Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, Volume: 31, Issue: 3, Published: 2016
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress and renal lesion in mice with combination of high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes Original Articles

    Xie, Hong; Huang, Liu; Li, Yayun; Zhang, Han; Liu, Hao

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To investigate in the kidney the pathologic changes and expression of GRP78 and CHOP in the Kunming (KM) mice with combination of high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS : Sixty two male KM mice were randomly divided into a normal control (NC) group (n=20) and a high-fat diet (HFD) group (n=42). After a four-week dietary manipulation, the KM mice in the HFD group were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. After diabetic models were successfully established, the kidneys were excised and conserved for further test. RESULTS : No significant difference in the body weight was observed after the dietary manipulation (p=0.554). After the streptozotocin was injected, fasting blood glucose levels in the diabetes group (DM) were significantly higher than that in the NC group (p<0.0001). Glomerular atrophy observed under light microscope in the DM group was more serious compared with the NC group. The expression of GRP78 and CHOP in the kidneys of the mice in the DM group were higher compared with the NC group. CONCLUSION : Renal lesion occurs in the diabetic Kunming mice induced by combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and CHOP may contribute to the injury process.
  • The effect of amifostine on bacterial translocation after radiation ınduced acute enteritis Original Articles

    Tas, Sukru; Ozkul, Faruk; Arik, Muhammet Kasim; Kiraz, Asli; Vural, Ahmet

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of amifostine on bacterial translocation and overgrowth in colonic flora after acute radiation enteritis in a rat model. METHODS: Thirty-two female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Group-1 (n=8): only normal saline was administered intraperitoneally. Group-2 (n=8): first serum saline was administered intraperitoneally and 30 minutes later 20 Gy radiation was applied to abdominopelvic region. Group-3 (n=8): only amifostine 200 ml/kg was administered intraperitoneally and radiation was not applied. Group-4 (n=8): first amifostine 200 ml/kg was administered intraperitoneally and 30 minutes later 20 Gy radiation was applied to abdominopelvic region. On the 5th day after radiation, samples of mesenteric lymph tissues and cecal contents were taken by laparotomy for microbiological culture. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal amifostine administration significantly decreased the bacterial overgrowth related to radiation in colon but did not significantly decrease the bacterial translocation. CONCLUSİON: Although not providing a full protection on the damaged mucosal barrier, amifostine significantly decreased the bacterial overgrowth in the cecal content after high dose radiation. There is a need to find out appropriate amifostine dose under different radiation applications avoiding bacterial translocation in gastrointestinal system.
  • Development of an ex vivo model of endovenous laser ablation of the great saphenous vein in a pilot study Original Articles

    Araujo, Walter Junior Boim; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas; Erzinger, Fabiano Luiz; Caron, Filipe Carlos; Cambrussi, Alan Knolseisen

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To develop an ex vivo model for the analysis of macroscopic, histological and immunohistochemical changes after experimental endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of the great saphenous vein (GSV). METHODS: We describe a model produced with glass tubes and introducer sheaths to mimic the physiological conditions of EVLA procedures, such as tumescence and blood flow. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate an ex vivo procedure of EVLA of an incompetent GSV segment using a 1470-nm radial fiber diode laser (7 W power) and an automatic pull-back device. The vein segment was analyzed macroscopically and by hematoxylin & eosin staining, elastic fiber histochemistry, Gomori's trichrome staining, and alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: No perforations were observed macroscopically. No muscle cell adhesion was observed in the central part of the ablated vein, showing tissue disruption. There was low labeling for elastic fibers, disruption of muscle fibers, and a reduced expression of the specific marker for this cell type. CONCLUSION: This ex vivo endovenous laser ablation model is a low cost alternative to in vivo experiments, providing standardized experimental conditions.
  • Can thıamıne pyrophosphate prevent desflurane ınduced hepatotoxıcıty ın rats? Original Articles

    Arslan, Aynur; Kuyrukluyildiz, Ufuk; Binici, Orhan; Cetin, Nihal; Balci, Mecdi Gurhan; Kuzucu, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Adnan; Altuner, Durdu; Coban, Taha Abdulkadir

