Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate fibrosis formation and number of macrophages in capsules formed around textured implants without and with mesh coverage. Methods: Fibrosis was analyzed through transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) immunomarker expression and the number of macrophages through CD68 percentage of cells in magnified field. Sixty female Wistar rats were distributed into two groups of 30 rats (unmeshed and meshed). Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups for postoperative evaluation after 30 and 90 days. The p value was adjusted by Bonferroni lower than 0.012. Results: No difference was observed in fibrosis between meshed and unmeshed groups (30 days p = 0.436; 90 days p = 0.079) and from 30 to 90 days in the unmeshed group (p = 0.426). The meshed group showed higher fibrosis on the 90th day (p = 0.001). The number of macrophages was similar between groups without and with mesh coverage (30 days p = 0.218; 90 days p = 0.044), and similar between subgroups 30 and 90 days (unmeshed p = 0.085; meshed p = 0.059). Conclusions: In the meshed group, fibrosis formation was higher at 90 days and the mesh-covered implants produced capsules similar to microtextured ones when analyzing macrophages. Due to these characteristics, mesh coating did not seem to significantly affect the local fibrosis formation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT) brings several benefits for insulin-dependent type-1 diabetic patients associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, data on psychological outcomes for the waiting list and the transplanted patients are still lacking. Methods: Using the psychological Beck inventories of anxiety (BAI) and depression (BDI), 39 patients on the waiting list were compared to 88 post-transplanted patients who had undergone SPKT. Results: Significant differences were found regarding depression (p = 0.003) but not anxiety (p = 0.161), being the pretransplant patients more vulnerable to psychological disorders. Remarkable differences were observed relative to the feeling of punishment (p < 0.001) and suicidal thoughts (p = 0.008) between the groups. It was observed that patients who waited a longer period for the transplant showed more post-transplant anxiety symptoms due to the long treatment burden (p = 0.002). Conclusions: These results demonstrated the positive impact of SPKT on psychological aspects related to depression when comparing the groups. The high number of stressors in the pretransplant stage impacts more severely the psychosocial condition of the patient.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (DEX) analgesia pretreatment on functional chronic visceral pain in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: W1, W2, W3, W4, W5, and W6. The behavioral changes and electrophysiological indexes of rats in each group before and after DEX treatment were detected. Results: The levels of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in W5 and W6 groups were significantly lower than those in group W3, while the levels of thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) were significantly higher than those in group W3 (p < 0.05). The electromyographic signals of W1, W5, and W6 groups showed little fluctuation, while those of groups W2, W3, and W4 showed obvious fluctuation. TLR4 mRNA expression, IRF3, P65, and phosphorylation levels in W4, W5, and W6 groups were significantly lower than those in group W2 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine epidural anesthesia pretreatment could significantly inhibit visceral pain response in rats with functional chronic visceral pain, and its mechanism was related to the activation of TLR4 in spinal dorsal horn tissue of rats and the activation inhibition of IRF3 and P65 in the downstream key signals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the protective effect of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. polysaccharides (PCCL) on 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis (IM) in mice. Methods: PCCL was orally administered at a dose of 20 mg·kg–1 for 7 days and its protective effect on 5-FU-induced IM (5-FU, 50 mg·kg–1 for 5 days) was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, degree of diarrhea, levels of tissue inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1β levels), apoptosis rates, and the expression levels of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. Results: The severity of mucosal injury (as reflected by body weight changes, degree of diarrhea, height of villi, and damage to crypts) was significantly attenuated by PCCL administration. PCCL also reduced the levels of tissue inflammatory factors, the apoptosis rate, and the expression of caspase-3 and Bax, and increased Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions: PCCL administration may be significantly protective against 5-FU-induced IM by inhibiting apoptosis and regulating the abnormal inflammation associated with it.