Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Joint hypermobility is defined as a wide range of movements beyond the physiological limits, it has been recognized in healthy people, gymnasts, acrobats, and carriers of genetic affections of connective tissue. A survey among young adults was conducted to describe the frequency of joint hypermobility, estimating its impact on function and quality of life. Methods: Volunteer university students aged 18 to 25 years old who answered a valid 5-item questionnaire about hypermobility, a physical activity questionnaire, and the Brazilian version of the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36) were included. Hypermobility was also assessed by a guided self-examination, with Beighton's criteria being scored and scores greater than or equal to 4 or less than 4 being discriminated. Results: A total of 388 subjects were included, of which 299 were women (77.06%) and 89 were men (22.94%); the median age was 23 years old. Generalized joint hypermobility (Beighton score ≥ 4) was observed in 104 individuals (26.8%). Localized hypermobility (Beighton score 1-3) was observed in 135 (34.79%) individuals, where the hypermobility of the 5th finger was the most frequent in 165 (57.47%) individuals, followed by hypermobility of the thumb in 126 (32.56%) individuals, hypermobility of the elbows and knees each in 72 (18.6%) individuals, and hypermobility of the spine in 69 (17.79%) individuals. The descriptive observation of physical activity indicated regular practice. The correlation coefficients between the SF-36 domains and hypermobility scores were very low and statistical comparison not significant. Conclusion: In this population of youngsters, predominantly women, localized hypermobility was more frequent than generalized hypermobility; however, with low impact on health domains and quality of life scores, estimated in each domain of the SF-36, the physical and mental component scores, and the time dedicated to physical activity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: The Hip Outcome Score (HOS) was developed to evaluate physically active patients with hip disease but without severe degenerative change. A translation and cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese was previously conducted. The aim of this study was to validate the Brazilian version of the HOS (HOS-Brazil) among a group of physically active patients with a diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS). Methods: The following questionnaires were applied: the HOS-Brazil; the validated Brazilian versions of the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). The psychometric properties analyzed with regard to the validation process were reliability and validity. Internal consistency and intra-rater test- retest reliabilities were analyzed using Cronbach's alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistical tests based on test-retest agreement. Construct and content validities were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Content validity was also analyzed based on evidence of floor, ceiling, or both types of effects from the questionnaires. Results: A total of 70 male and female patients were selected, aged between 19 and 70 years old. The internal consistency and intra-rater test-retest reliability values were high (Cronbach's a > 0.9; ICC > 0.9). The questionnaire showed acceptable convergent (r > 0.7) and divergent (r < 0.4) validities. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Conclusion: The HOS-Brazil was validated. Additional studies are underway to evaluate its responsiveness.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Primary Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a multifactorial disease that has an important genetic component, and several genes have been associated with its development. The vitamin D receptor has a role in skeletal metabolism that suggests a relationship with OA. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms in Mexican Mestizo patients. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in which 107 cases with primary OA of the knee and 114 controls were included. Cases were patients > 40 years of age with a Body mass index (BMI) of ≤27 and a radiological score for OA of the knee of ≥2. Controls were subjects > 40 years of age with a radiological score of < 2. VDR polymorphisms rs1544410, rs7975232, and rs731236 were analyzed by means of restriction endonucleases, and logistic regression was developed to evaluate risk magnitude. Results: A significantly increased risk was found of nearly two-fold for the allele T and TT genotypes of rs731236, independently of other well recognized risk factors. Conclusions: The rs731236 polymorphism is associated with the risk of primary OA of the knee in Mexican Mestizo population.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders symptoms and signs and the bite force in pediatric patients with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain syndrome and to compare to healthy control individuals paired by gender and age. Methods: Forty consecutive patients (32 girls) from our outpatient pediatric rheumatology pain clinic with diagnosis of idiopathic musculoskeletal pain syndrome were included in this study. Twenty healthy subjects (16 girls) were considered the control group. All individuals were interviewed according to a standardized questionnaire concerning the presence of orofacial pain and functional impairment, and were submitted to a clinical evaluation following a structured protocol. After that the bite force was measured. Results: Twelve patients met the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia, and 28 presented the diagnosis of pain amplification syndrome. The mean age of patients was 13.1 years (range, 6-18 years) and of controls was 12. 8 years (range, 6-18 years) with no significant difference. Orofacial symptoms occurred in 25 patients (62.5%) and in 3 controls (15%) (p = 0.0014). Sixteen (40%) patients and four (20%) controls presented pain during mandibular function with no significant difference. Although both pain groups presented separately more frequently orofacial symptoms and pain on palpation than the controls, maximal voluntary bite force was similar between patients and controls, between both patient groups and between the two pain groups and controls. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that temporomandibular disorders symptoms were more prevalent in patients with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain syndrome than in healthy controls. However the bite force was not different among the groups.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Low back pain is a significant health problem condition due to high prevalence among the general population. Emotions and physical factors are believed to play a role in chronic low back pain. Kinesiophobia is one of the most extreme forms of fear of pain due to movement or re-injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between kinesiophobia and pain intensity, disability and quality of life in people with chronic low back pain. Methods: The study included 132 individuals with chronic back pain, with ages between 18 and 65 years old. Kinesiophobia was assessed using the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, pain intensity was measured using the Numeric Rating Scale with a cut-off more than 3 for inclusion in the study, disability was assessed using the Roland Morris questionnaire, quality of pain was assessed using the McGill questionnaire, and quality of life was assessed using the Quality of Life questionnaire SF-36. Results: The results are statistically significant, but with weak associations were found between kinesiophobia and pain intensity (r = 0.187), quality of pain (sensory, r =0.266; affective, r = −0.174; and total r =0.275), disability (r =0.399) and physical quality of life (emotional r = −0.414). Conclusion: Kinesiophobia is an important outcome to assess in patients with chronic low back pain. The results suggest that correlations between kinesiophobia and disability and quality of life are statistically significant.