Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To analyze changes in the thermal pattern in the skin graft receptor bed, after the use of therapeutic ultrasound through the thermographic images. Methods Eighteen Rattus norvegicus albinus Wistar, separated into two groups: GST groups (without tumor and without treatment with ultrasound) and GT (with tumor and treatment with ultrasound). In the GT group, induction of carcinogenesis was performed by single intradermal application of 0.05 ml DMBA at 0.5%, diluted in acetone. Subsequently, a technique of reconstructive grafting surgery of the mesh type was performed in both groups and treatment with therapeutic ultrasound was performed in the GT group the alternate day protocol at 3, 6, 10 and 15 days after the procedure. The thermographic evaluation occurred on days 3, 6, 10 and 15 after the grafting. Results There was a significant difference between the statistical evaluation of the temperature of the control group when compared to the treated group, on the different evaluation days (p <0.0001). Conclusion The thermographic analysis of the images was effective in evaluating the healing process, being the use of thermography feasible to evaluate changes in the thermal standard in the surgical bed, besides the beneficial effects of the US.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose Given the high prevalence of diabetes (D), several animal models have been analyzed. In the literature, most of the animal models have studied severe D. However, in clinical practice, most patients have moderate disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe a moderate D condition. Methods We analyzed 20 Wistar rats, age eight-weeks, weight between 200g-250g. All animals received an intravenous injection of Streptozotocin (55mg/kg weight). On the 15th day after D induction, the animals were divided into two groups: Group I – animals receiving a single daily dose of fast-acting insulin (FAIG) NPH (1UI,SC) for partial glycemic control, and Group II - animals receiving slow-acting insulin(SAIG) twice a week. We measured glycemia, weight, and adverse events every week during two months. Results Of the total of animals analyzed in the study, three animals died in the FAIG and two animals died in the SAIG. Regarding the glycemic level, results were 339.5 ± 125.4mg/dL (95CI 302.3402 to 376.6842) in the FAIG, and 367.8 ± 66.1mg/dL (95IC 333.7607 to 401.8978) in the SAIG. There was no difference between groups as to weight during the study. Conclusion The use of slow-acting-insulin is not inferior to the use of fast-acting-insulin in the management of partially insulin-controlled moderate diabetes in rats.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To analyze the anesthetic drugs interference with wound healing when used in the surgical bed. Methods: Macro and microscopic aspects of healing of surgical wounds were evaluated after instillation of topical anesthetics without vasoconstrictor or saline solution 0.9% as control in the transsurgical period. Thirty dogs, males and females were divided into two experimental groups. In both groups, two circular punch lesions of 6 mm diameter were performed in the abdomen. In group 1, lidocaine was instilled in one of the lesions and saline solution in the contralateral lesion. In group 2 the procedure was repeated with the use of bupivacaine. The macroscopic assessment of the lesions was performed on the first, third and tenth postoperative day. The excisional biopsy was performed on the tenth day and the samples were submitted for histopathological examination. Results: The macroscopic analysis had a significant difference between groups. Microscopic analysis was not significant between groups. Conclusions: The topical application of lidocaine and bupivacaine in the surgical wound is feasible and it does not influence skin healing. The benefit of such a practice, which has been the subject of other studies, seems to outweigh the risks.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose Studies have demonstrated that star fruit consumption by nephropathic patients triggers severe neurotoxic effects that can lead to convulsions or even death. Brain areas likely susceptible to star fruit poisoning have not been investigated. The objective of the present study was to map possible epileptogenic areas susceptible to star fruit intoxication in nephropathic rats. Methods The study analyzed 25 rats (5 groups). Rats in the experimental group underwent bilateral ureteral obstruction surgery and orogastric gavages with star fruit juice. An electroencephalogram was used to confirm convulsive seizures. Urea and creatinine levels were used to confirm the uremia model. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to map cells with c-Fos protein (c-Fos+ cells) to identify brain areas with increased neuronal activity. Control groups included non-nephropathic and nephropathic rats that did not receive star fruit. Results A statistically significant increase (p<0.01) in c-Fos+ cells was noted in nephropathic animals receiving star fruit juice compared to control groups, in brain areas commonly related to epileptogenic neural circuits including the hippocampus, amygdala, rhinal cortex, anterior cingulate area, piriform area, and medial dorsal thalamus. Conclusion These data corroborate the neurotoxic capacity of star fruit in nephropathic patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To evaluate the normality pattern in functional tests of peripheral nerves. Methods Sixty female and sixty male Wistar rats were submitted to vibrissae movement and nictitating reflex for facial nerve; grooming test and grasping test for brachial plexus; and walking tracking test and horizontal ladder test for lumbar plexus. The tests were performed separately, with an interval of seven days between each. Results All animals showed the best score in vibrissae movement, nictitating reflex, grooming test, and horizontal ladder test. The best score was acquired for the first time in more than 90% of animals. The mean of strength on the grasping test was 133.46±12.08g for the right and 121.74±8.73g for the left anterior paw. There was a difference between the right and left sides. There was no difference between the groups according to sex. There is no statistical difference comparing all functional indexes between sex, independent of the side analyzed. The peroneal functional index showed higher levels than the sciatic and tibial functional index on both sides and sex. Conclusions The behavioral and functional assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration are low-cost, easy to perform, and reliable tests. However, they need to be performed by experienced researchers to avoid misinterpretation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To synthesize and characterize poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and norbixin membranes to evaluate them for genotoxicity in rats and wound healing in mice by histological staining. Methods For the evaluation of genotoxicity, male rats ( Rattus novegicus ) were divided into three groups (n= 5): 5% PHB/Norbixin membrane introduced into the peritoneum by laparotomy; B – negative control; C – positive control (intraperitoneal dose of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg). For the evaluation of biocompatibilty, a cutaneous wound was induced on the back of males mice ( Mus musculus ) divided into two experimental treatment groups: control and membrane that underwent euthanasia after 7 and 14 days treatment. Statistical analysis ware made by One Way Anova post hoc Tukey Test (p<0.05). Results Regarding the incidence of polychromatic erythrocytes, there was no difference between negative control and 5% PHB/Norbixin membrane; however, when compared to the positive control represented by cyclophosphamide, there was a significant difference (p <0.001). As for DNA damage, the changes induced in the first 4h were repaired in 24h. In addition, the membrane was effective in abbreviating the inflammatory process and served as a scaffold due to the stimulus to reepithelialization mainly on the 7 days of treatment. Conclusion The non-genotoxic PHB/Norbixin 5% membrane presented promising results that suggest its effectiveness as a guide for tissue regeneration given its biocompatibility.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose: To analyze gene and protein expression of metalloproteinases 1, 2, 9, 11 and 16 and their correlation with clinicopathological variables in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods: A retrospective study of 114 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma treated surgically in the period 2006 to 2008 in Hospital de Câncer de Barretos - Fundação Pio XII. The evaluation of gene expression was performed by RT-PCR, and protein by immunohistochemistry. The analysis of gene expression was classified as overexpressed genes and poorly expressed (fold change of approximately 2, p<0.05). The positivity of the markers in the immunohistochemical study was performed by semi-quantitative analysis. The tissue of TMA (Tissue Microarray) was done by two independent pathologists. Results: The gene expression validated by immuno - histochemical was MMP-1(p= 0.00 and 1.57 fold change) and MMP – 2 (p= 0.01 and – 1.84 to fold change) when correlated with the histological types mucinous and adenocarcinoma NOS, MMP9 (p=0.01 and fold change of 1.13) and MMP-16 (p=0.03 and 1.61 fold change) when compared with the histological types villous and adenocarcinoma NOS, MMP - 11 statistically significant in relation to male (p = 0.04 and 1.65 fold change). Conclusions: The MMPs 1, 2, 9, 11 and 16 gene and protein expression with statistical significance in at least one of the clinicopathological variables studied. Thus, we conclude that these MMPs have potential as a prognostic factor in colorectal adenocarcinoma.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To evaluate the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors gamma (PPARG) in colorectal tumors and to correlate this data with clinical variables of the patients. Methods We analyzed the gene expression of PPARG in 50 samples of colorectal tumors using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and 20 adjacent normal tissue samples as control. The results of these quantifications were correlated with the respective patients’ medical records’ clinical information. Results PPARG expression was not different in the tumor tissue compared to the control tissue. Patients older than 60 years, histological type with mucinous differentiation, more advanced staging at the time of diagnosis, and patients who evolved with recurrence of the disease or death did not present higher PPARG expression. Conclusion Expression of PPARGD was not associated with worse prognosis.