Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To quantify the amount of lymph nodes harvested in modified radical neck dissection. METHODS: Cross-sectional anatomical study conducted in 28 non-preserved cadavers. RESULTS: The mean number of lymph nodes found in each nodal level of the 56 modified radical neck dissections performed were: level IA - 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1 - 1.8), level IB - 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1 - 2.9), level IIA - 7.2 (95% CI: 6.0 - 8.5), IIB level - 6.5 (95% CI: 5.5 - 7.4), level III - 6.6 (95% CI: 5.7 - 7.4), level IV - 8.6 (95% CI: 7.1 - 10.1), level V - 11 (95% CI: 9.2 - 12.7), totalizing 43.8 lymph nodes (95% CI: 40.3 - 47.4). CONCLUSION: The results defined a parameter in relation to the minimum recommended nodal yield in a modified radical neck dissection, as well as the number of lymph nodes in each level of this dissection, performed in clinical practice.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the serum concentration and renal expression of IL-1 and TNF-α cytokines in rats that received sevoflurane and glibenclamide prior to hemorrhage. METHODS: Two groups of sevoflurane-anesthetized Wistar rats (n=10): G1 (control) and G2 (glibenclamide, 1 µg/g i.v.); hemorrhage of 30% blood volume (10% every 10 min), with replacement using Ringer solution, 5 ml/kg/h. Serum concentrations of IL-1 and TNF-α were studied in the first hemorrhage (T1) and 50 min later (T2), renal expression, at T2. RESULTS: In serum, G1 TNF-α (pg/mL) was T1=178.6±33.5, T2=509.2±118.8 (p<0.05); IL-1 (pg/mL) was T1=148.8±31.3, T2=322.6±115.4 (p<0.05); in G2, TNF-α was T1=486.2±83.6, T2=261.8±79.5 (p<0.05); IL-1 was T1=347.0±72.0, T2= 327.3±90.9 (p>0.05). The expression of TNF-α and IL-1 in the glomerular and tubular cells was significantly higher in the G2 group. CONCLUSIONS: Hemorrhage and glibenclamide elevated TNF-α and IL-1 concentrations in serum and kidneys. High levels of TNF-α already present before the hemorrhage in the glibenclamide group may have attenuated the damages found in the kidneys after the ischemia event.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To describe the anatomical course of the intralaryngeal portion of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN) and to standardize the surgical access to its thyroarytenoid branch (TAb) through the thyroid cartilage. METHODS: Under surgical microscopy, 33 adult human excised larynges were dissected, to expose the intralaryngeal portion of ILN. The point of entry of TAb, ILN's terminal branch, in the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle was determined and correlated with thyroid cartilage dimensions. RESULTS: After entering the larynx, the ILN consistently traveled between the thyroid cartilage and the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle in an anterior and slightly cranial course. The distance from the point of entry of the TAb in the TA muscle to the midline (TAb-H) and to the inferior border (TAb-V) of the thyroid cartilage differed according to gender. In females, mean distances of TAb-H and TAb-V were 20.5mm and 5.2mm and in males, 22.3mm and 5.9mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: The intralaryngeal course of the inferior laryngeal nerve presents low variability and measures from landmarks in the thyroid cartilage help to estimate the point of entry of thyroarytenoid branch in thyroarytenoid muscle.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine whether Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is the potential targets of prevention or progression in the renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly arranged to the nondiabetic (ND) or diabetic group (DM), with each group further divided into sham (no I/R injury), I/R (ischemia-reperfusion) and CD (given by Chloroquine) group. Preoperatively, Chloroquine (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection.) was administrated 6 days for treatment group. I/R animals were subjected to 25 min of bilateral renal ischemia. Renal function, histology, apoptosis, cytokines, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were detected. RESULTS: The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, IL-6 and TNF-α, apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were significantly increased in DM+I/R group, compared with ND+I/R group (p<0.05). All these changes were further improved by TLR7 inhibition Chloroquine except Paller scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Toll-like receptor 7 inhibition attenuates the acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury of STZ-induced diabetic in SD rats.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of β-myrcene (MYR) on oxidative and histological damage in mice heart tissue caused global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in C57BL/J6 mice. METHODS: Animals(n=40) were randomly divided into four groups: (1)control, (2)IR, (3)MYR and (4)MYR+IR. The control group was received 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose as a vehicle following a medial incision without carotid occlusion. In the IR group, the bilateral carotid arteries were clipped for 15min, and treated with the vehicle intraperitoneally(ip) for 10 days. MYR (200mg/kg) was received dissolved in 0.1%CMC for 10 days. In the MYR+IR group, the IR model was applied exactly as in the IR group, and then they were treated with MYR 10 days. RESULTS: The cerebral IR caused oxidative damage (increase TBARS, decrease antioxidant parameters). Treatment of MYR was increased in GSH,GPx,CAT,SOD activity while TBARS level was decreased. In addition, degenerative changes in I/R group heart tissue were ameliorated by MYR administration. CONCLUSİON: The administration of β-myrcene protects oxidative and histological damage in the heart tissue after global ischemia-reperfusion and may be useful safe alternative treatment for cardiac tissue after ischemic stroke.