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: There are few data on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and management of RA in Brazil, even with the recognition of the high direct, indirect and societal costs of this disease. Herein, we report the formation of the REAL - Rheumatoid Arthritis in Real Life, the first nationally representative multicenter prospective observational study in Brazil. Methods: The REAL study was designed to include a total of 1300 evaluable patients from 13 tertiary care public health centers specialized in RA management and representative of 5 regions of Brazil. Each center was expected to enroll ~ 100 consecutively seen patients and follow them prospectively in a systematic protocol-driven fashion with scheduled visits at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Core clinical, laboratory and patient-reported outcomes measures were required to be collected at each visit. Results: A total of 1115 patients (89.4% female, mean age of 56.7 years and median disease duration of 12.7 years) were enrolled from 11 participating centers. Almost 80% of patients were of middle-low or low socioeconomic classes. The median educational time was 8 years, with 3.23% being below literacy level. The interval between symptoms and diagnosis varied from 1 to 457 months (median 12 months). Almost half of the patients were on glucocorticoids, 96.5% on DMARDs, with 35.7% on biologics. Median HAQ-DI was 0.875, ranging from 0 to 3. Median DAS28-ESR was 3.5, with 58.7% of patients presenting moderate or high disease activity. Conclusions: The first large cohort of Brazilian patients with RA in a real-life setting shows several striking differences from previously published cohorts from other countries. The long delay for diagnosis and start of DMARDs may partly explain the high frequency of erosive disease. An elevated percentage of patients on moderate or high disease activity was seen, despite of the high frequency of corticosteroid and biologics utilization. Data from this cohort may enable public health managers of developing countries better allocate the limited resources available for the care of RA patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Little has been published about the epidemiology of Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in South America, especially in the intertropical zone, and no epidemiological data from Brazil are available. The purpose of the present study was to draw a clinical and demographic profile of GPA patients living in Northeastern Brazil based on laboratory, histological and imaging findings, and evaluate the frequency of organic involvement. Methods: Clinical, epidemiological and treatment data of GPA patients were collected retrospectively and compared with the literature. Results: The cohort included 25 GPA patients (84% female) aged 45.8 ± 16.1 years. Renal and ear-nose-throat (ENT) manifestations were the most common (both 64%). One third (32%) of the patients had 24-h proteinuria > 1 g, 50% had creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min at the time of diagnosis, and 33% had recurrent kidney damage during disease progress. The affected organs included lungs (60%), joints (44%), skin (32%), peripheral nervous system (28%), eyes (28%) and heart (16%). ENT involvement (n = 16/64%) was less frequent in our region than in São Paulo (n = 115/85.8%). Renal (n = 16/64%) and pulmonary (n = 15/60%) involvement was less frequent in our region than in the U.K. (renal n = 30/90%; pulmonary n = 28/84.8%). Conclusion: Most of our patients were female, presented the generalized form and were diagnosed late. The frequency of the main clinical manifestations (ENT, renal and pulmonary) was lower than that observed at higher latitudes, suggesting the existence of a Northeast Brazilian clinical and epidemiological profile and adding to our knowledge of this rare condition.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) affects wrist and hand joints leading to decrease hand function and patients’ daily living activities. The assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) in children and adolescents with JIA is of major importance, and the association of HGS with JIA disease activity, disability and quality of life has not been explored. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate hand grip strength (HGS) in children and adolescents with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) compared to matched healthy peers. The secondary objective was to explore the relationship between HGS and JIA disease activity, disability, and quality of life. Methods: This study involved 23 patients with JIA and 46 age and sex matched healthy controls. Hand held dynamometer was used to evaluate HGS for all study participants. Anthropometric parameters for all study participants were measured. Disease activity, physical function, and quality of life were assessed for the JIA group using juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS-27), juvenile arthritis functionality scale (JAFS), and pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL) respectively. Laboratory marker of inflammation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and plain radiography of hands were performed for all patients. Results: Hand grip strength of children and adolescents with JIA was significantly weaker compared to matched controls (p < 0.001). Hand grip strength had a significant inverse correlation with JADAS-27 (r = −0.467, p = 0.025), JAFS (r = −0.650, p = 0.001) and a significant direct correlation with PedsQL (r =0.438, p = 0.036). In addition, HGS was negatively correlated with ESR and duration of morning stiffness (r = −0.489, p = 0.018 and r = −0.201, p = 0.359, respectively). HGS was detected as an independent predictor of disease activity, disability, and quality of life in JIA patients in multivariate linear regression. Conclusions: Assessment of HGS could be a simple non-invasive tool for assessing disease activity, disability and quality of life in JIA patients in clinical practice.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) share many clinical manifestations and laboratory findings, therefore, concomitant diagnosis of SLE and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be challenging. Methods: Prospective cohort with 602 patients with SLE who attended the Rheumatology Clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre since 2000. All patients were followed until 01 May 2015 or until death, if earlier. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected. Results: Out of the 602 patients, 11 presented with the diagnosis of AIDS (1.59%). The following variables were significantly more prevalent in patients with concomitant HIV and SLE: neuropsychiatric lupus (10.9% vs. 36.4%; p = 0.028) and smoking (37.6% vs. 80%; p = 0.0009) while malar rash was significantly less prevalent in this population (56% vs. 18.2%; p = 0.015). Nephritis (40.5% vs. 63.6%; p = 0.134) and hemolytic anemia (28.6% vs. 54.5%; p = 0.089) were more prevalent in SLE patients with HIV, but with no statistical significance compared with SLE patients without HIV. The SLICC damage index median in the last medical consultation was significantly higher in SLE patients with HIV (1 vs. 2; p = 0,047). Conclusions: Our patients with concomitant HIV and SLE have clinically more neuropsychiatric manifestations. For the first time, according to our knowledge, higher cumulative damage was described in lupus patients with concomitant HIV infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, its outcomes, prognosis and which therapeutic approach it's best for each case.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Fibromyalgia is a common chronic disease characterized by persistent diffuse pain, fatigue, sleep disorders and functional symptoms. The disease can have negative consequences in personal and social life, in addition to significant public health expenses caused by treatment and work leave. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the number of social security benefits granted due to incapacity for work in Brazil in patients with ICD M79 and variants in the period 2006-2015. There has been no previous study with data referring to work withdrawals caused by fibromyalgia in Brazil. Methods: Data for this study were obtained through an official Social Security platform. The disability and retirement benefits were analyzed. Results: A total of 95,882 social security disability benefits were granted to ICD M79 and variants in the period from 2006 to 2015. Regarding gender, 69,420 benefits (72.3%) were granted to women and 26,562 (27.7%) to men. Regarding the types of benefits, we found 93,556 (97.5%) temporary withdrawals from work and 2426 (2.5%) permanent withdrawals. When comparing the initial and final years, we observed a significant reduction in the number of awards: 15,562 in 2006 to 6163 in 2015. Conclusion: Fibromyalgia was an important cause of withdrawal due to incapacity for work in Brazil, with consequent public health expenditure. These data may serve as a basis for new studies and can alert professionals of the need for adequate management of fibromyalgia to reduce work withdrawal and its consequences.