Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, Volume: 34, Issue: 3, Published: 2019
  • Undernutrition impairs the quality of growth plate and trabecular and cortical bones in growing rats Original Article

    Guedes, Patrícia Madalena San Gregório; Zamarioli, Ariane; Botega, Iara Inácio; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Butezloff, Mariana Maloste; Sousa, Yara Terezinha Corrêa Silva; Ximenez, João Paulo Bianchi; Volpon, José Batista

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of dietary restriction on the growth plate and long bone tissue in growing rats. Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Control (Con) and Diet-restricted (Res). After weaning, the Res rats were offered 50% of the chow ingested by the control (ad libitum food intake). The animals were subdivided into two subgroups with follow-ups up to 56 or 70 days. After euthanasia, the growth plate of tibias was analyzed by histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography, and mechanical test. The trabecular and compact bones were evaluated by histomorphometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and micro-computed tomography (μCT). Real-time PCR was used to analyze gene expression. Results: Although dietary restriction did not alter gene expression, several phenotypic changes were seen in the growth plate; i.e., decrease in volume, reduction in total area and height, decrease in the area ossified zones, mechanical weakening, reduction in mass of trabecular and cortical bone, lower bone density, deterioration of the trabecular and cortical microarchitecture, and trabeculae with lower collagen deposition. Conclusion: Dietary restriction had severe detrimental effects on the growth plate and trabecular and cortical bone.
  • New determinants for casual peripheral mechanism of neurogenic lung edema in subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ischemic degeneration of vagal nerve, kidney and lung circuitry. Experimental study Original Article

    Soyalp, Celaleddin; Kocak, Mehmet Nuri; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Aksoy, Mehmet; Atalay, Canan; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Cakir, Murteza; Calikoglu, Cagatay; Ozmen, Sevilay

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether there is a relationship between renal artery vasospasm related low glomerular density or degeneration and neurogenic lung edema (NLE) following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: This study was conducted on 26 rabbits. A control group was formed of five animals, a SHAM group of 5 to which saline and a study group (n=16) injected with homologous blood into the sylvian cisterna. Numbers of degenerated axons of renal branches of vagal nerves, atrophic glomerulus numbers and NLE scores were recorded. Results: Important vagal degeneration, severe renal artery vasospasm, intrarenal hemorrhage and glomerular atrophy observed in high score NLE detected animals. The mean degenerated axon density of vagal nerves (n/mm2), atrophic glomerulus density (n/mm3) and NLE scores of control, SHAM and study groups were estimated as 2.40±1.82, 2.20±1.30, 1.80±1.10, 8.00±2.24, 8.80±2.39, 4.40±1.14 and 154.38±13.61, 34.69±2.68 and 12.19±1.97 consecutively. Degenerated vagal axon, atrophic glomerulus and NLE scores are higher in study group than other groups and the differences are statistically meaningful (p<0.001). Conclusion: Vagal complex degeneration based glomerular atrophy have important roles on NLE following SAH which has not been extensively mentioned in the literature.
  • Does the type of electrode affect the electromyoneurographic parameters in rats? Original Article

    Somensi, Danusa Neves; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Feijó, Daniel Haber; Loureiro, Karine Drumond; Valente, André Lopes; Carvalho, Luan Teles Ferreira de; Calvo, Faustino Chaves; Santos, Deivid Ramos dos; Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate if the type of electrode (needle vs. surface) affects the electromyoneurography parameters in rats. Methods: Twenty male rats were anesthetized, then compound muscle action potential were recorded using a Neuropack S1 MEB- 9400©. All animals were submitted to two electroneuromyography analysis: first with surface electrode and then by needle electrode. We evaluated the latency, amplitude, duration and area of the negative peak of the gastrocnemius and cranial tibial muscles. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in the mean of duration, latency, amplitude or area of the negative peak in gastrocnemius and cranial tibial muscles. Conclusion: The type of electrode does not affect the electroneuromyography parameters.
  • Effect of ethyl acetate extract of usnea longissima on esophagogastric adenocarcinoma in rats Original Article

    Mammadov, Renad; Suleyman, Bahadir; Altuner, Durdu; Demirci, Elif; Cetin, Nihal; Yilmaz, Adnan; Baykal, Huseyin; Alpcan, Hilal; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Suleyman, Halis