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the potential immunomodulatory effects of total extract and different polar parts from Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire. Methods: Phagocytic activity was evaluated by neutral red assay, and the effect of the immune function was investigated by normal and immunocompromised mice models. Results: In vitro, total extract, as well as chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions could individually enhance the phagocytic ability of mouse peritoneal macrophages; in addition, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions had an increasing tendency when combined stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vivo, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) could enhance the immune organ index, increase the serum hemolysin level and peripheral blood immune cells of immunocompromised mice, while for normal mice, the effect was inconspicuous. Conclusions: Blaps rynchopetera extracts had noteworthy immunomodulatory effect, especially for individuals with immune disorders.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the anatomorphometry of the plexus brachialis (PB) of rats under a high-definition video system. Methods: Ten male Wistar rats discarded from other research that did not interfere in the morphology of the animal, respecting the principle of reduction, were used. All animals were submitted to the same protocol. Initially, the cervical region was shaved. The animals were placed in a dorsal position. A single elbow-to-elbow incision was performed and dissection started at the deltopectoral sulcus. The procedures were performed under a video system. To measure the structures, the Image J software was used. Results: All the PB evaluated originated from the C5-T1 spinal nerves. C5 and C6 converged to form the truncus superior, the root of C7 originated the truncus medius, and the confluence of C8 and T1 originated the truncus inferior. It was found the union of C7, C8, and T1 to form truncus inferomedialis instead of separate medial and inferior truncus. C8 (1.31 mm) was the thickest root, the truncus inferior (1.80 mm) and the nerve radialis (1.02 mm), were the thickest. Conclusions: The anatomy of the PB is comparable to humans, admitting variations. The videomagnification system is useful to perform microsurgical dissection.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on bone mineral density (BMD) in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Thirty-two male, adult, 12-week-old rats (Rattus norvegicus), of the Wistar lineage, were used. The animals induced to the experimental model received a high fat diet for 10 days and, after that period, intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg·kg–1), dissolved in 20 mmol·L–1 sodium citrate solution (pH = 4.5). The experimental group of diabetes was formed by the animals that, 48 h after the injection of streptozotocin, had fasting blood glucose > 250 mg·dL–1). The animals were randomly divided into four groups with eight animals each: HIIT experimental diabetes; HIIT control; sedentary experimental diabetes and sedentary control. The animals in the HIIT group performed an aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill inclined at an angle of 15° to the horizontal, with interspersed intensity. Five weekly sessions, lasting 49 min each, were held for 6 weeks. The analysis of cortical bone density (CBD) and BMD were performed by X-ray images using the In-Vivo Xtreme II/Bruker system. Results: For CBD and BMD, when comparing diabetes and control groups, a significant difference was seen between groups in relation to HIIT (p = 0.007). Animals submitted and not submitted to HIIT in the same group showed a significant difference between groups in relation to diabetes (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The HIIT experimental diabetes group had increased CBD and BMD in comparison with the sedentary experimental diabetes group.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: The present study explored the role of melatonin in cisplatin-induced cardiac injury along with the possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in melatonin-mediated effects. Methods: Wistar rats were administered cisplatin (10 mg/kg), and cardiac injury was assessed by measuring the levels of cardiac troponin (cTnT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-1).The extent of apoptosis was measured by measuring caspase-3 (pro-apoptotic) and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) in hearts. The levels of BDNF, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and reduced glutathione were measured in heart. Melatonin (5 and 10 mg/kg) was administered for 15 days, and the role of BDNF was identified by co-administering BDNF inhibitor, ANA-12 (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg). Results: Melatonin attenuated cTnT and LDH-1 levels along with reduction in caspase-3 and increase in Bcl-2. It also increased cisplatin-induced decrease in BDNF, increase in TNF-α and decrease in reduced glutathione levels. Moreover, ANA-12 abolished the cardioprotective effects, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin suggesting the role of BDNF in melatonin-mediated effects in cisplatin-induced cardiac injury. Conclusions: Melatonin is useful in cisplatin-induced cardiac injury, which may be due to an increase in BDNF, decrease in inflammation and increase in antioxidant activities.