Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To examine the effects of quercetin on healing of experimental colon anastomosis injury in early and late period. Methods Eighty male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 8 groups. For all groups, left colons of the rats were resected and for the rest end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Two of the groups for which the experiment protocol was ended on the 3rd and 7th day following the anastomosis were not administered with either quercetin or dimethylsulfoxide DMSO, whereas two other groups were administered with DMSO only, and four other groups were administered with quercetin dissolved in DMSO in doses of 20 and 100 mg/kg during the protocol. At the end of the study, anastomosis line was resected, histopathological evaluation was performed and bursting pressure, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyproline levels were measured. Results Quercetin significantly increased hydroxyproline, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels, histopathological healing score, bursting pressure values and decreased malondialdehyde level in early period. It also significantly increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyproline levels and decreased malondialdehyde level in late period. Conclusion It was seen that quercetin speeds up the injury healing process and reveals an antioxidant effect, specifically in early period.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To compare Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate (FBP) to Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) in liver preservation at cold ischemia. Methods Male rats (Sprague-Dawley: 280-340g) divided into three groups (n=7): Control; Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP); Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK). Animals underwent laparotomy-thoracotomy for perfusion of livers with saline. Livers were removed and deposited into solutions. Mitochondria were isolated to determine State 3 (S3), State 4 (S4), Respiratory Control Ratio (RCR) and Swelling (S). Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, LDH) were determined in solution. At tissue, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitrate (NOx) were determined. All parameters were analyzed at 0.6 and 24 hours of hypothermic preservation. Statistics analysis were made by Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). Results Regarding ALT, there was a difference between FBP-6h/HTK-6h, lower in HTK. Regarding AST, there was a significant difference between FBP-24h/HTK-24h, lower in FBP. Regarding NOx, there was a difference between 0h and 6h, as well as 0h and 24h for both solutions. Regarding S3, there was a significant difference in 24h compared to Control-0h for both solutions, and a significant difference between FBP-6h/FBP-24h. Regarding S4, there was a difference between Control-0h/HTK-24h and FBP-24h/HTK-24h, higher in HTK. There was a difference between Control-0h/FBP-24h for Swelling, higher in FBP. Conclusion Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate showed better performance at nitrate and aspartate aminotransferase compared to histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose This experimental sepsis model created with Escherichia coli aimed to investigate the histopathological effects of two different doses of ozone combined with antibiotherapy on lung tissue. Methods Rats were divided into 5 groups. Then sepsis was induced intraperitoneally in the first 4 groups. The 1st group was treated with cefepime, the 2nd and 3rd groups were treated with cefepime combined with ozone at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg and 1.1 mg/kg. Lung tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and assessed under light microscope and scored between 0-4 in terms of histopathological findings. Results In the comparisons between Group 1 and Group 4 in terms of cellular damage (p=0.030), inflammation (p=0.000) and overall score (p=0.007), statistically significant positive effects were observed in favor of Group 1. In the comparisons of Groups 2 and 3 with Group 4, only positive effects were observed in terms of inflammation (p=0.020, p=0.012, respectively). Conclusion Although negative histopathological effects of ozone on tissue injury were detected, it was noteworthy that the increase in the ozone dose reduced the number of damaged parameters.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To determine by histomorphometric analysis whether CO2 pneumoperitoneum interferes with collagen deposition in surgical wounds in the aponeurosis of rats. Methods This experiment involved 80 male Wistar rats, randomly allocated into four groups according to pneumoperitoneum period (PRE: 30 min preoperatively; POST: 30 min postoperatively; PP: 30 min pre- and postoperatively; C: control group). CO2 pneumoperitoneum was insufflated to 5 mmHg of pressure. A laparotomy was performed; 1 cm of the left colon was then resected, and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed to simulate surgical trauma, after which the abdominal wall was closed. On postoperative days 7 or 14, a sample of the abdominal wall was collected, stained with picrosirius red and observed under polarized light in an optical microscope. The amount of collagen was estimated by computerized histomorphometric analysis. Results There were no significant differences in collagen deposition between the control and experimental groups on postoperative days 7 (p=0.720) or 14 (p=0.933). The amount of collagen increased as expected in all groups between postoperative days 7 and 14 (p=0.0003). Conclusion At 5 mmHg, CO2 pneumoperitoneum does not interfere with collagen deposition in abdominal wall surgical wounds in rats.