Abstract in English:Objective Our aim was to investigate the thyroid function tests and thyroid volume differences among males with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) who take androgen replacement treatment (ART). Materials and methods Forty-four male with IHH with a mean age 33.2 (18-54), diagnosed in Endocrinology and Metabolism Department between September 2013 and September 2014 and 40 healthy male control with a mean age 27.77 (18-55) were involved to study. Patient group was divided to testosterone-treated patients (n = 19) and human chorionic gonadotropine (hCG)-treated patients (n = 25). Patient group was compared in terms of total testosterone, thyroid function tests [thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4)] and thyroid volume, before and 6 months after treatment. Patient group was compared with control group as well. Results When we compared the patient group with the control group, there was no significant difference for age, Body mass index, TSH, fT4 and thyroid volume between two groups before treatment. There was no difference in terms of TSH, but fT4, testosterone levels and thyroid volume were significantly higher after treatment, when the patient group was compared before and after treatment (p < 0.05). When we compared testosterone-treated patients and hCG-treated patients; thyroid volume was higher among hCG-treated patients (p = 0.001) but there was no difference for thyroid volume before and after testosterone treatment (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation between testosterone levels with TSH, fT4 and thyroid volume (r = 0.09, p = 0.32; r = 0.14, p = 0.11; r = 0.15, p = 0.09, respectively). Conclusion Our study showed that ART increases the thyroid volume especially in hCG-treated patients. Therefore, we suggest that thyroid volume changes should be followed up in hCG-treated patients.
Abstract in English:Objectives Decreased thyroid volume has been related to increased prevalence of thyroid cancer. Subjects and methods One hundred and fourteen Hungarian adult twin pairs (69 monozygotic, 45 dizygotic) with or without known thyroid disorders underwent thyroid ultrasound. Thickness of the thyroid isthmus was measured at the thickest portion of the gland in the midline using electronic calipers at the time of scanning. Volume of the thyroid lobe was computed according to the following formula: thyroid height*width*depth*correction factor (0.63). Results Age-, sex-, body mass index- and smoking-adjusted heritability of the thickness of thyroid isthmus was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35 to 66%). Neither left nor right thyroid volume showed additive genetic effects, but shared environments were 68% (95% CI, 48 to 80%) and 79% (95% CI, 72 to 87%), respectively. Magnitudes of monozygotic and dizygotic co-twin correlations were not substantially impacted by the correction of covariates of body mass index and smoking. Unshared environmental effects showed a moderate influence on dependent parameters (24-50%). Conclusions Our analysis support that familial factors are important for thyroid measures in a general twin population. A larger sample size is needed to show whether this is because of common environmental (e.g. intrauterine effects, regional nutrition habits, iodine supply) or genetic effects.
Abstract in English:Objective Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may not accurately reflect the level of glycemia in conditions of altered erythrocyte turnover. Hypothyroidism is one condition associated with sluggish erythropoesis. To assess changes in HbA1c, independent of changes in plasma glucose after initiation of thyroxine replacement in patients with overt hypothyroidism. Materials and methods In this prospective longitudinal study carried out in a tertiary care centre, adult non-diabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism recruited between March 2012 to August 2013 were rendered euthyroid on thyroxine. They underwent testing for hemoglobin, HbA1c, reticulocyte count, thyroxine, thyrotropin and a standard oral glucose tolerance test, both before and at 3 months after restoration to the euthyroid state. Main outcome assessed was the change in HbA1c independent of the change in glucose parameters. Results Thirty eight patients (35 female and 3 male) aged 37.8 ± 10.2 years with overt hypothyroidism (thyroxine 12.6 ± 13.4 ng/mL and thyrotropin -98.1 ± 63.7 µIU/mL respectively) were recruited. While HbA1c fell from 5.8 ± 0.7% to 5.6 ± 0.5% (p = 0.009) at 3 months following the correction of hypothyroidism, there were no changes in the fasting and the 2 hr post oral glucose tolerance test glucose (p = 0.67 and 0.56 respectively). The number of patients with dysglycemia diagnosed by HbA1c (i.e HbA1c≥ 5.7%) fell from 25 (65.78%) to 17 (44.7%) after treatment (p = 0.008). There were 7 (18.4%) patients with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% at baseline, but this fell to just 4 (10.5%) (p < 0.001) after 3 months of euthyroidism. Conclusion HbA1c is not a reliable diagnostic test for diabetes in the presence of hypothyroidism.
Abstract in English:Objective Consuming a low-iodine diet (LID) is a widely accepted practice before administering radioiodine (131I) to evaluate and to treat thyroid disease. Although this procedure is well established for the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, its use in patients with benign disease is unclear. So, we aimed to evaluate the influence of a LID on the outcome in patients with Graves’ disease (GD) treated with131I. Subjects and methods We evaluated 67 patients with GD who were divided into 2 groups: one group (n = 31) consumed a LID for 1-2 weeks, and the second group (n = 36) was instructed to maintain a regular diet (RD). Results The LID group experienced a 23% decrease in urinary iodine after 1 week on the diet and a significant 42% decrease after 2 weeks on the diet. The majority (53%) of the patients in the LID group had urinary iodine levels that were consistent with deficient iodine intake. However, there was no difference in the rate of hyperthyroidism’s cure between the LID and the RD groups 6 months after 131I therapy. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy did not differ in patients with varying degrees of sufficient iodine intake (corresponding urinary iodine levels: < 10 μg/dL is deficient; 10-29.9 μg/dL is sufficient; and > 30 μg/dL is excessive). Conclusion In the present study, we demonstrated that although a LID decreased urinary iodine levels, those levels corresponding with sufficient or a mild excess in iodine intake did not compromise the therapeutic efficacy of131I for the treatment of GD.
