Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major public health problem with a huge economic burden worldwide. Ulinastatin (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, has been reported to be anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, and organ protection by reducing reactive oxygen species production, and inflammation. Necroptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism that plays a vital role in neuronal cell death after ICH. However, the neuroprotection of UTI in ICH has not been confirmed, and the potential mechanism is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotection and potential molecular mechanisms of UTI in ICH-induced EBI in a C57BL/6 mouse model. Methods: The neurological score, brain water content, neuroinflammatory cytokine levels, and neuronal damage were evaluated. The anti-inflammation effectiveness of UTI in ICH patients also was evaluated. Results: UTI treatment markedly increased the neurological score, alleviate the brain edema, decreased the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, interleukin‑1β (IL‑1β), IL‑6, NF‑κB levels, and RIP1/RIP3, which indicated that UTI-mediated inhibition of neuroinflammation, and necroptosis alleviated neuronal damage after ICH. UTI also can decrease the inflammatory cytokine of ICH patients. The neuroprotective capacity of UTI is partly dependent on the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusions: UTI improves neurological outcomes in mice and reduces neuronal death by protecting against neural neuroinflammation, and necroptosis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Poultry by-products can contribute as an innovative natural source for the development of composites based on polymers and minerals aiming at bone regeneration. The objective of this study was the physicochemical and biological characterization of collagen-based hydrogels crosslinked with ultraviolet (UV)-riboflavin. Methods: Pure hydrogels of 100% collagen (G1) or hybrid hydrogels, 90% collagen:10% apatite (G2), 90% collagen:10% nanokeratin (G3), and 90% collagen:5% apatite:5% nanokeratin (G4) were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, swelling degree and quali-quantitative histological analysis. Ectopic implantation in subcutaneous tissue in mice at one, three and nine weeks allowed to assess the inflammation (neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, and giant cells) and repair (neovascularization, and connective tissue) to determine biocompatibility and the integrity of biomaterials to score their biodegradability. Histomorphometry on critical size defects in rat calvaria at one and three months evaluated the percentage of bone, connective tissue, and biomaterials in all groups. Results: The hydrogels presented porous microstructure, water absorption and physicochemical characteristics compatible with their polymeric and/or mineral composition. All materials exhibited biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low osteoconductivity. G2 showed greater density of new bone and biomaterial than the G1, G3 and G4. Conclusions: The collagen-apatite group formulation suggests potential for development as osteopromoting membrane.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the influence of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFGE8) on blunt abdominal injury in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats through the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Methods: The blunt abdominal injury model was generated in SD rats. A total of 44 rats was randomly assigned into three groups. Rat blunt abdominal injury was assessed by the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). The rats were sacrificed for observing the morphology of the abdominal cavity and intestines. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to visualize the pathological changes of rat intestines. Positive expressions of MFGE8 and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in rat intestines were examined by immunohistochemical staining. Protein levels were determined by Western blot. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6 and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Blunt abdominal injury resulted in inflammatory response of intestinal tissues, increased serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MDA, upregulation of HMGB1, RhoA and ROCK2, and downregulation of MFGE8 in rats, which were significantly alleviated by intervention of rhMFGE8. Conclusions: MFGE8 protects the intestinal mucosal barrier function after blunt abdominal injury in rats by downregulating HMGB1. Moreover, it alleviates inflammatory response and oxidative stress caused by blunt abdominal injury in rats through downregulating RhoA and ROCK.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the protective effects of Shenkang injection (SKI) on adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) in rat. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, model, and SKI groups (5, 10, 20 mL/kg). Rats in model and SKI groups were treated with adenine i.g. at a dose of 150 mg/kg every day for 12 weeks to induce CRF. Twelve weeks later, SKI was administered to the rat i.p. for four weeks. The effects of SKI on kidney injury and fibrosis were detected. Results: SKI inhibited the elevation of the urine level of N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase, kidney injury molecule-1, beta-2-microglobulin, urea protein in CRF rats. The serum levels of uric acid and serum creatinine increased and albumin decreased in the model group, which was prevented by SKI. SKI inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serum. SKI inhibited the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, collagen I, collagen III, endothelin-1, laminin in kidney of CRF rats. Conclusions: SKI protected against adenine-induced kidney injury and fibrosis and exerted anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects in CRF rats.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate a biofilm model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in excisional cutaneous wound in mice. Methods: Preclinical, translational study conducted with 64 C57BL/6 mice randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. Evaluation was on days D0, D3, D5, D7 and D10 of wound making. The profile of biofilm formation and induction was evaluated using wound closure kinetics, quantitative culture, and evaluation of wounds using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Clinical evaluation was performed by liver tissue culture, weight variation, and quantification of leukocytes in peripheral blood. Analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism software. Results: Bacterial load for induction of infection with P. aeruginosa and survival of animals was 104 UFC·mL-1. In D5 (p < 0.0001) and D7 (p < 0.01), animals in the intervention group showed a delay in the healing process and had their wounds covered by necrotic tissue until D10. Statistical differences were observed in wound cultures and weight at D5 and D7 (p < 0.01). Liver cultures and leukocyte quantification showed no statistical differences. No bacteria in planktonic or biofilm form were identified by TEM. Conclusions: The findings raise questions about the understanding of the ease of formation and high occurrence of biofilm in chronic wounds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the anatomical aspects of the cervical rootlets and to quantify the number of rootlets that compose C1 to T1. Methods: Twenty male rats were used in this study. The dorsal rootlets from C1 to T1 were analyzed. To study the ventral rootlets, the posterior root avulsion was performed using a microhook, allowing exposure of the ventral roots through manipulation of the denticulate ligament and arachnoid mater. The parameters analyzed were the number of ventral and dorsal rootlets by side and level. Results: The formation of the respective spinal nerve was observed in the spinal roots the union of the ventral and dorsal roots. In four animals the C1 spinal root had no dorsal and/or ventral contribution. There is no normal pattern of numerical normality of the dorsal and ventral rootlets. The average number of fascicles per root was 4.08, with a slight superiority on the left side. There was a slight superiority of the dorsal rootlets compared to the ventral rootlets. Conclusions: This investigation was the first to study cervical rootlets in rats. In 20% of the sample studied, the dorsal root of C1 was absent mainly on the left side. There is a nonlinear numerical increase from C1 to T1 in the rootlets. There is a numerical predominance of cervical fascicles on the left side, confronting several studies related to the functional predominance of right laterality, requiring new studies that correlate these variables.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the mechanism and investigate the protective effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on renal oxidative stress, which cyclosporine A (CsA) induces. Methods: HK-2 cells were treated with CsA to get CsA-induced oxidative stress. The effects on oxidative stress and apoptosis of HK-2 cells were detected. The contents of SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, ROS, and CAT in serum were measured, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blot. Then, established the renal oxidative stress injury rats to verify the efficacy of HSYA. Results: HSYA could reduce the ROS and MDA contents induced by CsA. Compared with the CsA group, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px increased significantly when treated with HSYA. HSYA could inhibit CsA-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells, and promote the protein of Bcl-2 and inhibit the expression of Bax. Animal experiments showed that HSYA could reduce CsA-induced renal cell injury by reducing glomerular cell vacuoles and inflammatory factors in tissues. It also decreased serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen, increased Crea clearance significantly. Conclusions: HSYA could significantly improve the antioxidant capacity of the kidney cells and inhibit cell apoptosis, thereby effectively ameliorating CsA-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the normal optical nerve sheath (ONS) diameter ultrasonography (ONSUS) and evaluate the possible effects of drugs on ONS diameter during anesthetic induction in healthy pigs. Methods: Healthy piglets were divided into three groups: a control group, that received xylazine and ketamine (X/K); other that received xylazine, ketamine and propofol (X/K/P); and a third group that received xylazine, ketamine, and thiopental (X/K/T). The sheath diameter was assessed by ultrasonography calculating the average of three measurements of each eye from the left and right sides. Results: 118 animals were anesthetized (49 X/K 33 X/K/P and 39 X/K/T). Mean ONS sizes on both sides in each group were 0.394 ± 0.048 (X/K), 0.407 ± 0.029 (X/K/P) and 0.378 ± 0.042 cm (X/K/T) (medians of 0.400, 0.405 and 0.389, respectively). The ONS diameter varied from 0.287–0.512 cm (mean of 0.302 ± 0.039 cm). For group X/K, the mean diameter was 0.394 ± 0.048 cm. Significant differences in ONS sizes between the groups P and T (X/K/P > X/K/T, p = 0.003) were found. No statistically significant differences were detected when other groups were compared (X/K = X/K/P, p = 0.302; X/K = X/K/T, p = 0.294). Conclusions: Sedation with thiopental lead to significative ONS diameter reduction in comparison with propofol. ONSUS may be useful to evaluate responses to thiopental administration.