Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To analyze the serum levels of nitric oxide and correlate them with the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver, brain and spinal cord of animals using L-NAME and treated with hydroxyurea. Methods: Eighteen male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was intraperitoneally administered to induce oxidative stress. TBARS and plasma nitric oxide levels were analyzed in all groups. Histopathology of the liver and vascular tissue was performed. Results: Statistically significant differences were seen in liver, brain and spinal cord TBARS levels. Conclusions: Following the use of L-NAME, hepatic tissue increased the number of Kupffer cells as oxidative stress and inflammatory response increased. The use of L-NAME caused an increase in lipid peroxidation products and, consequently, in oxidative stress in animals. Hydroxyurea doses of 35 mg / kg / day reduced TBARS values in liver, brain and spinal cord.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the healing potential of the electrospinning membranes of Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA) associated with Sedum dendroideum extract in burn injuries in rats. Methods: Seventy-five rats were submitted to burn injury on their back skin: (C) untreated; (F) with daily topical application of S. dendroideum extract; (M) with electrospinning membranes of PLA; (MF10) with electrospinning membranes of PLA with 10% S. dendroideum extract; (MF25) with electrospinning membranes of PLA with 25% S. dendroideum extract. Tissue samples were taken after 2, 6 and 14 days of the burn injury and were subjected to histomorfometric analysis of quantification of fibroblasts, collagen fibers, blood vessels, and inflammatory infiltrate Results: The histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in the number of fibroblasts, collagen fibers and blood vessels in the burns treated with membranes of PLA, associated or not with the 10% and 25% extract. The extract of S. dendroideum promoted the increase of collagen fibers. Conclusion: The electrospinning PLA membrane, isolated or associated with the S. dendrodeum extract, favored the healing of burn injuries in this experimental model, with an increase of fibroblasts, collagen fibers, and blood vessels. S. dendroideum isolated only stimulated the collagenesis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To investigate the protective effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) in ovarian ischemia/reperfusion injury using biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Methods Wistar female rats (n = 32) were randomly divided into four groups: control, ischemia, ischemia-reperfusion, and ischemia-reperfusion with RA. Rosmarinic acid was given at a dose of 50 mg/kg by oral gavage three hours after reperfusion. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in the ovary tissue homogenates for each rat. Results In the ischemia-reperfusion with RA group, the epithelial cells are regularly regulated at the periphery, and the degenerative changes in preantral and antral follicle cells are reduced. Follicle cells and cells in the corpus luteum showed a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, while VEGF demonstrated a positive reaction in vascular endothelial cells and stromal cells. The TNF-α expression due to the decreased degenerative effect and inflammation was positive in the macrophage cells. The expression of caspase-3 as an apoptosis change was negative in antral follicle cells and granular cells around the antral follicle. Conclusion Different doses of RA may be useful in preventing ischemic damage after vascularization, inflammation, and apoptotic development after ischemia/reperfusion.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To evaluate whether the attenuation of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload produced by pharmacological blockade of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) protects the myocardium against injuries caused by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (CIR). Methods CIR was induced in adult male Wistar rats (300-350 g) by occlusion of the left anterior descendent coronary artery (10 min), followed by reperfusion (120 min). Rats were treated with different doses of MCU blocker ruthenium red (RuR), administered 5 min before ischemia or reperfusion. Results In untreated rats, the incidences of ventricular arrhythmias (VA), atrioventricular block (AVB) and the lethality (LET) induced by CIR were 85%, 79% and 70%, respectively. In rats treated with RuR before ischemia, the incidences of VA, AVB and LET were significantly reduced to 62%, 25% and 25%, respectively. In rats treated with RuR after ischemia, the incidences of VA, AVB and LET were significantly reduced to 50%, 25% and 25%, respectively. Conclusion The significant reduction of the incidence of CIR-induced VA, AVB and LET produced by the treatment with RuR indicates that the attenuation of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload produced by pharmacological blockade of MCU can protect the myocardium against injuries caused by CIR.