Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) at 685 nm on diabetic wound healing in rats suffering from bacterial infection induced by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). METHODS: Thirty streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were allocated into two groups: control and PBMT. A 4-cm full-thickness linear-incision was made on the dorsal midline and was contaminated with S. aureus. The wounds in the PBMT group were irradiated daily for 5 consecutive days, starting 3 days after the induction and always in the mornings. RESULTS: The result revealed that PBMT resulted in a significant decrease in S. aureus CFU in the PBMT group in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). The length of wounds, in the 2nd and 3rd weeks, in the PBMT group were significantly shorter compared to the control group (P<0.05). PBMT caused a significant increase in the histological parameters in comparison to the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, PBMT significantly increased the breaking strength of the surgical scars produced in the skin of the PBMT group when compared to the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Photobiomodulation therapy may be useful in the management of wound infection through a significant bacterial growth inhibition and an acceleration of wound healing process.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) treatment on the expression of wound-healing-related genes in cultured keratinocytes from burn patients. METHODS: Keratinocytes were cultured and divided into 4 groups (n=4 in each group): TKB (KGF-treated keratinocytes from burn patients), UKB (untreated keratinocytes from burn patients), TKC (KGF-treated keratinocytes from controls), and UKC (untreated keratinocytes from controls). Gene expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array was performed to compare (1) TKC versus UKC, (2) UKB versus UKC, (3) TKB versus UKC, (4) TKB versus UKB, (5) TKB versus TKC, and (6) UKB versus TKC. RESULTS: Comparison 1 showed one down-regulated and one up-regulated gene; comparisons 2 and 3 resulted in the same five down-regulated genes; comparison 4 had no significant difference in relative gene expression; comparison 5 showed 26 down-regulated and 7 up-regulated genes; and comparison 6 showed 25 down-regulated and 11 up-regulated genes. CONCLUSION: There was no differential expression of wound-healing-related genes in cultured primary keratinocytes from burn patients treated with keratinocyte growth factor.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of pharmacological delay with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on skin flap survival. METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to dorsal skin flap (3x9 cm). Seven days before the surgery, the animals were subdivided into three groups of 10 rats. In group 1 (controls), no injection was done. Seven days before the elevation, saline had been injected to the marked skin flap area in group 2 (sham group), and group 3 (experimental group) underwent a pharmacological delay with subcutaneous IGF-1 injections. On the seventh postoperative day, flap area was analyzed for survival. Tissue samples were obtained for histological and biochemical evaluations. RESULTS: Survival rates were 43.55 ± 16%, 21.40 ± 8%, and 43.12 ± 14% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Differences between group 2 and other groups were statistically significant. No significant difference was detected between all three groups for tissue or plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was no significant histological difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Although a single injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) did not significantly increase flap survival, its wound healing features are still encouraging and further meticulously planned studies, especially with repeated applications or controlled-release methods, and combinations with binding protein are required.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated the long-term effect of scopolamine and sesame oil on spatial memory. METHODS: Memory impairment induced by Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of scopolamine hydrochloride (10 μg/ rat). Animals were gavaged for 4 weeks with saline, sesame oil (0.5, 1, or 2 mL/kg/day), or 3 weeks with memantine (30 mg/kg/day) in advance to induction of amnesia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was conducted 6 days after microinjection of scopolamine. Then, blood and brain samples were collected and evaluated for the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, and total antioxidant status (TAS) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). RESULTS: Scopolamine significantly decreased traveled distance and time spent in target quadrant in probe test. Pretreatment of rats with sesame oil (0.5 mg/kg) mitigated scopolamine-induced behavioral alterations. Measurement of MDA, SOD, and GPX in brain tissue, and FRAP and TAS in blood showed little changes in animals which had received scopolamine or sesame oil. CONCLUSIONS: Intracerebroventricular injection of scopolamine has a residual effect on memory after six days. Sesame oil has an improving effect on spatial memory; however this effect is possibly mediated by mechanisms other than antioxidant effect of sesame oil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of the Vigna angularis, popularly known as "Azuki beans", in rats subjected to an experimental model of moderate chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Thirty rats underwent two surgeries - Ormrod and Miller (1980) - to obtain Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD-M). The animals were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 (Control): distilled water. Group 2 (Azuki): Vigna angularis 5% aqueous extract. Group 3 (Treatment): 10mg/kg of enalapril maleate. The rats received their respective treatments for 14 days. RESULTS: The treatment with azuki beans produced an increase in urine output from the second day until the end of the experiment compared to the Control groups (p<0.01) and Treatment (p<0.05). The treatment with azuki also produced significant reductions in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, VLDL, uric acid, Alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05), urea and serum creatinine (p<0.01), besides having produced a significant increase in the levels of HDL when compared to the Control group. CONCLUSION: Treatment with Azuki beans produced improvements in the parameters of renal function and significantly reduced glucose levels, triglycerides, VLDL, alanine aminostransferase, uric acid and creatinine, besides having produced a significant increase in the levels of HDL in rats submitted to a model of moderate chronic kidney disease.