Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: An IL-2 ex vivo lung perfusion system was used to establish a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Drugs were added to the perfusion solution for reperfusion. Lung injury was assessed by histopathological changes, airway pressure (Res), lung compliance (Compl), perfusion flow (Flow), pulmonary venous oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), and lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were measured, respectively. Results: The introduction of Dex attenuated the post-ischemia-reperfusion lung damage and MDA level, improved lung histology, W/D ratio, lung injury scores and SOD activity. Decreased mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 and CHOP compared with the IR group were observed after Dex treatment. The effect of Dex was dosage-dependence and a high dose of Dex (10 nM) was shown to confer the strongest protective effect against lung damage (P<0.05). Yohimbine, an α2 receptor antagonist, significantly reversed the protective effect of Dex in lung tissues (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dex reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat ex vivo lungs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To compare the influence of two metallic implants in the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection using 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime. Methods: Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups, which received sterile and contaminated titanium and stainless steel implants. After 3 weeks, scintilographic images were obtained using a gamma chamber. Radioactivity counts were obtained for the region of interest (ROI) on the operated and non-operated paws. Results: Groups A, B, and C showed homogenous distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Hyper uptake was observed in the operated paw from group D. The ROI target count was higher in the two groups with stainless steel implants. Among the control groups, the count was higher in the stainless steel group. Furthermore, among the contaminated groups, the uptake was higher in the stainless steel group, with a significant difference. The target: non-target ratio was significantly lower in the control and contaminated groups with both titanium and stainless steel, but the comparison between control groups and contaminated groups was only significant in the former. The cpm/g observed after a decay of 48h showed statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Different biomaterials used in implants have an influence on the results of scintigraphy with 99mTc-CFT.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of dexmedetomidine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: IRI group (group IR) and dexmedetomidine group (group D). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmax, and t-dp/dtmax were recorded and calculated at the following time points: before (T0) and after (T1) dexmedetomidine infusion, after 30-min ischemia (T2), and after 120-min reperfusion (T3). The levels of plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and platelet activating factor (PAF); area of myocardial infarction (MI); and no-reflow area were evaluated. Results: SBP, DBP, LVSP, LVEDP, LVDP, and +dp/dtmax at T3 were higher in group D than in group IR (P<0.05). The average no-reflow area in group IR was significantly smaller than that in group D (14±3% vs. 38±5%, P=0.0116). The ET-1, TXA2, and PAF levels at T2 and T3 were higher than those at T0 in both groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine could reduce the magnitude of ischemic myocardial no-reflow area and protect the myocardium with ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the influence of subcutaneous injection nicotine in osseointegration process on different implant surfaces. Methods: Twenty-two male rabbits were distributed into two groups according to the subcutaneous injections: (1) nicotine 3 mg/day/kg and (2) 0.9 % NaCI 3 mL/day/kg, three times a day; subgroups were then designated-machined and anodized implants were placed in the right and left tibia bones, respectively. The animals were submitted euthanasia after periods of eight weeks to determine nicotine and cotinine levels, alkaline phosphatase and biomechanical analysis. Results: The plasmatic levels of nicotine and cotinine were 0.5 ± 0.28 ng/mL and 9.5 ± 6.51 ng/mL, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase analyses in blood levels in control group were observed 40.8 ± 11.88 UI/L and 40.75 ± 12.46 UI/L, for the surfaces machined and anodized, respectively. In the test group was observed levels 37.9 ± 4.84 UI/L, for both implant surfaces. No significant differences were observed between control and test groups and between the implant surfaces regarding alkaline phosphatase blood levels. For biomechanics, no significant differences were observed in control group between the machined (25±8.46 Ncm) or anodized (31.2 ± 6.76 Ncm) implants. However, the treatment with nicotine induced higher torque than control in both machined (38.3 ± 13.52 Ncm) and anodized (35.5 ± 14.17 Ncm) implants, with p = 0.0024 and p = 0.0121, respectively. Conclusion: Subcutaneous injection of nicotine following implant insertion didn’t have effect on osseointegration, independently from the implant surface.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To compare the safety, feasibility, and short-term clinical benefits of laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (L-PPPD) to open pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (O-PPPD) through retrospective matched cases. Methods: Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, CNKI were searched systematically identify studies published between January and December 2017 comparing L-PPPD to O-PPPD. The meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.3. Results: Two studies matched the selection criteria, including 108 (50%) cases of laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and 108(50%) cases of open pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. None of the included studies were randomized, which were both retrospective matched cases. There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula, blood loss, diet start and lymph nodes. However, L-PPPD has a shorter hospital stay (p=0.0003) and O-PPPD has a shorter operative time (p=0.02) and tend to decrease the delayed gastric emptying. Conclusions: The perioperative safety of laparoscopic surgery, which also has advantages of minimal invasion and shorter hospital stay, is comparable to that of open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery could be operated if the patients matched the indication and operation difficulty is not so great. However, blind pursuits of L-PPPD should be restrained because there is no essential difference between these two in terms of feasibility, safety and short-term complication.