Abstract in English:Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the cortical bone channels network (CBCN) and osteocyte organization in relation to the bone channels. Materials and methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and test groups (TG). Twelve animals from TG received 3 ZA doses (7.5 µg/kg), and 6 animals from CG did not receive any medication. TG animals were euthanized at 14 (n = 6) and 75 (n = 6) dadys after drug injection. CBCN was analyzed in mandibles and tibias using computational routines. The osteocyte organization was qualitatively evaluated in tibias using a three-dimensional reconstruction of images from serial histological sections. Results Significant differences in CBCN of tibia were found between the treated and untreated rats, with a wider range of sizes and shapes of the channels after the use of ZA (channels area p = 0.0063, channels area SD p = 0.0276) and less bone matrix (bone volume p = 0.0388). The alterations in the channels’ morphology were more evident at 75 days after the drug injection (channels perimeter p = 0.0286). No differences were found in mandibles CBCN. The osteocyte distribution revealed more variable patterns of cell distribution in ZA groups, with non-homogeneous distribution of cells in relation to the bone channels. Conclusion Zoledronic acid induces structural changes in CBCN and modifies the osteocyte arrangement in cortical bone in the tibia; also, the variability in the morphology of bone channels became more evident after a certain time of the use of the drug.
Abstract in English:Objective To report our experience of treating central precocious puberty (CPP) with a GnRH analogue with respect to the final heights (FH) attained in patients who completed treatment. Subjects and methods Among 105 records of children diagnosed with precocious puberty, 62 cases (54 girls and 8 boys), who were treated with leuprolide acetate/3.75 mg/monthly, were selected, and divided into 4 groups: group 1 (G1), 25 girls who attained FH; group 2 (G2), 18 girls who completed treatment but did not reach FH; group 3 (G3), 11 girls still under treatment; and group 4 (G4), 8 boys, 5 of which attained FH. Treatment was concluded at a bone age of 12 years, and follow-up continued until FH was achieved. Results In both G1 and G2 groups, height standard deviation score (SDS), weight-SDS and percentile of body mass index (PBMI) did not show intra/intergroup differences at the beginning and at interruption of treatment, but when added, G1+G2, height-SDS and weight-SDS differed significantly (p = 0.002 and 0.0001, respectively). In G1, 19 of 25 cases attained TH, and average height gain was 16.7 cm (7.7- 27.1); there was significant difference between FH and prediction of FH at the start (PFH at start) (p = 0.0001), as well as between PFH at interruption vs TH and vs FH (p = 0.007) with FH higher than TH (p = 0.004). Significant correlation was identified between FH and height gain after treatment. Conclusion As shown by some studies, GnRH analogue treatment was effective in children with CPP reaching FH near the genetic target.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To determine the effect of three months of periodized hydrogymnastics exercise program on urinary concentration of deoxypyridinoline in older women. Subjects and methods Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned in two, intervention group (n = 16) and control group (n = 10). The intervention group followed 12-week of periodized hydrogymnastics training program five times a week, 50 minutes of water exercise with work heart rate reserve of 40-50% (1-6thweek) increasing the load to 50-60% (7-12th week); the control group was not involved in exercise and remained sedentary. The urinary concentration of deoxypyridinoline was evaluated by high resolution liquid chromatography using the reactive immulite pyrilinks-D siemens medical solutions, pretest at the baseline and at the end post-test of the 12-week of water-exercise. As statistical analyses mixed 2 x 2 ANOVA was used, also percentage changes (Δ %) was calculated. Results The results did not show significant improvement (p < 0.05) comparing the interaction intergroup and the measurements of urinary concentration of deoxypyridinoline (p = 0.504), percentage change (Δ %) showed positive improvements in the experimental group of -13.7 (nM/mMcreatine) in comparison with -7.1 (nM/mMcreatine) from the control group. Conclusion The present study involves periodization increasing the load heart rate reserve of hydrogymnastics exercise in order to produce grater adaptations, but the results showed than is not possible to infer that hydrogymnastics is effective in increase urinary concentration of deoxypyridinoline in older women, will be appropriated in the future more studies to better clarify the possibilities of improvements between hydrogymnastics and urinary concentration of deoxypyridinoline. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(6):523-7
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To assess hormonal changes in nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) in full-term newborns (NT) with sepsis. Materials and methods We included 28 NT with sepsis divided into 2 groups according to the time of normalization of serum and clinical indicators of infection: group A(A), 16 NT with improvement in up to 8 days; and group B(B), 12 NT improvement after 8 days. Among the 28 NT, 15 NT progressed to septic shock, with 5 NT group A and 10 NT in group B. NT were excluded when they showed severe sepsis and asphyxia, and congenital malformations, as well as those whose mothers had thyroid disease and IUGR. Results 17 NT (60.7%) presented NTIS. Low T3 was observed in NTIS in 10 NT (58.8%), and low T4 and T3 in 5 NT (29.5%), all of them with septic shock. Two NT showed mixed changes (11.7%). After sepsis was cured, there was no hormonal change, except in 3 NT. Administration of dopamine, furosemide, and corticosteroids did not affect the results. Conclusions This study indicates that nonthyroidal illness syndrome may be transiently present during sepsis in full-term newborns, especially in cases of prolonged sepsis. