Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, Volume: 31, Issue: 2, Published: 2016
  • The effect of prenatal exposure to 1800 MHz electromagnetic field on calcineurin and bone development in rats Original Articles

    Erkut, Adem; Tumkaya, Levent; Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Kalkan, Yildiray; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Yilmaz, Adnan; Yuce, Suleyman; Cure, Erkan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To investigated the effects of exposure to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) on bone development during the prenatal period in rats. METHODS: Pregnant rats in the experimental group were exposed to radiation for six, 12, and 24 hours daily for 20 days. No radiation was given to the pregnant rats in the control group. We distributed the newborn rats into four groups according to prenatal EMF exposure as follows: Group 1 was not exposed to EMF; groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to EMF for six, 12, and 24 hours a day, respectively. The rats were evaluated at the end of the 60th day following birth. RESULTS: Increasing the duration of EMF exposure during the prenatal period resulted in a significant reduction of resting cartilage levels and a significant increase in the number of apoptotic chondrocytes and myocytes. There was also a reduction in calcineurin activities in both bone and muscle tissues. We observed that the development of the femur, tibia, and ulna were negatively affected, especially with a daily EMF exposure of 24 hours. CONCLUSION: Bone and muscle tissue development was negatively affected due to prenatal exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field.
  • Video-assisted ovariohysterectomy in domestic cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) using two access portals Original Articles

    Tavares, Denise Cláudia; Souza, Fabiana Ferreira de; Quarterone, Carolina; Rodrigues, Valeska; Pereira, Lucas de Freitas; Brun, Maurício Veloso; Toniollo, Gilson Hélio

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE : To describe video-assisted ovariohysterectomy (OHE) with two portals access in adult intact queens. METHODS Fifty-two females cats were used. A 4 mm cannula was positioned in the abdomen through an incision close to the umbilicus (first portal), and a pneumoperitoneum was established. A second portal was positioned in the midline of the pre-pubic region. Females were positioned in right lateral recumbency to locate the left ovarian pedicle, and the uterine horn was held by a transcutaneous suture. The pedicle was cauterized and incised. The procedure was then performed on the contralateral ovary. The ovaries were exteriorized from the abdomen, along with the uterus, through the second access point. The uterine body was exposed, fixed and sectioned, and the abdominal incisions were sutured. RESULTS Surgeries were performed in an average of 41.4±14.2 minutes. The main complications included hypotension (7.7%) and subcutaneous emphysema (7.7%), and 13.5% of the surgeries were converted to laparotomy. CONCLUSION Ovariohysterectomy using a video-assisted technique and two access portals is safe, has minimal risks and is effective for the spaying of queens.
  • Facial nerve identification with fluorescent dye in rats Original Articles

    Melo, Giulianno Molina de; Cervantes, Onivaldo; Covolan, Luciene; Baptista, Heloisa Allegro; Ferreira, Elenn Soares; Abrahao, Marcio

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE The parotidectomy technique still has an elevated paresis and paralysis index, lowering patient life's quality. The correct identification of the facial nerve can prevent nerve damage. Fluorescent dye identifies nerves in experimental studies but only few articles focused its use on facial nerve study in parotidectomies. We aimed to stain the rat facial nerve with fluorescent dye to facilitate visualization and dissection in order to prevent injuries. METHODS Forty adult male Wistar rats were submitted to facial injection of saline solution (Gsf-control group, 10) or fluorescent dye solution (Gdye group, 30) followed by parotidectomy preserving the facial nerve, measuring the time for localization and facility of localization (LocTime and LFN). Nerve function was assessed using the Vibrissae Movements (PMV) and Eyelid Closure Motion (PFP) scores. RESULTS Nerve localization was faster in Gdye group, with 83% Easy LFN rate. The Gdye group presented with low nerve injury degree and better PMV and PFP scores, with high sensitivity and accuracy. CONCLUSIONS This experimental method of facial nerve fluorescence was effective for intraoperative nerve visualization, identification and preservation. The technique may be used in future facial nerve studies, translated to humans, contributing to the optimization of parotid surgery in the near future.
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy and claudication test for in vivo follow-up of muscle repair enhancement based on platelet-rich plasma therapy in a rat model of gastrocnemius laceration Original Articles

    Pinheiro, Cristiane Lima; Peixinho, Carolina Carneiro; Esposito, Cristiano Costa; Manso, José Eduardo Ferreira; Machado, João Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To track the regeneration process of lateral gastrocnemius due to a muscle laceration in rats, and to treatment with plateletrich plasma (PRP). METHODS: Ultrasound (40 MHz) images were used for measuring pennation angle (PA), muscle thickness (MT) and mean pixel intensity, along with claudication scores, of treated (PRPG) and non-treated (NTG) groups of rats. RESULTS: NTG showed a PA increase for the non-injured leg (p<0.05) and a tendency of MT to increase, whereas for PRPG there were no differences. There was a progressive reduction of the claudication score for the PRPG group throughout the entire period, with an immediate difference after seven days (p<0.05), whereas the NTG had a significant reduction only at day 28 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: It was observed a compensatory hypertrophic response due to the overload condition imposed to healthy leg for NTG that did not occur in PRPG, suggesting an accelerated repair process of the injured leg due to treatment, anticipating its use.
  • Effect of ozone on colon anastomoses in rat peritonitis model Original Articles

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Tekeli, Seçkin Özgür; Avcı, Sema; Doğan, Uğur; Tekeli, Feyza; Soylu, Hakan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Koç, Süleyman; Üstünel, İsmail; Yılmaz, Necat

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of medical ozone theraphy on the colon anastomosis of peritonitis model in rats. METHODS: Eighteen rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups; control, cecal punctuation and colon anastomosis and ozone theraphy. Sepsis was performed with a cecal punctuation in groups 2 and 3. The medical ozone theraphy was administered intraperitonealy for three weeks in group 3 while the other rats received saline injection. At the twenty second day serum were obtained for TNF-α and IL-1β, the colonic burst pressures were measured and colonic tissue samples were obtained for MDA and MPO levels. Histolopatological examination was evaluated with H&E stain, and Ki-67, IL-1β and the VEGF immunostaining densities were also compared. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal ozone administration reversed TNF-α, IL-1β, MDA and MPO levels and the colonic burst pressures. There was also a significant difference at immunostaining densities of histopathological examination. CONCLUSION: Medical ozone therapy may contribute to tissue healing by affecting the proliferation and the vascularization thus has benefits on colonic anastomosis at peritonitis in rats.
  • Effects of chitin and sepia ink hybrid sponge on the healing of burning wound rats and its impact on macrophages in vitro Original Articles

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Sui, Xianxian; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Daohai

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To detect whether chitin and sepia ink sponge (CS) can promote wound healing and elevate impact of CS on phagocytosis ability of macrophages. METHODS: Forty-eight rats were assigned to four groups: Normal group (Normal), negative control group (Con), chitin and sepia ink sponge group (CS) and positive control Surgicel Gauze(r) group (SG). Deep second-degree burn model was created in rats. Wound area was recorded by digital imaging and determined using Image J software. Samples were collected and kept at -80oC on 3d, 7d, 14d and 21d for cytokines detecting. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, hydroxyproline (Hyp) and macrophage activity reflected by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Comparing to Con and SG, scabs in CS group fell off and basically healed on 21 day. TGF-β1, IL-6, MMP-1 and Hyp were significantly increased by CS and SG comparing to Con (p < 0.05), CS had more apparently adjustment on TGF-β1 and MMP-1 compared to SG; results in vitro indicated CS significantly promoted phagocytosis ability of macrophages reflected in TNF-α (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CS improved wound healing through exerting significant influences on secretion of kinds of cytokines and activating macrophages.
  • Evaluation of the effect of allopurinol as a protective factor in post ischemia and reperfusion inflammation in Wistar rats Original Articles

    Gomes, Ricardo Zanetti; Romanek, Gabriela Moreira Mahle; Przybycien, Michella; Amaral, Danielli Cristina; Akahane, Hugo Genki Kagawa

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To investigate the potential protective effect of allopurinol on reperfusion injury by determining the inflammatory response through the measurement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). METHODS: Sixty rats were distributed into two groups: control and allopurinol and each group was divided into three subgroups, ischemia for two hours, ischemia for three hours and ischemia simulation. Allopurinol group rats received 100mg/kg dose of allopurinol, whereas control group rats received an equivalent dose of saline. Clamping of the infrarenal aorta was performed for two or three hours depending on the subgroup. Ischemia simulation subgroups did not suffer ischemia, just aortic dissection, and maintenance for three hours. After 72 hours of reperfusion, blood was collected by cardiac puncture for TNF-alpha measurement. RESULTS: Allopurinol reduced TNF-alpha significantly (p <0.001) when compared to the matching control subgroups (control X allopurinol in ischemia for two hours and for three hours). CONCLUSION: Allopurinol reduced the concentrations of serum TNF-alpha when used at different times of ischemia followed by reperfusion, which might indicate reduction of the inflammation provoked by the reperfusion injury.
  • Effect of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists on motor disorders induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rat Original Articles

    Reyhani-Rad, Siamak; Mahmoudi, Javad

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To investigate the role of adenosine A2A receptors on 6-OHDA-induced motor disorder in rat. METHODS: In order to induce experimental model of Parkinson's disease, 6-hydoxydopamine (8 μg/rat) was injected unilaterally into the SNc. After three weeks as a recovery period, 6-OHDA-induced bradykinesia and balance disturbances were assessed by using beam traversal test 10, 30 and 60 minutes after intraperitoneal injections of the drugs (caffeine, SCH58261). RESULTS: The results showed that 6-OHDA (8 μg/rat, Intra-SNc) induced motor disorders of Parkinson's disease and increased elapsed time in the beam test (p<0.001). Injection of caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and SCH58261 (2 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated elapsed time on beam (p<0.01 and p<0.001). We showed that acute administration of caffeine and SCH 58261 can improve the 6-OHDA-induced bradykinesia and motor disturbance. CONCLUSION: Adenosine A2AR antagonists improve 6-OHDA-motor deficit and this effect seems to be mediated by the inhibition of A2A presynaptic receptors in substantia nigra pars compacta.
  • Technique for implanting intramuscular electrodes in the diaphragm by videolaparoscopy in pigs Original Articles

    Ghedini, Rodrigo Guellner; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Mariano, Rodrigo; Silva, Éverton Franco; Thomaz, Leonardo Dalla Giacomassa Rocha; Diehl, Gustavo; Simoneti, Lucas Elias Lise; Drachler, Igor Pires; Andrade, Cristiano Feijó

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To describe a novel approach for implanting intramuscular electrodes in the diaphragm through videolaparoscopy. METHODS: We used twelve pigs for this videolaparoscopic technique, which permits at the same time to explore the diaphragm, to locate its motor points and to fix the electrodes in the diaphragm bilaterally. In this technique we used three trocars: one portal for a 10-mm 0° viewing angle laparoscope, one portal for the manipulation of structures and another for electrode implantation. RESULTS: All animals survived the procedure without pneumothorax/capnothorax or other complication. Implanted electrodes provided an appropriate interface between the muscle and the electrical current generator, and electroventilation was satisfactorily generated in all animals. CONCLUSION: This videolaparoscopic technique with three trocars enables the exploration and identification of motor points and an efficient fixation of one or two electrodes in each hemidiaphragm.
  • Ellagic acid inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells Original Articles

    Wang, Dongliang; Chen, Qianxue; Liu, Baohui; Li, Yuntao; Tan, Yingqiu; Yang, Bangkun

    Abstract in English:

    PURPOSE: To investigate the anticancer activity of ellagic acid (EA) in U251 human glioblastoma cells and its possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: The cells were treated with EA at various concentrations for different time periods. Cell viability and cell proliferation were detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay and live/dead assay respectively. Cell apoptosis were measured with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method by flow cytometry and Mitochondrial membrane potential assay separately. Cell cycle was measured with PI staining method by flow cytometry. The expressions of Bcl-2, Survivin, XIAP, Caspase-3, Bax, JNK, p-JNK, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p38, p-p38, DR4, DR5, CHOP and GRP78-related proteins were detected by western blot after EA treatment. RESULTS: Cell viability and proliferation of glioblastoma cells treated with EA were significantly lower than the control group. EA caused robust apoptosis of the glioblastoma cells compared to the control group. EA significantly decreased the proportion at G0/G1 phases of cell cycling accompanied by increased populations at S phase in U251 cell lines. And the expressions of anti-apoptotic proteins were dramatically down-regulated. CONCLUSION: Ellagic acid potentially up-regulated DR4, DR5 and MAP kinases (JNK, ERK1/2 and p38). EA also caused significant increase in the expressions of CHOP and GRP78. Our findings suggest that EA would be beneficial for the treatment of glioblastoma.
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