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the most used approach to treat traumatic diaphragmatic ruptures, and in which one the requirement to assess the second cavity is more frequent. Methods: Systematic review, observational studies. Outcomes: moment of approach, most commonly via addressed and the requirement to open the other cavity. Bases searched: Lilacs, Pubmed, Embase, Clinicaltrials.gov and Web of Science. Statistical analysis: StatsDirect 3.0.121 software. Results: Sixty eight studies (2023 participants) were included. Approach in acute phase was performed four times more than in chronic phase. Approach: abdominal 65% (IC 95% 63-67%), thoracic 23% (IC 95% 21-24%), abdominal in the acute phase 75% (IC 95% 71-78%), and chronic 24% (IC 95% 19-29%), thoracic in the acute phase 12% (IC 95% 10-14%) and chronic 69% (IC 95% 63-74%). Thorax opening in the abdominal approach: 10% (95% CI 8-14%). Abdomen opening in the thoracic approach: 15% (95% CI 7-24%). Conclusions: The most common approach was the abdominal. The approach in the acute phase was more common. In the acute phase the abdominal approach is more frequent than the thoracic approach. In the chronic phase the thoracic approach is more frequent than the abdominal one. The requirement to open the second cavity was similar in both approaches.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To compare pulmonary and nutritional parameters before and after inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and enteral feeding support in patients with esophageal disease undergoing preoperative outpatient follow-up. Methods: Thirty patients with a mean age of 55.83 years, 16 men and 14 women, were included. Pulmonary assessment consisted of the measurement of MIP, MEP, and spirometry. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were performed for nutritional assessment. After preoperative evaluation, inspiratory muscle training and enteral nutrition support were started. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: After an outpatient follow-up period of 4 weeks, a significant increase in MIP (-62.20 ± 25.78 to -81.53 ± 23.09), MEP (73.4 ± 31.95 to 90.33 ± 28.39), and FVC (94.86 ± 16.77 to 98.56 ± 17.44) was observed. Regarding the anthropometric variables, a significant increase was also observed in BMI (20.18 ± 5.04 to 20.40 ± 4.69), arm circumference (23.38 ± 3.28 to 25.08 ± 4.55), arm muscle circumference (21.48 ± 3.00 to 22.07 ± 3.36), and triceps skinfold thickness (5.62 ± 2.68 to 8.33 ± 6.59). Conclusion: Pulmonary and nutritional preparation can improve respiratory muscle strength, FVC and anthropometric parameters. However, further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this preoperative preparation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To develop and test a model of teaching by means of an abdominal cavity simulator. Methods: This study had two stages: development of a teaching model and an experimental prospective study that aimed to evaluate the residents’ competence. The participants were divided into 3 groups: first-year resident, second-year resident, and senior surgeon. The two groups of resident physicians received training in the simulator, under instructor supervision for skill acquisition, according to the model proposed in first stage. The surgeons did not receive this intervention. The correlations and associations were verified through simple and multiple linear regressions. The learning curves were analysed using Cox regression models. The impact of the epidemiological characteristics was tested. Results: All residents reached the maximum score at the end of 16 steps and were comparable to the experimental (p<0.001). Conclusion: Residents who underwent training using the methodology of the proposed teaching model, which is based on realistic simulation, acquired proficiency in the accomplishment of endosutures in up to 16 hours of training in the laboratory.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether the use of the physical surgical simulator may benefit the development of laparoscopic skills. Methods: Ten medical students were divided into two groups: the first one performed ten weekly training sessions with a physical surgical simulator - ETX A2 LAP and, afterwards, one laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a porcine model, while the second group performed only a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both groups were compared regarding bleeding, total surgical time, time to perform each surgical step and qualitative parameters, based on a previously validated tool. Results: There was no difference in any of the evaluated parameters. Conclusion: We did not find any evidence of benefit in the use of the physical simulator for surgical performance in medical students.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To perform technically the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) using a unique Intragastric Single Port (IGSG) in animal swine model, evidencing an effective and safe procedure, optimizing the conventional technique. Methods: IGSG was performed in 4 minipigs, using a percutaneous intragastric single port located in the pre-pyloric region. The gastric stapling of the greater curvature started from the pre-pyloric region towards the angle of His by Endo GIA™ system and the specimen was removed through the single port. In the postoperative day 30, the animals were sacrificed and submitted to autopsy. Results: All procedures were performed without conversion, and all survived 30 days. The mean operative time was 42 min. During the perioperative period no complications were observed during invagination and stapling. No postoperative complications occurred. Post-mortem examination showed no leaks or infectious complications. Conclusion: Intragastric Single Port is a feasible procedure that may be a suitable alternative technique of sleeve gastrectomy for the treatment of morbid obesity.