low in Group III, while no change in nerve sheath cell was noted in Group II. CONCLUSION: The combined use of methylprednisolone and ozone treatment can have beneficial effects for regeneration after crush type nerve injury.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the potential protective effects of enoxaparin against the adverse events of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum. METHODS: Thirty four rats were divided into three groups: Group 1 (sham) underwent insertion of Veress needle into the abdomen and 90 min of anesthesia with no gas insufflation. The animals in control and enoxaparin groups were subjected to 90 min of 14 mmHg CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Enoxaparin (100 u/kg) was administered subcutaneously to the rats in enoxaparin group one hour before the operation. After 90 min of pneumoperitoneum, the rats were allowed for reperfusion through 60 min. Blood and liver samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological examination. RESULTS: Treatment with enoxaparin decreased the histopathological abnormalities when compared with the control group. The highest levels of oxidative stress parameters were found in control group. The use of enoxaparin decreased the levels of all oxidative stress parameters, but the difference between the control and enoxaparin groups was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Enoxaparin ameliorated the harmful effects of high pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum on the liver.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To characterize an experimental model of progressive renal disease induced by different degrees of nephrectomy in rats. METHODS: Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n=20/group): sham surgery (control group), progressive degrees of nephrectomy leading to mild uremia (group 1), moderate uremia (group 2) and severe uremia (group 3). Ten animals of each group were followed for two or four weeks. At the end, blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected to determine renal function parameters. Urine output and water and food intake were daily monitored. RESULTS: In rats of group 1, serum levels of creatinine and urea and microalbuminuria were increased, while reduced creatinine clearance (p<0.05, compared with control group), without changing blood pressure. Animals of group 2 had more accentuated alterations: increases in urinary output, blood pressure, serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and in microalbuminuria, and reduction of creatinine clearance (p<0.05). Group 3 exhibited even more increased serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium, blood pressure and microalbuminuria, and decreased creatinine clearance (p<0.05) in comparison with control group and unilateral nephrectomy. CONCLUSION: Progressive nephrectomy in rats seems to be useful to study the physiopathology of chronic kidney disease and its mechanisms of progression.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the glomerular loss after arteriovenous or arterial warm ischemia in a swine model. METHODS: Twenty four pigs were divided into Group Sham (submitted to all surgical steps except the renal ischemia), Group AV (submitted to 30 minutes of warm ischemia by arteriovenous clamping of left kidney vessels), and Group A (submitted to 30 minutes of ischemia by arterial clamping). Right kidneys were used as controls. Weigh, volume, cortical volume, glomerular volumetric density (Vv[Glom]), volume-weighted glomerular volume (VWGV), and the total number of glomeruli were measured for each organ. RESULTS: Group AV showed a 24.5% reduction in its left kidney Vv[Glom] and a 25.4% reduction in the VWGV, when compared to the right kidney. Reductions were also observed when compared to kidneys of sham group. There was a reduction of 19.2% in the total number of glomeruli in AV kidneys. No difference was observed in any parameters analyzed on the left kidneys from group A. CONCLUSIONS: Renal warm ischemia of 30 minutes by arterial clamping did not caused significant glomerular damage, but arteriovenous clamping caused significant glomerular loss in a swine model. Clamping only the renal artery should be considered to minimize renal injury after partial nephrectomies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To analyze the influence of chlorpromazine on renal histology of rats submitted to ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS: Sixteen Wistar rats - split in two groups - have been used: control group, receiving 3 mg/kg isotonic saline solution through caudal vein, and, the chlorpromazine group, receiving 3 mg/kg-IV of such medication. The nephrectomy of the left kidney lower third was carried out; immediately, the test-drug was administrated. After 15 minutes of test-drug administration, the renal pedicle was clamped; in 60 minutes of ischemia it was released. After 24 hours of the renal reperfusion, the rats were, once more, anesthetized and submitted to total left nephrectomy, and, afterwards, to euthanasia. Histological findings regarding ischemia have been evaluated and compared between the groups. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference related to inferior renal pole histological analysis. Regarding 60-minute renal ischemia, chlorpromazine has statistically reduced the accrual of leucocytes within the vasa recta renis (p=0.036) and the congestion of peritubular capillaries (p=0.041). When conducting joint analysis of histological patterns, the control group showed a median score of 11 and chlorpromazine group of 5.5 (p=0.036). CONCLUSION: Chlorpromazine significantly reduced the occurrence of secondary damage to ischemia and reperfusion process in the overall histological analysis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of a knee osteoarthritis model through functional, radiological and microscopic changes of the synovial membrane. METHODS: Forty eight rats were divided randomly into two groups. The first received 0.9% saline in the joint and corresponded to the control group. The second was submitted to experimental osteoarthritis of the right knee induced by monosodium iodoacetate and corresponded to the osteoarthritis group. All animals were subjected to comparative tests of forced ambulation and joint movements, inability to articulate and tactile allodynia on day 1 post-experiment by forced ambulation (Roto-rod test), joint assessment of disability (weight bearing test) and assessment of tactile allodynia (Von Frey test). After inflammatory induction they were divided into four sub-groups corresponding to the scheduled death in 7, 14, 21 and 28 days when they were submitted to radiographic examination of the knee, arthrotomy and collection of the synovial membrane. RESULTS: The osteoarthritis group showed significant differences compared to control group on days 7 and 14 in Roto-rod, in weight bearing and Von Frey tests in all days, and in radiological evaluation. Microscopic examination of the synovial membrane showed abnormalities of inflammatory character at all stages. CONCLUSION: The osteoarthritis induced by intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate in rats knee is a good model to be used in related research, because it provides mensurable changes on joint movements, tactile allodynia, progressive radiological degeneration and microscopic inflammation of the synovial membrane, that represent markers for osteoarthritis evaluation