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To validate the innovative Dry Ice method, comparing it with two standard methods currently used for tissue processing in Mohs surgery, the Heat Sink method and the Miami Special. METHODS: Forty eight samples of pigs kin with the standard beveled Mohs technique were used, and randomly allocated into six groups. Each group was processed with one of the 3 methods and evaluated for: The freezing time, the depth required to cut into the block to obtain a complete section, and the quality of histological slides analyzed with a image software. The statistical analysis was performed with the software SAS(r) System. The inferential analysis was made by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The Miami Special showed a processing time significantly shorter than Dry Ice method and Heat Sink method. There was no significant difference in the depth required to cut into the blocks, and area of surgical margins visualized. CONCLUSION: The Dry Ice method was as efficient as the other two methods currently used in Mohs surgery, considering the individual advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate a new model of intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the tibial and fibular nerves, and its respectives motor units in rats. METHODS: Eight Wistar rats underwent intraoperative EMG on both hind limbs at two different moments: week 0 and week 12. Supramaximal electrical stimulation applied on sciatic nerve, and compound muscle action potential recorded on the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDLM) through electrodes at specifics points. Motor function assessment was performaced through Walking Track Test. RESULTS: Exposing the muscles and nerves for examination did not alter tibial (p=0.918) or fibular (p=0.877) function between the evaluation moments. Electromyography of the GM, innervated by the tibial nerve, revealed similar amplitude (p=0.069) and latency (p=0.256) at week 0 and at 12 weeks, creating a standard of normality. Meanwhile, electromyography of the EDLM, innervated by the fibular nerve, showed significant differences between the amplitudes (p=0.003) and latencies (p=0.021) at the two different moments of observation. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative electromyography determined and quantified gastrocnemius muscle motor unit integrity, innervated by tibial nerve. Although this study was not useful to, objectively, assess extensor digitorum longus muscle motor unit, innervated by fibular nerve.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To develop a chemotherapeutics induced phlebitis and explore the effects of Xianchen on the phlebitis treatment. METHODS: Forty-eight rabbits were divided into two series. Phlebitis model induced by vincristine was established at each series. The first series had 24 rabbits, which were divided into four groups (6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, 24 hours) after vincristine infusion. The grades of phlebitis through visual observation and histopathological examination were observed. The second series had also 24 rabbits. Interventions were performed 12 hours after vincristine infusion. These rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, according to treatment: Hirudoid (bid), Xianchen (daily), Xianchen (tid), Xianchen (five times a day). Four days after intervention, the venous injury through visual observation and histopathological examination were evaluated. RESULTS: Series 1: Phlebitis appeared 12 hours after infusion of vincristine through visual observation. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between 6 hours and 24 hours, 6 hours and 18 hours through visual observation. However, the inflammation happened 6 hours after infusion, the loss of venous endothelial cells demonstrated differences among four groups through histopathological evaluation (p<0.05). There were significant differences (p<0.05) after 4 days among the intervention groups through visual observation, the effects of Xianchen group (five times a day) were better than Xianchen group (tid) (p<0.01). The treatment of edema demonstrated differences among groups through histopathological evaluation (p<0.05), Xianchen (five times a day) better relieved the degree of edema (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that inflammatory reaction of phlebitis appeared early. Xianchen can treat vincristine induced phlebitis, as well as Hirudoid. It is particularly effective in the treatment of edema, and there is a remarkable dose-response relationship.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine the toxic effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on reproductive system and the beneficial effects of Montelukast (ML) with histological and biochemical analysis. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four equal groups (control, TCDD, ML and TCDD+ML). Tissue samples were collected on day 60 and oxidative status and histological alterations were analyzed. RESULTS: The results showed a significant increase in oxidative and histological damage on uterine and ovarian tissues. Otherwise, the oxidative and histological damages caused by TCDD were prevented with ML treatment. CONCLUSION: The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on female reproductive system were reversed with Montelukast treatment. Therefore, we claimed that ML treatment might be useful for TCDD toxicity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated the role of oxidative stress on aging process in patients submitted to carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: Twenty patients were divided into two groups: older group (≥ 70 years old); and the younger group (< 70 years old). We evaluated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as so as nitrite levels in fragments of carotid arteries harvested during carotid endarterectomy for treatment of high grade carotid stenosis. RESULTS: We observed a higher levels of ROS and NADPH oxidase activity in the older group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the nitrite concentration was lower in the older group (14.55 ± 5.61 x 10-3 versus 26.42 ± 8.14 x 10-3 µM; p=0.0123). However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and SOD) were similar in both the groups. CONCLUSIONS : Arterial aging is associated with increased concentrations of oxygen species and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity as so as nitrite reduction in human carotid artery specimens. Maybe therapies that block NADPH oxidase activity and enhance nitrite stores would be a good strategy to reduce the effect of oxidative stress in arterial aging.