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To investigate the effects of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) against desflurane induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS : Thirty experimental animals were divided into groups as healthy (HG), desflurane control (DCG) , TPP and desflurane group (TDG). 20 mg/kg TPP was injected to intraperitoneally TDG. After one hour of TPP administration, desflurane was applied for two hours. After 24 hours, liver tissues of the animals killed with decapitation were removed. The oxidant/antioxidant levels and ALT, AST and LDH activities were measured. The histopathological examinations were performed in the liver tissues for all rats. RESULTS : Notwithstanding the levels of oxidants and liver enzymes were significantly increased (p<0.0001), antioxidant levels were significantly decreased in DCG (p<0.0001). On contrary to the antioxidant parameters were increased (p<0.05) the oxidant parameters and liver enzymes were decreased in TDG (p<0.0001). Whereas multiple prominent, congestion, hemorrhage and dilatation were observed in sinusoids and lymphocyte-rich inflammation results in the centrilobular and portal areas of liver tissue in DCG, these findings were observed less frequently in TDG. CONCLUSİON : Thiamine pyrophosphate prevented liver oxidative damage induced with desflurane and may be useful in prophylaxis of desflurane induced hepatotoxicity.
  • Allopurinol preconditioning attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting HMGB1 expression in a rat model Original Articles

    Zhou, Jiang-qiao; Qiu, Tao; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Zhong-bao; Wang, Zhi-shun; Ma, Xiao-xiong; Li, Dongyu

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the potential effects of pretreatment with allopurinol on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a rat model. METHODS: Twenty four rats were subjected to right kidney uninephrectomy were randomly distributed into the following three groups (n=8): Group A (sham-operated group); Group B (ischemic group) with 30 min of renal ischemia after surgery; and Group C (allopurinol + ischemia group) pretreated with allopurinol at 50 mg/kg for 14 days. At 72 h after renal reperfusion, the kidney was harvested to assess inflammation and apoptosis. RESULTS: Pretreatment with allopurinol significantly improved renal functional and histological grade scores following I/R injury (p<0.05). Compared with Group B, the expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax were markedly reduced in Group C, meanwhile, whereas expression of bcl-2 was clearly increased (p<0.05). A newly described marker of inflammation, High Mobility Group Box 1(HMGB1), showed reduced expression in Group C (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with allopurinol had a protective effect on kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury, which might be related to the inhibition of HMGB1 expression.
  • Grape seed protects cholestatic rats liver from ischemia/reperfusion injury Original Articles

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Tekeli, Seçkin Özgür; Güneş, Kasım; Kinaci, Erdem; Doğan, Uğur; Tekeli, Feyza; Akyüz, Cebrail; Koç, Süleyman; Yılmaz, Necat

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine the effect of grape-seed extract against ischemia/reperfusion injury in cholestatic liver. METHODS: Eighteen Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. In control and study groups, cholestasis was provided by bile duct ligation. Seven days later, the rats were subjected to 30 min hepatic ischemia, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Oral administration of 50 mg/kg/day grape-seed extract was started 15 days before bile duct ligation and continued to the second operation in the study group. Serum, plasma and liver samples were taken. Laboratory analysis, tissue gluthation, malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase levels and histopathological examination were performed. RESULTS: Significant decrease in liver gluthation level and significant increase in malondialdehyde level and myeloperoxidase activity were observed after ischemia/reperfusion in cholestatic rats. Serum and plasma levels for laboratory analysis were also significantly higher in cholestatic I/R group. Hepatic necrosis and fibrosis were detected in histopathological examination. Oral grape-seed extract administiration reversed all these parameters and histopathological findings except serum bilirubin levels. CONCLUSION: Oral grape-seed extract treatment can improve liver functions and attenuate the inflammation and oxidative stress in cholestatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.
  • Borage oil attenuates progression of cardiac remodeling in rats after myocardial infarction Original Articles