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of the EtOAc extract of U. longissima which is uninvestigated previously on esophagogastric cancer induced in rats with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidin (MNNG). Methods: The anticancer activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima was examined in the esophagogastric adenocarcinoma models induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima, 50 and 100 mg/kg oral doses were administered once daily for six months. MNNG induced differentiated and undifferentiated type adenocarcinomas in the esophageal and gastric tissues of rats. Results: EtOAc extract of U. longissima obtained from U. longissima prevented gastric and esophageal cancerogenesis induced in rats with MNNG. EtOAc extract of U. longissima did not have a lethal effect at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. The prominent anticarcinogenic activity of EtOAc extract of U. longissima 50 and 100 mg/kg suggests that it is not toxic and it is selective to the cancer tissue. Conclusion: This information may shed light on clinical implementation of EtOAc extract of U. longissima in future.
  • The effect of graft application and allopurinol treatment on calvarial bone defect in rats Original Article

    Laçin, Nihat; İzol, Bozan Serhat; Özkorkmaz, Ebru Gökalp; Deveci, Buşra; Tuncer, Mehmet Cudi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of allopurinol administration on osteoinductive reaction and bone development with graft material. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In the control group, calvarial bone defect was only created without any treatment. In the Defect + Graft group, allograft treatment was performed by forming 8 mm calvarial bone defect. In the Defect + Graft + Allopurinol group, alloplastic bone graft was placed in the calvarial bone defect and then, allopurinol (50 mg/kg/day) treatment was intraperitoneally applied for 28 days. Results: Histopathological examination revealed inflammation, congestion in the vessels, and an increase in osteoclast cells in the defect area. We also observed that new osteocyte cells, increase in connective tissue fibers, and new bone trabeculae. Osteopontin expression was positive in osteoblast cells and lacunated osteocyte cells were located in the periphery of the new bone trabeculae. Osteopontin expression was also positive in osteoblasts and osteocytes cells of new bone trabeculae in the graft site. Conclusion: It has been shown that allopurinol treatment in rat calvaria defects may induce osteoblastic activity, matrix development, mature bone cell formation and new bone formation when used with autogenous grafts.
  • Ointment of Ximenes americana promotes acceleration of wound healing in rats Original Article

    Souza, José de Castro; Estevão, Lígia Reis de Moura; Ferraz, Adriana Aparecida; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Vieira, Marcela Gabriela Feitosa; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the healing potential of the Ximenia americana hydroalcoholic extract in 10% cream in excisional wound models in rats. Methods: Sixty male adults Wistar rats were submitted to skin and subcutaneous tissue surgery in the right and left thoracic regions, divided into three experimental groups: Standard submitted to treatment with only the base vehicle, Treated wounds treated with hydroalcoholic extract of X. americana applied on 10%, Lanette base and Control, untreated wounds. The treatment was performed daily and the wounds evaluated microscopically by the quantification of fibroblasts, collagen fibers and blood vessels. Results: The histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the number of fibroblasts, collagen fibers and blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusion: The topical action of the cream based on Ximenia americana shows angiogenic effects and improves the replacement of collagen, suggesting its use for the development of herbal remedy in the treatment of cutaneous wound healing.
  • Evaluation tool for a gastroenterostomy simulated training Original Article

    Barreira, Márcio Alencar; Siveira, Delano Gurgel; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Moura, Luiz Gonzaga de; Mesquita, Charles Jean Gomes de; Borges, Gleydson Cesar de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To create a checklist to evaluate the performance and systematize the gastroenterostomy simulated training. Methods: Experimental longitudinal study of a quantitative character. The sample consisted of twelve general surgery residents. The training was divided into 5 sessions and consisted of participation in 20 gastroenterostomys in synthetic organs. The training was accompanied by an experienced surgeon who was responsible for the feedback and the anastomoses evaluation. The anastomoses evaluated were the first, fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth. A 10 item checklist and the time to evaluate performance were used. Results: Residents showed a reduction in operative time and evolution in the surgical technique statistically significant (p<0.01). The correlation index of 0.545 and 0,295 showed a high linear correlation between time variables and Checklist. The average Checklist score went from 6.8 to 9 points. Conclusion: The proposed checklist can be used to evaluate the performance and systematization of a simulated training aimed at configuring a gastroenterostomy.
  • Unexpectedly prolonged fasting and its consequences on elderly patients undergoing spinal anesthetics. A prospective observational study Original Article

    Yeniay, Oguzhan; Tekgul, Zeki Tuncel; Okur, Onur; Koroglu, Noyan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To measure the preoperative fasting durations with respect to time of the day and its effect on vital parameters and electrocardiogram in elderly patients undergoing surgery under spinal anesthesia. Methods: This study investigated 211 patients older than 60 years undergoing elective surgery under spinal anesthesia. Patients scheduled for surgery in morning hours (AM) and afternoon hours (PM) were compared. Patients fasting hours and repeated measurements of mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation (Sp02) and the type and number of ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) signs were recorded and compared [preoperative, zeroth, 2nd,5th,15th,30th minutes following spinal anesthesia(SA)]. Results: Mean fasting durations were 12±2.8 and 9.5±2.1 hours in AM group and 15.5±3.4 12.7±4.4 hours in PM group for foods and liquids respectively. ECG changes were significantly more frequent in PM group and body temperatures were significantly higher in AM group patients. Conclusion: Our study has shown that fasting times in our population is far longer than recommended and fasting prolonged>15 hours is related to a transiently increased cardiac stress and mild hypothermia.
  • Videothermometry to evaluate metabolic activity in real time during pneumectomy in rats Original Article

    Vidal, Leonardo Waldstein de Moura; Cabral, Paula Gebe Abreu; Santos, Marcelo Borges dos; Antunes, Fernanda; Mota, Matheus Roberto da; Silva, Tomas Ottoni Barroso da; Monteiro, Guilherme Alexandre Soares; Scheffer, Jussara Peters; Ribeiro, Mariana da Silva; Oliveira, André Lacerda de Abreu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate, in rats, the open field videothermometry in real time while performing left pneumonectomy for early diagnosis of cardiopulmonary changes. Methods: Twelve non-specific pathogen-free Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups; pneumectomy group (GP) and sham surgery group (GS). Mean arterial pressure, videothermometry in real time, of the right lung, and histopathological analysis of the remaining lung were evaluated in all animals. Results: Videothermometry in real time allowed identification of temperature variance of right lung after pneumectomy, indicating a significant decrease in temperature during evaluation. There was a statistical difference between M0 and M1, M1 and M2 and M0 and M2 (p<0.004) in GS, and significant difference between M0 and M1, M1 and M2, and M2 and M0 with p<0.0001 in GP. Conclusions: Left pneumonectomy in rats shows initial histopathological changes after 60 minutes of its completion, indicating a possible compensation beginning. The open-field videothermometry in real time proved to be efficient identifying the temperature changes of the remaining lung.
  • The role of high sensitive C-reactive protein and histopathological evaluation in chronic gastritis patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection Original Article

    Altun, Eren; Yildiz, Ayla; Cevik, Celalettin; Turan, Gulay

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in chronic gastritis patients to predict Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, inflammatory activity, and precancerous lesions. Methods: A total of 811 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis were enrolled in the study. On endoscopy, five gastric biopsies were taken according to Modified Sydney protocol, which were stained with hematoxylin & eosin and Giemsa Results: HP infection was found in 28.6% of patients, being significantly more common in specimens with acute and chronic inflammatory activity. Mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia were found in 20.2%, 18.8% and 2.7% of biopsy specimens. Mean hs-CRP was 1.9±1.6 mg/dl for males and 2.2±1.9 mg/dl for females. hs-CRP average were significantly higher in patients with severe acute inflammation (p:0.049), in patients with severe chronic inflammation (p:0.015) and in those with HP (p: 0.001) . The severity of HP infection increased significantly with the increased degree of acute inflammation, chronic inflammation and hs-CRP level (p=0.001 for both). Conclusion: Serum hs-CRP level increases in patients with chronic gastritis, it could be an indicator of severity of acute or chronic mucosal inflammation, and presence of HP infection. Therefore, hs-CRP may aid the diagnosis of chronic gastritis, but it is not associated with pre-cancerous lesions.
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