Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of amniotic fluid in liver preservation in organ transplantation, and compare it with standard preservation solutions. Methods: The groups consisted of Group 1: Ringer Lactate (RL) group, Group 2: HTK group, Group 3: UW group, Group 4: AF group. The livers of rats from Group 1, 2, 3, and 4 were perfused and placed into falcon tubes containing RL, HTK, UW, and AF solutions at +4°C, respectively. The tubes were stored for 12 hours in the refrigerator at +4°C. Tissue samples were taken at the 6th and 12th hours for histopathological examinations of the perfused livers, and storage solutions for biochemical analyzes at 6th and 12th hours. Results: AF was shown to maintain organ viability by reducing the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Histopathological changes such as sinusoidal dilatation, hydropic degeneration, and focal necrosis were found to be similar to the groups in which the standard organ preservation solutions were used. Additionally, the results of INOS, IL-10, and TNF-α,which were evaluated immunohistochemically, have been shown to be similar to the UW and HTK groups. Conclusions: AF provided conservation similar to UW and HTK in the 12-hour liver SCS process. The fact that apoptosis values are comparable to standard preservation solutions supports the success of AF in the cold storage of the liver.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To investigate the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) profile on renal ischemia reperfusion in a mouse model. Methods: Microarray analysis was used to study the expression of misregulated lncRNA in a mouse model of renal ischemia reperfusion(I/R) with long ischemia time. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to verify the expression of selected lncRNAs and mRNAs.The potential functions of the lncRNA was analyzed by bioinformatics tools and databases. Results: Kidney function was impaired in I/R group compared to the normal group. Analysis showed that a total of 2267 lncRNAs and 2341 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were significantly expressed in I/R group (≥2.0-fold, p < 0.05).The qPCR result showed that lncRNAs and mRNAs expression were consistent with the microarray analysis. The co-expression network profile analysis based on five validated lncRNAs and 203 interacted mRNAs showed it existed a total of 208 nodes and 333 connections. The GO and KEEG pathway analysis results showed that multiple lncRNAs are involved the mechanism of I/R. Conclusion: Multiple lncRNAs are involved in the mechanism of I/R.These analysis results will help us to further understand the mechanism of I/R and promote the new methods targeted at lncRNA to improve I/R injury.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the inflammatory reaction and measure the content of mucins, in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream submit to intervention with mesalazine. Methods: Twenty-four rats were submitted to a left colostomy and a distal mucous fistula and divided into two groups according to euthanasia to be performed two or four weeks. Each group was divided into two subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline or mesalazine at 1.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and the inflammatory reaction by validated score. Acidic mucins and neutral mucins were determined with the alcian-blue and periodic acid of Schiff techniques, respectively. Sulfomucin and sialomucin were identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue technique. The tissue contents of mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results establishing the level of significance of 5%. Results: Enemas with mesalazine in colonic segments without fecal stream decreased the inflammation score and increased the tissue content of all subtypes of mucins. The increase of tissue content of neutral, acid and sulfomucin was related to the time of intervention. Conclusion: Mesalazine enemas reduce the inflammatory process and preserve the content of mucins in colonic mucosa devoid of fecal stream.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the functional and structural response of tadalafil effects in the intestinal mucosa, using an experimental model of hypoxia and reoxygenation injury in rats. Methods: The animals were divided into 4 groups: CTL, H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td. The newborn rats allocated in groups H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td were submitted twice a day, to a gas chamber with CO2 at 100% for 10 minutes and afterward reoxygenation with O2 at 98% for 10 minutes, in the three first days of life. Tadalafil dose was given to newborn of group H/R+Td and to the pregnant rat of group M+Td. Histological analysis was made with hematoxylin-eosin technique and oxidative stress through nitrite and nitrate levels and lipid peroxidation. Results: The histological analysis showed a reduction of mucosa alterations in the groups that received tadalafil. In the oxidative stress evaluation, occurred an increase of NO levels and less lipidic peroxidation in the ileum segments that received tadalafil. Conclusion: Tadalafil provides tissue protection when administered independently to both, pregnant or newborns.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To analyze the preoperative serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels and prognosis of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) undergoing radical resection. Methods: Preoperative serum MMP-9 levels in patients with HC undergoing radical resection were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ROC curve assay was used to analyze the preoperative serum MMP-9 level to determine the most valuable cut-off point. The relationship between MMP-9 and clinicopathological features of HC patients was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the prognostic factors, and COX regression model was used to analyze the independent risk factors affecting prognosis. Results: Preoperative serum MMP-9 levels were significantly elevated in the death patients compared with the survival patients. The most valuable cut-off point for preoperative serum MMP-9 for prognosis was 201.93 ng/mL. Preoperative serum MMP-9 was associated with Bismuth-Corlette classification) and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that MMP-9, Bismuth-Corlette classification, Lymph node metastasis, Portal vein invasion, Hepatic artery invasion, Liver invasion, Incised margin, and Preoperative biliary drainage were related to prognosis. Cox regression model confirmed that hepatic artery invasion, liver invasion, incised margin, and MMP-9 have the potential to independence predicate prognosis in HC patients. Conclusion: Preoperative serum MMP-9 has high predictive value for prognosis and is an independent influencing factor for the prognosis of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To develop a silicone alternative model of tissue suture simulation to be used in the teaching of surgical technique. Methods: Twelve alternative models of silicone for tissue suture simulation were manufactured and implemented as a tool for suture pattern training of undergraduate medical students of Universidade Federal do Amazonas. Forty-eight students participated in the research. The evaluation of the proposed model was done through a questionnaire using the Likert scale, in order to verify the student satisfaction index of the alternative resource and its performance as opposed to the model historically used in the discipline, which is to suture in cloths. Results: The alternative model showed satisfactory results, especially with respect to the structural aspect, such as, better perception of anatomical planes, handling and transport. About 89.58% of positive concordant responses demonstrating expressive approval for incorporation of a complementary form of the alternative methodological proposal of the discipline of surgical technique. Conclusions: The model developed for experimental simulation of tissue sutures has proved to be a fully feasible alternative method for the training of this surgical skill. It is a simple, reproducible and low-cost model.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histologically and immunohistochemically the bone regeneration after application of simvastatin on tibial bone defects in rats. Methods: Sixty Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as control (6 mm tibial bone defect), defect + graft (allograft treatment), and defect + graft + simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. Results: Histopathological examination revealed inflammation in control group (defect group), congestion in blood vessels, and an increase in osteoclast cells. In defect + graft group, osteoclastic activity was observed and osteocyte cells were continued to develop. In defect + graft + simvastatin group, osteocytes and matrix formation were increased in the new bone trabeculae. Osteopontin and osteonectin expression were positive in the osteclast cells in the control group. Osteoblasts and some osteocytes showed a positive reaction of osteopontin and osteopontin. In defect + graft + simvastatin group, osteonectin and osteopontin expression were positive in osteoblast and osteocyte cells, and a positive expression in osteon formation was also seen in new bone trabeculae. Conclusion: The simvastatin application was thought to increase bone turnover by increasing the osteoinductive effect with graft and significantly affect the formation of new bone.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the nutraceuticals omega-6/3 and omega-9/6 on endometriosis-associated infertility and pain. Methods: Controlled experimental study, with each group composed of eight female rats. Fertility groups: sham-operated control (0.9% saline solution); control with endometriosis (0.9% saline); omega-6/3 (1.2 g/kg/day); omega-9/6 (1.2 g/kg/day); and meloxicam (0.8 mg/kg/day). Pain groups: sham-operated control (0.9% saline); control with endometriosis (0.9% saline); omega-6/3 (1.2 g/kg/day); omega-9/6 (1.2 g/kg/day); medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 mg/kg/every 3 days); and meloxicam (0.8 mg/kg/day). Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced. Pain was evaluated with the writhing test. Fertility was evaluated by counting the number of embryos in the left hemi-uterus. Results: The mean number of writhings was as follows: sham-operated, 11.1 ± 2.9; control with endometriosis, 49.3 ± 4.4; omega-6/3, 31.5 ± 2.7; omega-9/6, 34.1 ± 4.5; medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.1 ± 0.8; meloxicam, 1 ± 0.3. There was a significant difference between both controls and all drugs used for treatment. Regarding fertility, the mean values were as follows: sham-operated, 6.8 ± 0.6; control with endometriosis, 4.2 ± 0.7; omega-6/3, 4.7 ± 1; omega-9/6, 3.8 ± 0.9; and meloxicam, 1.8 ± 0.9. Conclusions: The omega-6/3 and omega-9/6 nutraceuticals decreased pain compared to the controls. There was no improvement in fertility in any of the tested groups.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To examine the effect of taxifolin on I/R induced gastric injury in rats using biochemical and histopatholohical methods. Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar male rats equally grouped as; gastric I/R (I/R), 50 mg/kg taxifolin + gastric I/R (TAX+ I/R) and sham operation applied (SHAM). Ischemia induced for 1 hour, and reperfusion induced for 3 hours. Results: Oxidant parameters like, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG) were higher, whereas total glutathione (tGSH) was lower in the I/R group according to SHAM group, histopathological findings such as marked destruction, edema, and proliferated dilated congested blood vessels were observed severely in the I/R group, whereas there was not any pathological finding except mild dilated congested blood vessels in the TAX+ I/R group. Conclusion: The taxifolin can be clinically beneficial in the treatment of gastric injury due to I/R procedure.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To investigate the relations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions with fetal brain injury in rats with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Methods: Sixty rats pregnant for 15 days were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The ICP model was established in experimental group. On the 21st day, the blood biochemical test, histopathological examination of pregnant rat liver and fetal brain tissues and immunohistochemical analysis of fetal rat brain tissues were performed. Results: On the 21st day, the alanineaminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bile acid levels in experimental group were significantly higher than control group (P<0.01). Compared with control group, there was obvious vacuolar degeneration in pregnant rat liver tissue and fetal brain tissue in experimental group. NPY expression in fetal brain tissue was negative in control group and positive in experimental group. HO-1 expression in fetal brain tissue was strongly positive in control group and positive in experimental group. There was significant difference of immunohistochemical staining optical density between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In fetal brain of ICP rats, the NPY expression is increased, and the HO-1 expression is decreased, which may be related to the fetal brain injury.