Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate and describe the effect of electrophysical resources laser therapy (LLLT), intravascular laser blood irradiation (ILIB), and cryotherapy on the healing process of neurotendinous injury, as well as possible systemic changes, in the experimental model of type 1 diabetes associated with kidney injury. Methods: The animals were randomized into four groups: G1) healthy control with untreated injury; G2) healthy control with injury and treatment; G3) disease control with untreated lesion; G4) disease with injury and treatment. Furthermore, the treated groups were divided into three, according to the type of treatment. All animals were induced to neurotendinous injury and treated according to the therapeutic protocols. Healing and inflammation were analyzed by semiquantitative histopathological study. Results: It was observed in sick animals treated with cryotherapy and ILIB reduction of inflammatory exudate, presence of fibroblasts and organization of collagen, when compared to the effects of LLLT. Moreover, there was reduction in glycemic levels in the group treated with ILIB. Conclusions: Cryotherapy promoted reduction in inflammatory exudate and organization of collagen fibers, in addition to the absence of signs of tissue necrosis, in the groups treated with and without the disease. ILIB therapy showed the same findings associated with significant reduction in glycemic levels in the group of diseased animals. The application of LLLT showed increased inflammatory exudate, low organization of collagen fibers and low sign of tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study in a model of associated diseases (diabetes and kidney disease) whose effects of electrophysical resources studied after neurotendinous injury allows us to verify histopathological variables suggestive of patients with the same comorbidities.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical effects of liver changes after mancozeb administration. Methods: Rats were divided into groups–the control group (n=7) and the mancozeb group (n=7)–, given 500 mg/kg mancozeb dissolved in corn oil daily for four weeks by an orogastric tube. Caspase-3 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) primary antibodies were used for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values of the mancozeb group increased significantly than ones of the control group. Venous dilatation, inflammation, hepatocyte degeneration, TNF-α, and caspase-3 expression scores increased significantly in the mancozeb group. In the mancozeb group, intensive caspase-3 expression was observed in hepatocyte cells around the central vein in the center of the liver lobule, and there was an increase in TNF-α expression in the inflammatory cells around the enlarged central vein and Kupffer cells and apoptotic hepatocyte cells. Conclusions: Subacute mancozeb exposure in rats leads to elevated toxicity with impaired liver function, increased inflammation in tissue and increased apoptosis due to cellular damage in the liver, and decreased liver regeneration ability due to congestion and degeneration of blood vessels.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate in-vivo degradation of two bioabsorbable interference screws. Methods: Twenty-two crossbred Santa Inês ewes were used. A poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA) screw (70%/30%) was inserted in the right pelvic limb, and a PDLLA screw (70%) + β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) (30%) in the left pelvic limb. Animals were euthanized at one, four, seven and a half and 18 months after surgery. Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), microCT, and histological analysis were accomplished. Results: PDLLA screw was hypodense at all evaluation moments, but with progressive density increase along the central axis, whereas PDLLA/β-TCP was initially hyperdense and progressively lost this characteristic. No adverse reactions were observed on histological evaluation. Conclusions: The inclusion of β-TCP favors screw degradation since the PDLLA/β-TCP screws evidenced a more intense degradation process than the PDLLA screws at the last evaluation. PDLLA screws showed higher bone production, evident around the screw thread, inside the lateral perforations, and in the central canal, whereas the PDLLA/β-TCP screws presented less bone tissue at the implantation site.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-related lung injury in rats. Methods: Thirty-six rats were divided into control, CPB and PHC groups. The CPB model was established in CPB and PHC groups. In PHC group, 2-mg/kg PHC was added to the pre-filling solution for CPB modeling. At 30 min before CPB (T1), immediately after left hilar opening (T2) and end of experiment (T3), the hemodynamic indexes, blood gas indexes, serum inflammatory factors, lung wet-day ratio and water content and lung tissue oxidative stress indexes were determined. Results: At T2 and T3, compared with CPB group, in PHC group the heart rate and mean arterial pressure increased significantly, the oxygenation index increased significantly, the respiratory index decreased significantly, and the lung wet-day ratio and water content decreased significantly. At T3, compared with CPB group, in PHC groups the serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1β levels decreased significantly, the lung tissue superoxide dismutase level increased significantly, and the myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly. Conclusions: PHC treatment can alleviate the CPB-related lung injury in rats. The mechanisms may be related to its reducing inflammatory response and resisting oxidative stress.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare four commercially available hydrogel formulations in the healing of partial thickness burns experimentally induced in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were used, and after the burn wound induction they were divided into the following treatment groups: G1) NaCl 0.9%; G2) 1% silver sulfadiazine; G3) Debrigel™; G4) Safgel™; G5) Dersani™; G6) Solosite™. The animals were followed during seven, 14 and 30 days after the injury induction. Morphometric, macroscopic and microscopic evaluations were performed. Results: The treatment with Dersani™ induced better results during the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process (p<0.05). The animals treated with Safgel™ presented better scaring in the remodeling phase (p<0.05), and the treatment with Dersani™ and Solosite™ induced greater wound closure (p<0.05). Conclusions: The hydrogel-based dressings presented beneficial outcomes in the healing of burn wounds experimentally induced in rats due to their ability in maintain the humidity of the wound, in removing the exudate, in promoting cell migration and collagen production during the different phases of the healing process.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To recognize the effects of valproic acid (VPA), an epigenetic drug, on the skin healing process. Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the experiment treated with VPA (100 mg/kg/day); and the control, with 0.9% sodium chloride by gavage. Skin healing was studied in three moments (the third, the seventh, and the 14th day), evaluating the parameters: inflammatory reaction and its intensity (anti-LCA), angiogenesis (anti-CD34), collagen I and III (anti-collagen I, anti-collagen III and Picrosirius-red F3BA) and myofibroblasts (anti-alpha-AMS). Results: The inflammatory reaction was acute or sub-acute in both groups on the third day. On the seventh and the 14th day, chronic predominated in the control (p=0.006), and sub-acute in the experiment (p=0.020). There was a greater number of leukocytes in the group treated only on the third day (p=0.036). The number of vessels was lower in the treated group at the three times (p3=0.002, p7<0.001, and p14=0.027). Myofibroblasts were rare in the third day and moderate quantity in the remaining periods. Collagen I density was higher in the control at the three times (p<0.001) and collagen III in the treated group (p<0.001). Conclusions: VPA led to a more intense inflammatory reaction, decreased angiogenesis and collagen deposition, especially type I collagen.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury refers to a pathological condition of treatment of myocardial infarction. Oxidative stress and inflammation are believed to be important mechanisms mediating MI/R injury. Kukoamine A (KuA), a sperm, is the main bioactive component extracted from the bark of goji berries. In this study, we wanted to investigate the possible effects of KuA on MI/R injury. Methods: In this experiment, all rats were divided into sham operation group, MI/R group, KuA 10 mg + MI/R group, KuA 20 mg + MI/R group. After 120 min of ischemia/reperfusion treatment, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), maximal rates of rising and fall of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax), and ischemic area were detected. Serum samples of rats in each group were collected. The enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), CK muscle/brain (CK-MB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The apoptosis of myocardium in each group was detected according to the instructions of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expressions of mammalian target of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSH-3β) and protein kinase B (Akt) mRNA level in myocardial tissues were detected via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: MI/R rats showed a significant increase in oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, we showed that KuA significantly improved the myocardial function such as LVSP, left ventricular ejection fraction, +dp/dt, and -dp/dt. Here, it attenuated dose-dependent histological damage in ischemia-reperfused myocardium, which is associated with the enzyme activities of SOD, GSH-PX, and levels of MDA, IL-6, TNF-α, L-1β. Conclusions: KuA inhibited gene expression of Akt/GSK-3β, inflammation, oxidative stress and improved MR/I injury. Taken together, our results allowed us to better understand the pharmacological activity of KuA against MR/I injury.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore the effect of different gastrointestinal reconstruction techniques on laparoscopic distal gastrectomy of gastric cancer on the nutritional and anemia status, and quality of life (QoL) of patients. Methods: Eligible patients were randomly divided into three groups (n=36/group): Billroth I anastomosis group, Billroth II combined with Braun anastomosis group, and Roux-en-Y anastomosis group. Related indicators were compared and analyzed. Results: The general data were comparable among the three groups (all P>0.05). Among the surgical-related indicators and postoperative recovery indicators, only the comparison of the operation time was statistically significant (P=0.004). The follow-up time was 5~36 months (average 27.9 months). In terms of nutritional and anemia indicators, only the differences in the levels of prealbumin, hemoglobin and serum ferritin in 24 months after operation showed significant differences (P=0.015, P=0.003, P=0.005, respectively). There were no significant differences in hospital readmission rate, overall survival, and QoL among the three groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: In laparoscopic gastrectomy for stage II~III distal gastric cancer, Billroth I anastomosis has shorter operation time than Billroth II combined with Braun anastomosis and Roux-en-Y anastomosis and advantages in the improvement of nutritional status and anemia recovery.