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects the working-age population and may cause key functional and work limitations. As the disease progresses, individuals become increasingly unable to conduct daily activities, which has a substantial personal and socioeconomic impact. Fairly recent prior studies showed that patients with RA stop working 20 years earlier than age-matched controls. Factors related to sociodemographic, clinical, care and disease profiles might affect the loss of work capacity. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with the prevalence of working patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the municipality of Blumenau. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted between July 2014 and January 2015, with 296 individuals aged 20 years or older, male and female, living in Blumenau, Santa Catarina state, Brazil, and diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria. The prevalence of working patients with RA was assessed by employment status self-reporting during the interview. The chi-squared test, Wald test and Poisson regression analysis were used to test the possible associations between the independent variables and outcome. Results: The prevalence of working patients with rheumatoid arthritis was 44.3%. Patients aged 20 to 59 years had a 90% higher prevalence of outcome than subjects aged 60 years or older. The prevalence of working patients was 132% and 73% higher among individuals with low income and high functional disability, measured using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of working RA patients was highest among adult patients with low income and high functional disability. The first variable is directly related to the individual characteristic, the second reflects the socioeconomic context of the patient, and the third reflects the degree of disability caused by the disease, which may be modifiable by health professionals.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Previous studies discussed the repeatability and variability in plantar pressure measurement, but a few considered different age groups. Here we determine within and between-days repeatability and variability of plantar pressure measurement during gait in participants from different age groups. Method: Plantar pressure was recorded in children, young adults and older adults walking at preferred speed in four non-consecutive days within one week. Data from 10 steps from each foot in each day were analyzed considering the different regions of the foot. Mean and peak plantar pressure and data variability were compared between the steps, foot regions and days. Results: To describe mean and peak pressure during gait in children and adults a single measurement can be enough, but elderly will requires more attention especially concerning peak values. Variability in mean pressure did not differ between age groups, but peak pressure variability differed across foot regions and age groups. Conclusion: One single observation can be used to describe plantar pressure during gait in children and adults. When the interest concerns older people, it might be pertinent to consider more than one day of assessment, especially when looking at peak pressure.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis patients may have an increased risk of falls due to changes caused by the disease such as muscle weakness, joint impairment, reduced mobility and postural instability. The aim of this study was to prospectively analyze the occurrence of falls in RA patients and its risk factors. Methods: A cohort of 86 RA patients were assessed over 1 year for disease activity using the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28), for functionality using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), for the characterization of falls and for the use of medications, and they were subjected to the Berg Balance Scale (Berg), Timed Up and Go (TUG), 6-Minute Walk (6MWT) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) tests. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Spearman's correlation, Student's t, Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were performed with a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 86 patients were evaluated, of which 48.8% had at least one fall and 75.6% reported having a fear of falling. No association of falls with age, disease duration, functional capacity, disease activity or physical performance was found. Patients with poorer performance in the physical tests had more functional impairment, higher disease activity and more advanced age. No differences in physical or functional performance, disease activity, gender or fear of falling were found between fallers and non-fallers; only a greater amount of medications used was found in the group of fallers. Conclusions: The occurrence of falls was high and associated with a previous history of falls and polypharmacy, with no association with disease activity or duration, functional capacity, physical performance, age or gender.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Until now, there are few studies evaluating serum levels of angiogenic cytokines in dermatomyositis (DM). Therefore, the aims of the present study were: (a) to analyze systematically and simultaneously serum levels of angiogenin (ANG), angiopoietin (ANGPT)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)- 1 and - 2, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA and -BB in DM; (b) to correlate the serum level of these cytokines with the DM clinical and laboratory features. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, in which 48 patients with DM aged 18 to 45 years were gender-, age- and ethnicity-matched with 48 healthy individuals (control group). The serum levels of cytokines analyses were performed by multiplex immunoassay. The parameters of DM activity were based on the scores established by the International Myositis Assessment & Clinical Studies Group. Results: The mean ages, gender frequencies and ethnicities were comparable between the patients with DM and the control group. A significantly higher serum FGF-1 and FGF-2 levels (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), lower VEGF and PDGF-AA levels (P = 0.009 and P = 0.022), and comparable ANG, ANGPT-1 and PDGF-BB levels were observed in DM patients compared to controls. There was a tendency for cytokines (with the exceptions of VEGF and PDGF-BB) to correlate positively with the DM activity parameters, whereas FGF-2 correlated inversely. Moreover, FGF-1 strongly correlated with DM cutaneous manifestations. Conclusions: The present data provide the relevance of different serum angiogenic cytokines in patients with DM. Additional studies will be needed to validate the data obtained in this work.