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo response of photobiomodulation therapy associated with norbixin-based poly(hydroxybutyrate) membrane (PHB) in tenotomized calcaneal tendon. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n=5 each): LED groups (L1, L2 and L3) and membrane + LED groups (ML1, ML2 and ML3). The right calcaneal tendons of all animals were sectioned transversely and were irradiated with LED daily, one hour after surgery every 24 hours, until the day of euthanasia. At the end of the experiments the tendons were removed for histological analysis. Results: The histological analysis showed a significant reduction in inflammatory cells in the ML1, ML2 and ML3 groups (p=0.0056, p=0.0018 and p<0.0001, respectively) compared to those in the LED group. There was greater proliferation of fibroblasts in the ML1 (p<0.0001) and L3 (p<0.0001) groups. A higher concentration of type I collagen was also observed in the ML1 group (p=0.0043) replacing type III collagen. Conclusion: Photobiomodulation in association with norbixin-based PHB membrane led to control of the inflammatory process. However, it did not favor fibroblast proliferation and did not optimize type I collagen formation in the expected stage of the repair process.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of chronic alcoholism on morphometry and apoptosis mechanism and correlate with miRNA-21 expression in the corpus cavernosum of rats. Methods Twenty-four rats were divided into two experimental groups: Control (C) and Alcoholic group (A). After two weeks of an adaptive phase, rats from group A received only ethanol solution (20%) during 7 weeks. The morphometric and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry analysis were performed in the corpus cavernosum. The miRNA-21 expression was analyzed in blood and cavernous tissue. Results Chronic ethanol consumption decreased cavernosal smooth muscle area of alcoholic rats. The protein expression of caspase 3 in the corpus cavernosum was higher in A compared to the C group. There was no difference in the expression of miRNA-21 in serum and cavernous tissue between the groups. Conclusion Chronic ethanol consumption reduced smooth muscle area and increased caspase 3 in the corpus cavernosum of rats, without altered serum and cavernosal miR-21 gene expression.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: The benefits of laparoscopic approaches to treat colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) separately are well established. However, there is no consensus about the optimal timing to approach the primary tumor and CRLM, whether simultaneously or staged. The objective of this review with practical reports is to discuss technical aspects required for patient selection to perform simultaneous laparoscopic approaches for CRC and CRLM. Methods: Literature review of oncological factors associated with patient selection for surgical treatment of CRLM and the use of laparoscopy in those cases, and report of technical aspects for simultaneous CRC and CRLM approaches. Results: Simultaneous laparoscopic resection has been successful in many series of selected patients, although it seems to be safer to perform minor and major liver resection with non-extended colorectal resections, and to avoid two high-risk procedures at the same time. Conclusions: Simultaneous CRC and CRLM resections seem to be safe when patients are carefully selected, also considering the risk of recurrence concerning oncologic outcomes. The pre-planning of simultaneous resection is mandatory to plan trocar positioning, procedure sequencing, and patient position.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To compare the satisfaction levels about the surgery and anesthesia management, and to analyze the postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastroplasty surgeries in a private hospital in Sao Luís-MA. Methods: The sample consisted of patients undergoing Bypass and Sleeve bariatric surgeries from August 2018 to August 2019, who were in the range of 18 and 70 years old and had not used drugs or presented cardiac arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, and conduction disorder heart. Data were collected from the evaluation forms and recorded in a form with closed questions. Results: Most patients were female (Bypass – 56% and Sleeve – 67.4%) and aged between 30 and 39 years old (Bypass – 32% and Sleeve – 55.8%). Information (Bypass – 92% and Sleeve – 86.1%) was the highest satisfaction index found. Sleepiness in the immediate postoperative period (Bypass – 92% and Sleeve – 93%) was the main side effect. There were no postoperative complications in patients between the two types of surgery. Conclusions: Patients submitted to Bypass and Sleeve were completely satisfied with the perioperative management. There was no statistically significant difference when comparing adverse effects between the techniques.