    Maldonado-Menetti, Julianne dos Santos; Vitor, Taise; Edelmuth, Rodrigo Camargo Leão; Ferrante, Fernanda Amá; Souza, Pamella Ramona de Moraes; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of Borage oil on cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent ligation of the left coronary artery and divided into three groups: MI (control), BO-18 (18 mg/kg of borage oil) and BO-180 (180 mg/kg of borage oil). After seven days, heart was arrested in diastole and processed for histological evaluation of: MI size, LV dilation, myocyte hypertrophy, inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis in MI region and in remote region. The relative weight of the lung was used as a marker of heart failure. The MI size was comparable among groups. RESULTS: Compared to control, BO treated groups showed lower weight of heart and lungs, reduced LV dilation and myocyte hypertrophy. Hemodynamic measurements were comparable. The treatment attenuated the inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis in remote myocardium. CONCLUSION: Borage oil attenuates progression of cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure.
  • Beneficial effects of β-glucan against cisplatin side effects on the nervous system in rats 1 Original Articles

    Kaya, Kürşat; Ciftci, Osman; Cetin, Aslı; Tecellioğlu, Mehmet; Başak, Neşe

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of Bg on cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Twenty eight rats were randomly distributed into four groups. The first group was kept as a control. In the second group, CP was given at the single dose of 7 mg/kg intraperitoneally. In the third group, βg was orally administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 14 days. In the fourth group, CP and βg were given together at the same doses. RESULTS: CP treatment caused significant oxidative damage via induction of lipid peroxidation and reductions antioxidant defense system potency in the brain tissue. In addition, histopathological damage increased with CP treatment. On the other hand, βg treatment largely prevented oxidative and histopathological negative effects of CP. CONCLUSIONS: Cisplatin has severe neurotoxic effects in rats and βg supplementation has significant beneficial effects against CP toxicity depending on its antioxidant properties. Thus, it appears that βg might be useful against CP toxicity in patients with cancer in terms of nervous system.
  • Genotyping of multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn and wound infections by ERIC-PCR Original Articles

    Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Hoveizavi, Hajar; Mohammadian, Ali; Farahani, Abbas; Jenabi, Atefeh

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine the genetic diversity of MDR P. aeruginosa strains isolated from burn and wound infections in Ahvaz, Iran, by ERIC-PCR. METHODS: From total 99 strains of P. aeruginosa defined as MDR by using drug susceptibility testing, 66 were subjected to ERIC-PCR analysis, comprises 53 strains isolated from burn infection, and 13 randomly selected strains from wound infection with higher resistance to combinations of more numbers of drugs. RESULTS: Eight clusters (I to VIII), and 50 single clones were generated for tested MDR isolates analyzed by ERIC-PCR. The high heterogeneity was observed among the isolates from burn infections including 16 isolates which were categorized in eight clusters and 37 single clones. The isolates in clusters II, III, VI, VIII showed 100% similarity. CONCLUSIONS: The high level of genotypic heterogeneity in P. aeruginosa strains demonstrated no genetic correlation between them. Extremely high drug resistance in isolates from burn, suggests that efficient control measures and proper antibiotic policy should be observed.
  • Translational microsurgery. A new platform for transplantation research Original Articles

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Haga, Junko

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Clinical microsurgery has been introduced in many fields, while experimental microsurgery has the cross-disciplinary features of the sciences and techniques for growth of medicine, pharmacology, veterinary, engineering etc. Training protocol, proposing a new name as Translational Microsurgery, was introduced. METHODS: Reconstructive skills of hepatic artery in pediatric living donor liver transplantation were summarized. Ex vivo training protocol using artificial blood vessel for surgeons was proposed. RESULTS: Clinical microsurgery requires anastomosis with delicate arteries and limited field of view. Our training protocol revealed that the relation between the score and speed was seen, while not all the surgeons with enough experience got high score. This training led to muster clinical skills and to apply excellent experimental works. CONCLUSIONS: Our microsurgical training protocol has been planned from the points of clinical setting. Training for vascular anastomosis led to rodent transplantation models. These models were used for immunology and immunosuppressant research. Microsurgical techniques led to master catheter technique and to inject various drugs or gene vectors.
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