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints, especially of the hands. The evaluation of handgrip strength (HS) and pinch strength can be useful to detect reduction in hand function in RA patients. The aim of the study was to compare HS and pinch strength between RA patients (RA Group - RAG) and a non-RA control group (CG) and to relate HS and pinch strength to functional capacity, duration and disease activity in the RAG. Methods: A cross-sectional case control study. The RAG was assessed for disease activity by the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28); for functional capacity by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the Cochin Hand Functional Scale (CHFS) questionnaire, and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire; and for HS and pinch strength (2-point tip-to-tip, lateral or key, and 3-point) using Jamar® and pinch gauge dynamometers, respectively. Associations were analyzed by Pearson and Spearman tests, and groups were compared by the independent samples t test, with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The convenience sample included 121 rheumatoid patients and a control group matched by age, sex, and body mass index. The RAG showed lower strength values compared with the CG in all measurements (P < 0.01, 95% CI) and these values were associated with worse performance in the functional questionnaires and greater disease activity and duration. There was a strong correlation among the functional assessment instruments. Conclusions: The decrease in grip and pinch strength, easily measured by portable dynamometers, is a strong indicator of functional disability in RA patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain associated to other symptoms, such as: fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. Health education programs (HEP) have emerged as good non-pharmacological strategies to treat it. However, it is still not clear if the benefits are only subjective, or it has also objective impacts on immune and or neuroendocrine systems. Methods: Fifty-eight fibromyalgia women were randomly allocated in experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 31). The experimental group was submitted to HEP treatment for 11 weeks, while control group did not receive intervention at the same period. All data were collected at zero and 11th week by a blinded researcher. The statistical analysis were made in GraphPad Prism software (version 5.0) with significant level adjusted for α = 0.05. Results: Forty-four patients concluded the full study, 21 in the experimental group and 23 in the control group. Intragroup and intergroup analysis revealed that treatment induced significant increases of IL-4 plasma levels, antiinflammatory cytokine/inflammatory cytokine ratio (AC/IC ratio), salivary cortisol levels, in addition to significant decreases on FIQ scores. Intergroup variation analyses revealed also significant increases of IL-10 plasma levels. Conclusion: The results presented suggest that this kind of HEP could induce subjective and objective changes (immune and neuroendocrine), that could explain, at least in part the improvement of fibromyalgia patient's health status. (Clinical Trial Registration Number - ReBEC - RBR-5tdnbr).
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Infliximab infusion generally occurs in 2–4 h. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of accelerated infusion (1 h) of this drug. Objective: To evaluate the safety of accelerated infliximab infusion in patients with rheumatic diseases. In addition, patient satisfaction was also assessed. Methods: A prospective, single-center, non-randomized study with 34 patients with rheumatic diseases was conducted from July to November 2016. Patients with the following were excluded: history of allergic reaction to biologics, asthma or severe atopy. All patients previously received a 2- to 3-h infliximab infusion. The infusion rate was accelerated to 1 h, and premedication was excluded. The infusion was monitored in all patients. Results: A total of 34 patients were included in the study [rheumatoid arthritis (n = 16), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 15), psoriatic arthritis (n = 2) and enteropathic arthropathy (n = 1)], with an average age of 48.7 ± 18.6 years; 55.5% of the patients were female, and 29.4% were white. The duration of disease was 9.5 ± 9.2 years, and the duration of infliximab use was 38.9 ± 27.6 months, with a mean dose per infusion of 414.2 ± 158.1 (range, 200–800) mg. The mean infliximab infusion time prior to the study was 2.2 ± 0.4 h. A total of 6 (17.6%) patients received premedication. The premedication was suspended. There were no adverse effects during or after infusion. Ninety-seven percent of the patients and 100% of the health workers were satisfied with the accelerated infusion. Conclusion: Our data support the safe use of accelerated infliximab infusion in rheumatic patients, with high satisfaction among patients and health workers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are responsible for endothelial damage repair. Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects large vessels. The aim of the study was to evaluate the number of EPCs and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the relationship of these variables in patients with TA. Methods: Thirty women with TA and 30 healthy controls were included. EPCs were assessed by flow cytometry and cell culture and VEGF quantification was performed by commercial ELISA kits. Results: Ages of patients and controls were similar. The number of EPCs in patients and controls (median (interquartile range) were 0.0073% (0.0081%) vs. 0.0062% (0.0089%), p = 0.779 by flow cytometry and 27.0 (42.3) colony forming units (CFUs) vs. 27.0 (20.5) CFUs, p = 0.473 by cells culture, respectively. VEGF levels in patients and controls was 274.5 (395.5) pg/ml vs. 243.5 (255.3) pg/ml, p = 0.460. There was no difference in the number of EPCs and VEGF level between patients with active and inactive disease. There was a tendency of the number of angioblast-like EPCs in patients taking anti-TNFs to be higher; and in patients using methotrexate to be lower. Conclusion: No significant difference was found in the quantification of EPCs and VEGF levels in TA patients compared to controls, and no difference was observed between patients with active and inactive disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent rheumatic disease in the population and is characterized by limitation of main functional activities of daily living, as the gait. Muscle strength is a variable that may be related to performance in daily tasks. Therefore, we to analyze the gait pattern in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and to determine associations of gait variables with the level of muscle strength of knee extensors. Methods: Sixty-seven female volunteers divided into 2 groups, a KOA group (KOAG, n = 36, 66.69 ± 7.69 years) and control (n = 31, 63.68 ± 6.97 years), participated in the study. The volunteers walked on a 10-m platform at their usual gait speed, using 2 pressure sensors positioned at the base of the hallux and calcaneus. The mean step time, support and double support times, swing time and gait speed were calculated. The evaluation of the quadriceps isometric torque was performed in an extensor chair, with hip and knee flexion at 90°. The procedure consisted of three maximal contractions of knee extension. Peak torque was determined by the highest torque value obtained after the onset of muscle contraction. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation were used, with p < 0.05. Results: The KOAG had a 54.76% longer support time, a 13% longer step time (p < 0.001), a 30% decrease in swing time (p < 0.001) and a 10.7% decrease in gait speed (p = 0.001) compared with controls. The quadriceps isometric torque was 34% (p = 0.001) lower in the KOAG. There was a correlation between kinematic variables and quadriceps torque. Conclusion: Weakness of the quadriceps muscle in women with KOA influences gait pattern, resulting in reduced speed associated with a shorter swing time and longer support time.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Low back pain is particularly problematic among nursing professionals. Education is part of the rehabilitation process for low back pain and has been heavily studied. In parallel, gestural behaviors play an important role during the evaluation of the low back pain, especially while performing the activities of daily living. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gesture behavior and knowledge on LBP among nurses with and without LBP and correlate these factors with pain, physical functioning and quality of life. Methods: An observational, controlled, cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 female nurses: 60 with LBP and 60 without LBP. The two groups were matched for age. The measures used for the evaluation were the Gesture Behavior Test, LBP Knowledge Questionnaire, Numerical Pain Scale for LBP, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) to assess quality of life. Results: Mean age in both groups was 31 years. In the group with LBP, the mean Numerical Pain Scale score was 5.6 cm and the mean score on the Roland Morris questionnaire was 2.7. No statistically differences between groups were found regarding the scores of the LBP Knowledge Questionnaire or Gesture Behavior Test (p = 0.531 and p = 0.292, respectively). Statistically lower scores were found in the group with LBP for the following SF-36 domains: physical functioning (p <0.001),physical role (p = 0.015), pain (p = 0.001), general health perceptions (p = 0.015), vitality (p < 0.001) and mental health (p = 0.001). Conclusions: No differences were found when comparing nurses with or without LBP regarding gesture behavior or knowledge on LBP. Nurses with LBP showed a decrease in some domains of quality of life.