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of L-alanyl-glutamine in a gerbil model of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury based on immunohistochemical quantification of pro-inflammatory and cell activation biomarkers (TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-6 and HO-1). Methods Male gerbils weighing 100-180 g were pretreated with either 0.75 g/kg L-Ala-Gln (n=18) or 2.0 mL saline (n=18) administered i.v. 30 minutes before the bilateral ligation of the common carotid artery during 15 min and then the ligation was removed. Under anesthesia with urethane, brain tissue was harvested at 0 min (T0), 30 min (T30) and 60 min (T60) after reperfusion. The tissue was embedded in 10% formalin overnight and 4-μm sections were prepared for immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies. Immunostained cells were counted by optical microscopy. The statistical analysis used mean values based on 4 sections. Results The pretreatment with L-Ala-Gln animal group 1 demonstrated significantly lower levels of TNF-α, NF-κB and IL-6. On the other hand, the levels of HO-1 were significantly higher, suggesting a protective role in model of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion These findings suggest a protective effect of L-Ala-Gln by decreasing levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and NF-κB and Increasing levels of HO-1.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To develop a 3D anatomical model for teaching canine epidural anesthesia (3DMEA) and to assess its efficacy for teaching and learning prior to the use of live animals. Methods The creation of 3DMEA was based on 3D optical scanning and 3D printing of canine bone pieces of the fifth to the seventh lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and pelvis. A total of 20 male dogs were scheduled for castration. 20 veterinary students watched a video showing epidural anesthesia in dogs before the clinical attempt and were assigned to control or 3DMEA groups. Students in the 3DMEA group trained in the model after the video. For the clinical trial, the epidural procedure was performed by students under the veterinary supervision. When observed the absence of response to nociceptive stimuli, the epidural was considered successful. Then, all students answered a questionnaire evaluating the main difficulty founded in the technique and its degree of difficulty. Results The 3DMEA group reported a lower degree of difficulty to perform the epidural anesthesia technique when compared with the control group (p=0.0037). The 3DMEA reproduced the anatomical structures, allowing the perception of the distance of needle in relation to the iliac prominences during epidural anesthesia. Its mobility allowed simulation of the animal in standing position and sternal recumbency. Conclusion The use of 3DMEA demonstrated greater efficacy in the execution of the technique, being effective in the teaching and learning process before the epidural anesthesia in live animals.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To analyze, in aged obese patients, the weight loss, comorbidity control, and safety postoperative complications of bariatric surgery by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass technique. Methods Twenty-seven patients who underwent laparoscopic weight-reducing gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass to treat obesity were included. All patients were ≥ 60 years old at the time of surgery. The Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis, and a p-value ≤0.05it was considered significant. Results Ten (90.9%) patients with dyslipidemia were cured (p < 0.001). Nine (81.8%) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had total improvement and 2 (18.2%) had partial improvement (p = 0.003). In 23 patients with systemic arterial hypertension, 9 (39.1%) achieved total improvement and 14 (60.9%) partial improvement (p = 0.140). Five (71.4%) patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were cured (p = <0.001). For other comorbidities, no partial improvement or cure was shown. Conclusions Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in obese elderly patients can be performed safely and with low morbidity and mortality rates. The benefits of weight loss and reduced comorbidities are promising and like those of the younger population.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose Bile duct injury (BDI) is a catastrophic complication of cholecystectomy, and misidentification of the cystic anatomy is considered to be the main cause. Although several techniques have been developed to prevent BDI, such as the “critical view of safety”, the infundibular technique, the rates remain higher during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) than during open surgery. We, here, propose a practical new strategy for ductal identification, that can help to prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Methods A retrospective study of 5539 patients who underwent LC from March 2007 to February 2019 at a single institution was conducted. The gallbladder infundibulum was classified by its position located on an imaginary clock with the gallbladder neck as the center point of the dial, 3-o’clock position as cranial, 6-o’clock as dorsal, 9-o’clock as caudal, and 12-o’clock as ventral, as well as the axial position. Patient demographics, pathologic variables and infundibulum classification were evaluated. Detailed analysis of ductal identification based on gallbladder infundibulum position was performed in this study. All infundibulum positions were recorded by intraoperative laparoscopic video or photographic images. Results All the patients successfully underwent LC during the study period. No conversion or serious complications such as biliary injury occurred. Gallbladders with infundibulum of 3-o’clock position, 6-o’clock position, 9-o’clock position, 12-o’clock position, axial position were 12.3%, 23.4%, 28.0%, 4.2%, and 32.1%, respectively. The 3-o’clock and 12-o’clock position were pitfalls that might cause biliary injury. Conclusion The gallbladder infundibulum as a navigator is useful for ductal identification to reduce BDI and improve the safety of LC.