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of low intensity ultrasound on the healing process of third degree burn wounds in experimentally induced diabetic Wistar rats. METHODS: One hundred rats were divided into: control group; non-diabetic treated group; diabetic control group; diabetic treated group. The therapy was performed with a 3MHz ultrasound application, pulsed emission at 100Hz frequency, modulated at 20% with a dosage of 0.5W/cm2 during three minutes throughout 30 days. The surgical debridement of the wound was performed once at day 2. The wounds were morphometrically, macroscopically and microscopically evaluated at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. RESULTS: The wound contraction and collagen quantification were higher in all treated groups. Macroscopically, necrosis was higher in the diabetic control group. Granulation tissue was higher in treated groups during the proliferative and remodeling phase. Microscopically, there were greater mononuclear inflammatory infiltration, angiogenesis and fibroblast quantification in treated groups during the proliferative and remodeling phases. CONCLUSIONS: therapeutic ultrasound is beneficial in the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process because it controlled the necrotic tissue, increased the granulation tissue and wound contraction. However in the remodeling phase it is not beneficial because of the continued angiogenesis and a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of preoperative rectal ozone insufflation on surgical wound healing over the proinflammatory cytokines and histopathological changes. METHODS: Twenty one rabbits were divided into 3 groups. Sham, surgical wound, and ozone applied (6 sessions, every other day 70 µg/mL in 12 mL O2-O3 mixture rectally) surgical wound groups were created. TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels from all rabbits were studied at the basal, 24th hour, and 72nd hour. The histopathological examination was done by removing the surgical scar tissue at the end of 72nd hour. RESULTS: TNF-alfa and IL-6 levels were significantly lower compared to the control group, in the rabbits treated with ozone. The increase in angiogenesis, the decrease in the number of inflammatory cells, epidermal and dermal regeneration, better collagen deposition, and increased keratinisation in stratum corneum were observed in the histopathological examination. It was determined that the wound healing noticeably accelerated in the ozone group. CONCLUSION: Preoperative rectal ozone insufflation had a positive effect on surgical wound healing in acute period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To compare the measurement of the testicular volume of Wistar rats using a caliper and ultrasonography. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups. A tensile force of 1.6 Newton (N) and 1.0 N was applied to the right spermatic cord in group I and group II, respectively. Group III was the sham group, and group IV served as a control. The initial and final testicular volumes were measured using a caliper and ultrasonography and compared. A significance level of 5% was used. RESULTS: The Kappa coefficient was equal to 0.292 (p = 0.006). The Pearson correlation coefficient obtained for the percent reduction in the right testicular volume using ultrasonography and a caliper was equal to 0.696 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There was reasonable agreement and a significant positive correlation between the percent reduction in the right testicular volume using ultrasonography and a caliper.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of levobupivacaine on neuromuscular transmission and neuromuscular blockade produced by pancuronium in vitro. METHODS: Thirty rats were distributed into groups (n = 5) according to the drug used alone or in combination: Group I - levobupivacaine (5 µg.mL-1); Group II - pancuronium (2 µg.mL-1); Group III - pancuronium (2 µg.mL-1) + levobupivacaine (5µg.mL-1). The following parameters were evaluated: 1) amplitude of diaphragmatic response to indirect stimulation, before and 60 minutes after the addition of levobupivacaine and pancuronium alone, and after the addition of levobupivacaine combined with pancuronium; 2) membrane potentials (MP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPP). RESULTS: Levobupivacaine alone did not alter the amplitude of muscle response and MP. In preparations previoulsy exposed to levobupivacaine, the block with pancuronium was significantly denser (90.2 ± 15.2%), showing a significant difference (p=0.031) in comparison to the block produced by pancuronium alone (48.9% ± 9.8%). There was a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of MEPPs. CONCLUSION: Levobupivacaine potentiated the neuromuscular blockade produced by pancuronium, confirming a presynaptic action by a decrease in miniature endplate potentials.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the contamination index of metals and pesticides in pregnant women, and to relate this to perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective, exploratory study, developed from existing secondary data analyses at Level III maternity center. A total of 40 mothers with their newborns (NB), living in a rural area in Botucatu- Brazil and surrounding region. Blood samples from mothers and newborn were collected to determine the total contamination index for metals and pesticides. The concentrations of each metal and each pesticide were determined in blood samples of mothers and their newborns by Rudge's results. After obtaining these concentrations, the total contamination index in mother and NB was calculated, along with its correlation with clinical parameters of NB. RESULTS: There was no correlation (p> 0.05) between maternal contamination index with NB clinical parameters, and NB contamination index versus NB clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: The maternal contamination index of metals and pesticides was not related to perinatal outcomes, but it could be used as baseline parameter in future toxicological studies, regarding to long-term toxic characteristics as persistent organic pollutants, its long half-lives, bioacumulative, and expected to impose serious health effects on humans.