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Association between periodontal disease and dyslipidemia was recently reported in healthy adults. However, a systematic evaluation of concomitant periodontal diseases and lipid profile was not carried out in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). A cross-section study was performed in 25 JDM patients and 25 healthy controls, assessing demographic data, periodontal evaluation, fasting lipoproteins and anti-lipoprotein lipase antibodies. Disease parameters, laboratorial tests and treatment were also evaluated in JDM patients. Results: The mean current age was similar in patients and controls (11.5 ± 3.75 vs. 11.2 ± 2.58 years, p = 0.703). Regarding lipid profile, the median triglycerides [80(31–340) vs. 61(19–182)mg/dL, p = 0.011] and VLDL[16(6–68) vs. 13(4–36)mg/dL,p = 0.020] were significantly higher in JDM patients versus controls. Gingival vasculopathy pattern was significantly higher in the former group (60% vs. 0%, p = 0.0001), as well as the median of gingival bleeding index (GBI) [24.1(4.2–69.4) vs. 11.1(0–66.6)%,p = 0.001] and probing pocket depth (PPD) [1.7(0.6–2.4) vs.1.4(0–2.12) mm,p = 0.006]. Comparison between JDM patients with and without dyslipidemia revealed that the median of dental plaque index (PI) [100(26.7–100) vs. 59(25–100)%,p = 0.022], PPD[1.9(0.6–2.4) vs. 1.4(1.2–1.8)mm,p = 0.024] and clinical attachment level (CAL) [1.31(0.7–1.7) vs. 0.8(0.6–1.7)mm,p = 0.005] were significantly higher in patients with dyslipidemia. Further analysis between JDM patients with and without gingivitis revealed that the median of current age [12.4 (8.3–18.4) vs. 9.2 (5.5–17.5) years, p = 0.034] and disease duration [7.09 ± 3.07 vs. 3.95 ± 2.1 years, p = 0.008] were significantly higher in the former group. Conclusion: Our study showed that gingival inflammation seems to be related to dyslipidemia in JDM patients, suggesting underlying mechanisms for both complications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Interpretation of rituximab efficacy for refractory idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) is hampered by the absence of a uniform definition of refractory myositis and clinical response. Therefore, rigorous criteria of refractoriness, together with a homogenous definition of clinical improvement, were used to evaluate rituximab one-year response. Methods: A retrospective cohort study including 43 IIM (15 antisynthetase syndrome, 16 dermatomyositis, 12 polymyositis) was conducted. All patients had refractory disease (inadequate response to at least two immunosuppressives/immunomodulatories and no less than three months sequentially or concomitantly glucocorticoid tapering) criteria. Clinical/laboratory improvement at one-year was based on modified International Myositis Assessment & Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) core set measures. The patients received two infusions of rituximab (1 g each) at baseline, followed by repeated dose after 6 months. Baseline immunosuppressive therapy was maintained and glucocorticoid dose was tapered according to clinical/laboratory parameters. Results: Five patients had side effects at the first rituximab application and were excluded. Therefore, 38 out of 43 patients completed the one-year follow up. Almost 75% of the patients attained clinical and laboratory response after one-year. A significant reduction in median glucocorticoid dose (18.8 vs. 6.3 mg/day) was achieved and 42% patients were able to discontinue prednisone. In contrast, young individuals and patients with dysphagia had a tendency to be non-responders to rituximab. No severe infections were observed. Conclusion: This study provides convincing evidence that rituximab is an effective and safe therapy for refractory IIM.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Cardiac and vascular involvement in Behçet disease (BD), also referred as vasculo BD, is frequent. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics, predictive factors and management of vasculo BD in the Tunisian context. Methods: We retrospectively studied 213 records of all BD patients followed between January 2004 and May 2016 in the Internal Medicine Department and who fulfilled the ISGBD criteria. We described first clinical features of BD with cardiac and vascular involvement then predictive factors were studied in univariate then multivariate analysis. Results: Among the 213 patients, 64 (30%) were diagnosed as having vasculo BD. The mean age at diagnosis was 31.5 years. About 81.25% of them were males and 18.75% females. Vascular involvement associated or not with cardiac involvement was found in 64 patients (30%). Deep venous thromboses are most common (62.5%) compared with superficial ones (23.4%), pulmonary arterial thrombosis (14.1%) or aneurysms (9.4%). Cardiac involvement is ranging from pericarditis (1.6%) to intra cardiac thrombosis (3.1%) and myocardial infarction (1.6%). Predictive factors associated with cardiac and vascular involvement in BD are male gender (OR = 3.043, 95% CI = 1.436–6.447, p = 0.004), erythema nodosum (OR = 4.134, 95% CI = 1.541–11.091, p = 0.005) and neurologic involvement (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.02–5.89, p = 0.043). Conclusion: Cardiac and vascular involvement in BD is frequent in the Tunisian context with a broad spectrum of manifestations ranging from vascular involvement to cardiac one. Male gender, patients with erythema nodosum or neurologic involvement are prone to develop cardiac or vascular features of BD needing therefore a close monitoring.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: In psoriatic arthritis (PsA) almost all qualitative studies have been performed in European populations. This work aimed to evaluate the impact of PsA in Brazilian and French subjects, as well as to explore cultural differences in the experience of disease and to recognize domains important for patients living with PsA outside Europe. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in two university hospitals in Brazil and France; outpatients fulfilling Classification Criteria for PsA participated in individual interviews regarding the impact of PsA; interviews were conducted in the local language. The sample size was defined by saturation; interviews were recorded and transcribed and content analysis was performed. Results: Fifteen patients were interviewed in Brazil and 13 in France. Mean disease duration was 16.5 ± 12.5 years (range: 8 months to 47 years) and 14.4 ± 8.4 years (range 12 months to 29 years) for Brazilian and French subjects, respectively. A broad impact was perceived: 67 codes emerged from the interviews and were grouped in 41 categories. Although 2/3 of categories were common to both nationalities, some important health domains from the perspective of PsA patients from a non-European background were brought to light including sexual dysfunction, emotional impact of psoriasis and impact of prejudice on social and professional life. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of assessing the impact of PsA on a national level, emphasizing the common cross-cultural aspects but also revealing domains of interest for patients with PsA living outside Europe which merit further study.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Currently, there are only few studies (mostly case reports or case series) on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in patients with systemic autoimmune myopathies (SAM). Therefore, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MMF (monotherapy or coadjuvant drug) in a specific sample of patients with refractory SAM: dermatomyositis, polymyositis, anti-synthetase syndrome or clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis. Methods: A case series including 20 consecutive adult patients with refractory SAM from 2010 to 2016 was conducted. After the introduction of MMF, associated or not with other drugs, the patients were followed for 6 consecutive months. Results: In 17 out of 20 patients MMF was introduced without any intolerance. The clinical symptoms evaluated in these patients were muscular, cutaneous and/or pulmonary activity. During the 6-month follow-up, 11 out of 17 patients had clinical and laboratory activities response with MMF, allowing significant tapering of the prednisone median dose (15 vs. 5 mg/day, P=0.005). On the other hand, in three out of 20 patients; MMF was discontinued in less than two months, because of gastrointestinal intolerance. There were no cases of serious infection or death. Conclusions: MMF was relatively well-tolerated, safe and effective in patients with refractory SAM. Further studies are needed to confirm the data found.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by peripheral and symmetrical polyarthritis. It can be divided into Very Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (VERA) diagnosed up to 3 months of symptoms and late onset (Late Early Rheumatoid Arthritis – LERA), diagnosed between 3 and 12 months. Currently, it is recommended to evaluate the patient with joint symptoms as early as possible, and the first 12 weeks of manifestations represent the ideal phase for the diagnosis, favoring a better evolution of the treatment. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, mean time of diagnosis and to determine possible associated factors in the municipality of Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study using the 1987 American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria to select patients attended at primary or secondary health care units in Blumenau, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in 2014. Diagnostic time was verified by self-report of the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis made by a rheumatologist. To test the associations, the chi-square test, the Wald linear trend test and the Poisson regression analysis were used. Results: The mean time of diagnosis was 28 months. The prevalence of diagnosis up to 3 and 12 months was 27. 7% and 64.8%, respectively. Obesity was associated with time diagnosis in both periods. The 0–4 years category of the variable education was associated only with the period up to 12 months. Conclusion: The mean time of diagnosis was similar to the national context. Among socioeconomic factors, lower education was associated with the diagnosis of late onset RA. The anthropometric variable presented a progressive increase in the prevalence due to the longer time to diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Different inflammatory cells (i.e., CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD68) are involved in pathogenesis of DM muscle. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess and compare these inflammatory cell phenotyping in muscle samples of treatment naive juvenile and adult patients with dermatomyositis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, in which 28 untreated juvenile and 28 adult untreated dermatomyositis patients were included. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on serial frozen muscle sections. Inflammatory cell phenotyping was analyzed quantitatively in endomysium, perimysium, and perivascular (endomysium and perimysium) area. Results: Mean age at disease onset was 7.3 and 42.0 years in juvenile and adult dermatomyositis, respectively. Both groups had comparable time duration from symptom's onset to biopsy performance. CD4 and CD8 positive cells distributions were similar in both groups in all analyzed area, except for more predominance of CD4 in perimysium at juvenile muscle biopsies. The CD20 and CD68 positive cells were predominantly observed in adult muscle biopsy sections, when compared to juvenile samples, except for similar distribution of CD20 in perivascular endomysium, and CD68 in perimysium. Conclusions: These data show that the differences between juvenile and adult dermatomyositis may be restricted not only to patients' age, but also to different inflammatory cell distribution, particularly, in new-onset disease. Further studies are necessary to confirm the present study data and to analyze meaning of the different inflammatory cell phenotyping distribution finding in these both diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To characterize scrotal involvement in children and adolescents with IgA vasculitis. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study included 296 IgA vasculitis (EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria) patients, 150/296 (51%) were males and assessed by demographic/clinical/laboratory and treatments. Scrotal involvement was defined by the presence of scrotal edema and/or pain/tenderness in physical examination and/or testicular Doppler ultrasound abnormalities. Results: Scrotal involvement was observed in 28/150 (19%) IgA vasculitis patients. This complication was evidenced at IgA vasculitis diagnosis in 27/28 (96%). Acute recurrent scrotal involvement was observed in 2/150 (1%) and none had chronic subtype. Further analysis of patients with scrotal involvement at first episode (n = 27) compared to those without this complication (n = 122) revealed that the median age at diagnosis [4.0 (2.0–12) vs. 6 (1.3–13) years, p = 0.249] was similar in both groups. The frequency of elevated serum IgA was significantly lower in IgA vasculitis patients with scrotal involvement versus without this manifestation (18% vs. 57%, p = 0.017), whereas glucocorticoid (93% vs. 49%, p < 0.0001) and ranitidine use (63% vs. 30%, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in the former group. Conclusions: The scrotal involvement occurred in almost one fifth of IgA vasculitis patients and was commonly evidenced as acute subtype at diagnosis. Scrotal signs/symptoms improved after a prompt use of glucocorticoid and was associated with low frequency of elevated IgA serum levels.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To evaluate prevalence, clinical manifestations, laboratory abnormalities and treatment in a multicenter cohort study including 847 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) patients with and without diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), as well as concomitant parameters of severity. Methods: DAH was defined as the presence of at least three respiratory symptoms/signs associated with diffuse interstitial/alveolar infiltrates on chest x-ray or high-resolution computer tomography and sudden drop in hemoglobin levels. Statistical analysis was performed using Bonferroni correction (p < 0.0022). Results: DAH was observed in 19/847 (2.2%) cSLE patients. Cough/dyspnea/tachycardia/hypoxemia occurred in all cSLE patients with DAH. Concomitant parameters of severity observed were: mechanical ventilation in 14/19 (74%), hemoptysis 12/19 (63%), macrophage activation syndrome 2/19 (10%) and death 9/19 (47%). Further analysis of cSLE patients at DAH diagnosis compared to 76 cSLE control patients without DAH with same disease duration [3 (1–151) vs. 4 (1–151) months, p = 0.335], showed higher frequencies of constitutional involvement (74% vs. 10%, p < 0.0001), serositis (63% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001) and sepsis (53% vs. 9%, p < 0.0001) in the DAH group. The median of disease activity score(SLEDAI-2 K) was significantly higher in cSLE patients with DAH [18 (5–40) vs. 6 (0–44), p < 0.0001]. The frequencies of thrombocytopenia (53% vs. 12%, p < 0.0001), intravenous methylprednisolone (95% vs. 16%, p < 0.0001) and intravenous cyclophosphamide (47% vs. 8%, p < 0.0001) were also significantly higher in DAH patients. Conclusions: This was the first study to demonstrate that DAH, although not a disease activity score descriptor, occurred in the context of significant moderate/severe cSLE flare. Importantly, we identified that this condition was associated with serious disease flare complicated by sepsis with high mortality rate.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic factors associated with disease remission and drug survival in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) on TNF inhibitors. Methods: Data from a longitudinal electronic database of AS patients under anti-TNF therapy between June/2004 and August/2013. Demographic, clinical parameters, disease activity by ASDAS remission (< 1.3) and inactive/low (< 2.1) were analyzed to characterize reasons for drug survival and switching of anti-TNF. Results: Among 117 AS patients, 69 (59%) were prescribed only one anti-TNF, 48 (41%) switched to a second anti-TNF and 13 (11%) to a third anti-TNF. Considering ASDAS-CRP < 1.3, 31 (39%) patients were inactive at the end of the study. Non-switchers (P = 0.04), younger age (P = 0.004), non-smoking (P = 0.016), shorter disease duration (P = 0.047), more frequent use of SSZ (P = 0.037) and lower BASDAI (P = 0.027), BASMI (P = 0.034) and BASFI (P = 0.003) at baseline were associated with remission. In the multivariate analysis younger age (P = 0.016) and lower BASDAI (P = 0.032) remained as remission predictors. Conclusion: This study supports that ASDAS-CRP remission is an achievable goal not only for non-switchers but also for second anti-TNF, particularly in patients with younger age and lower BASDAI at baseline. Comedication and non-smoker status seems to have a beneficial effect in anti-TNF response in this population.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of a new fixed dose combination of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate capsules (GS/CS) versus the fixed dose combination of glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate (Cosamin DS®) in capsules in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind study. Participants with knee OA Kellgren-Lawrence grades 1 to 3 and VAS of symptoms ≥4 cm were randomized to receive GS/CS or Cosamin DS® over 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the evaluation of the analgesic efficacy by the investigator. Secondary efficacy endpoints included: joint pain and swelling, investigator efficacy of the medication, and the use of rescue medication. Adverse events and drug tolerability were analyzed. Results: One hundred patients were randomized, and 50 patients were allocated to each group. The analgesic efficacy evaluated by the investigator in the GS/CS group was 88.9, 95%CI: 75.2, 95.8% and in the Cosamin DS® group was 85.4%; 95%CI: 70.1, 93.4%. The mean reduction in the pain intensity was significant in both groups (p < 0.001), with no difference between them. The primary efficacy analysis demonstrated the non-inferiority of the GS/CS group compared with the Cosamin DS® group; the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval (CI) between the two groups (− 8.39%) was higher than the established margin of non-inferiority of − 10.00%. Improvement in other efficacy outcomes was observed, again without differences between groups. Adverse events were similar between groups and both presented good tolerability. Conclusions: The new fixed-dose formulation of GS/CS is effective in treating knee OA, presenting a good safety and tolerability profile. Trial Registration: (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00955552?term=NCT00955552&rank=1; ClinicalTrials.gov; register number NCT00955552; First randomized patient: 08/17/2010).
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: It has long been established that obesity plays a positive role against osteoporosis (OP) and low-impact fractures (Fx). However, more recent data has shown higher fracture risk in obese individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BMI, particularly obesity, OP and low-impact Fx in Brazilian women, as well as to evaluate the SAPORI (Sao Paulo Osteoporosis Risk Index) tool performance to identify low BMD according BMI category. Methods: A total of 6182 women aged over 40 years were included in this cross-sectional analysis using data from two large Brazilian studies. All participants performed hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and answered a detailed questionnaire about the presence of clinical risk factors (CRFs) related to low BMD and risk fractures. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to define obesity. Results: Age-adjusted osteoporosis prevalence was 20.8, 33.6, 47 and 67.1% in obese, overweight, normal and underweight category, respectively. Obesity was present in 29,6% (1.830 women) in the study population and the likelihood of osteoporosis and low-impact Fx compared to a normal BMI in this subgroup was of 0.24 (95% CI 0.20– 0.28; p < 0.001) and of 1.68 (95% CI 1.35–2.11; p < 0.001), respectively. However, the hip Fx likelihood was lower in obese compared with non-obese women (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.20–0.97). Using an originally validated cut-off, the SAPORI tool sensitivity was significantly hampered in overweight and obese women although the accuracy had remained suitable because of increasing in specificity. Conclusions: The osteoporosis prevalence reduced as BMI increased and obesity was associated with low-impact Fx, regardless of the BMD measurements. Moreover, the SAPORI performance was impaired in obese women.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To evaluate autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in a multicenter cohort of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) patients. Methods: This retrospective multicenter study included 847 patients with cSLE, performed in 10 Pediatric Rheumatology services of São Paulo state, Brazil. AIH was defined according to the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group criteria (IAHGC). The statistical analysis was performed using the Bonferroni's correction (p < 0.0033). Results: AIH in cSLE patients confirmed by biopsy was observed in 7/847 (0.8%) and all were diagnosed during adolescence. The majority occurred before or at cSLE diagnosis [5/7 (71%)]. Antinuclear antibodies were a universal finding, 43% had concomitantly anti-smooth muscle antibodies and all were seronegative for anti-liver kidney microsomal antibodies. All patients with follow-up ≥18 months (4/7) had complete response to therapy according to IAHGC. None had severe hepatic manifestations such as hepatic failure, portal hypertension and cirrhosis at presentation or follow-up. Further comparison of 7 cSLE patients with AIH and 28 without this complication with same disease duration [0 (0–8.5) vs. 0.12 (0–8.5) years, p = 0.06] revealed that the frequency of hepatomegaly was significantly higher in cSLE patients in the former group (71% vs. 11%, p = 0.003) with a similar median SLEDAI-2 K score [6 (0–26) vs. 7 (0–41), p = 0.755]. No differences were evidenced regarding constitutional involvement, splenomegaly, serositis, musculoskeletal, neuropsychiatric and renal involvements, and treatments in cSLE patients with and without AIH (p > 0.0033). Conclusions: Overlap of AIH and cSLE was rarely observed in this large multicenter study and hepatomegaly was the distinctive clinical feature of these patients. AIH occurred during adolescence, mainly at the first years of lupus and it was associated with mild liver manifestations.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this document is to provide a comprehensive update of the recommendations of Brazilian Society of Rheumatology on drug treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), based on a systematic literature review and on the opinion of a panel of rheumatologists. Four general principles and eleven recommendations were approved. General principles: RA treatment should (1) preferably consist of a multidisciplinary approach coordinated by a rheumatologist, (2) include counseling on lifestyle habits, strict control of comorbidities, and updates of the vaccination record, (3) be based on decisions shared by the patient and the physician after clarification about the disease and the available therapeutic options; (4) the goal is sustained clinical remission or, when this is not feasible, low disease activity. Recommendations: (1) the first line of treatment should be a csDMARD, started as soon as the diagnosis of RA is established; (2) methotrexate (MTX) is the first-choice csDMARD; (3) the combination of two or more csDMARDs, including MTX, may be used as the first line of treatment; (4) after failure of first-line therapy with MTX, the therapeutic strategies include combining MTX with another csDMARD (leflunomide), with two csDMARDs (hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine), or switching MTX for another csDMARD (leflunomide or sulfasalazine) alone; (5) after failure of two schemes with csDMARDs, a bDMARD may be preferably used or, alternatively a tsDMARD, preferably combined, in both cases, with a csDMARD; (6) the different bDMARDs in combination with MTX have similar efficacy, and therefore, the therapeutic choice should take into account the peculiarities of each drug in terms of safety and cost; (7) the combination of a bDMARD and MTX is preferred over the use of a bDMARD alone; (8) in case of failure of an initial treatment scheme with a bDMARD, a scheme with another bDMARD can be used; in cases of failure with a TNFi, a second bDMARD of the same class or with another mechanism of action is effective and safe; (9) tofacitinib can be used to treat RA after failure of bDMARD; (10) corticosteroids, preferably at low doses for the shortest possible time, should be considered during periods of disease activity, and the risk-benefit ratio should also be considered; (11) reducing or spacing out bDMARD doses is possible in patients in sustained remission.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To assess the main fears and beliefs of people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their effect on treatment outcomes; Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in Pubmed/Medline; original articles published up to May 2017, reporting fears and/or beliefs of adult patients with RA were analyzed. Fears and beliefs were collected by two independent researchers and grouped into categories. Results: Among 474 references identified, 84 were analyzed, corresponding to 24,336 RA patients. Fears were reported in 38.4% of the articles (N = 32/84): most studies described fears related to pharmacological therapy (50.0%, N = 16/32) and fear of disability (28.1%, N = 9/32). Beliefs were reported in 88.0% of articles (N = 74/84) and were found to moderate the patient-perceived impact of RA in 44.6% (N = 33/74), mainly the emotional impact (18.9%, N = 14/74); measures of function, quality of life, fatigue and pain were also found to be affected by patients' beliefs in 8.1% (N = 6/74), 6.8% (N = 5/74), 2.7% (N = 2/74) and 2.7% (N = 2/74) of the articles, respectively. Beliefs about therapy were linked to adherence in 17.6% of articles (N = 13/74) and beliefs about cause of RA predicted coping patterns in 12.2% of publications (N = 9/74). Only 9.5% (N = 8/84) of articles reported fears and/or beliefs of patients living outside Europe and North America: there was only one work which recruited patients in Latin America and no article included patients from Africa. Conclusion: In RA, patients' beliefs are linked to impact of disease and non-adherence. Further research is needed on fears/beliefs of patients living outside Europe and North America.
Abstract in English:Abstract Virtual reality therapy (VRT) has clinical indications in rehabilitation programs for the elderly; however, there is still no consensus on the recovery of body balance. The objective of this review was to summarize the effects of physical therapy interventions with VRT in the rehabilitation of balance in the elderly. The studies were identified via a systematic search in the databases PubMed, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro from 2010 onward. Clinical trials with interventions that involved VRT in the elderly were included in the study and were subjected to methodological quality analysis using the PEDro scale. A random effects meta-analysis of the studies that analyzed balance using the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was performed. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria, which presented variability in relation to the types of interventions used (70%) and the outcomes analyzed (60%). The mean duration of the interventions was 13.90 (± 5.08) weeks, with at least two weekly sessions (± 0.73). There were positive results in relation to improvements in both dynamic and static balance (70% of the studies), mobility (80%), flexibility (30%), gait (20%) and fall prevention (20%). A summary of the meta-analysis showed mean effects on the Berg scale (standardized mean difference [SMD]: −0.848; 95% CI: −1.161; −0.535) and the TUG test (SMD: 0. 894; 95% CI: 0.341; 1.447). Individually, virtual reality is promising in rehabilitation programs for the elderly. The overall measures were sufficient to show beneficial effects of the therapy on balance in the elderly.
Abstract in English:Abstract High-resolution musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) has been increasingly employed in daily rheumatological practice and in clinical research. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), MSUS can be now considered a complement to physical examination. This method evaluates synovitis through gray-scale and power Doppler and it is also able to identify bone erosions. The utilization of MSUS as a marker of RA activity has received attention in recent literature. Current data account for good correlation of MSUS with classical measures of clinical activity; in some instances, MSUS appears to perform even better. Diagnosis of subclinical synovitis by MSUS might help the physician in RA management. With some variation, interobserver MSUS agreement seems excellent for erosion and good for synovitis. However, lack of MSUS score standardization is still an unmet need. In this review, we describe several MSUS scores, as well as their correlation with clinical RA activity and response to therapy. Finally, we look at the relationship of MSUS with synovial tissue inflammation and discuss future perspectives for a better interpretation and integration of this imaging method into clinical practice.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis affects millions of people worldwide and is considered a chronic multisystem disease whose causes are unknown. In general, the main objective of rheumatoid arthritis treatment is to improve the quality of life of patients by relieving pain, maintaining or improving functional capacity, preventing thus, disability. In recent years the role of adipokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been discussed but results are still conflicting. Although results from some studies have shown the implications of adipokines in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, their role in the pathogenesis of disease progression is not clear. Thus, this review aimed to describe the association of key adipokines (leptin, resistin, visfatin and adiponectin) and rheumatoid arthritis, given the high prevalence of this disease and the important social impact caused by this chronic disabling disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic and generalized musculoskeletal pain. There is currently no cure for FM, but palliative treatments are available. One type of treatment is strength training (ST). However, there is a need for more information on optimal training protocols, intensity, and volume needed to improve symptoms. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of ST in the treatment of FM through a systematic review of experimental research. Methods: Medical Subject Headings search terms and electronic databases including Scientific Electronic Library Online, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database were used to identify studies. Results: The inclusion criteria were met by 22 eligible studies. Most of the studies were conducted in the United States (36%), Finland (23%), Brazil (18%), and Sweden (18%). The studies showed that ST reduces the number of tender points, fatigue, depression, and anxiety, and improves sleep quality and quality of life in patients with FM. The intervention period ranged from 3 to 21 weeks, with sessions performed 2 times a week in 81.81% of the studies, at initial intensities of 40% of 1-repetition maximum. The repetitions ranged from 4 to 20, with no specific protocol defined for ST in FM. Conclusion: The main results included reduction in pain, fatigue, number of tender points, depression, and anxiety, with increased functional capacity and quality of life. Current evidence demonstrates that ST is beneficial and can be used to treat FM. Trial registration: CRD42016048480.
Abstract in English:Abstract Systemic autoimmune myopathies (SAMs) are a heterogeneous group of rare systemic autoimmune diseases that primarily affect skeletal muscles. Patients with SAMs show progressive skeletal muscle weakness and consequent functional disabilities, low health quality, and sedentary lifestyles. In this context, exercise training emerges as a non-pharmacological therapy to improve muscle strength and function as well as the clinical aspects of these diseases. Because many have feared that physical exercise exacerbates inflammation and consequently worsens the clinical manifestations of SAMs, it is necessary to evaluate the possible benefits and safety of exercise training among these patients. The present study systematically reviews the evidence associated with physical training among patients with SAMs.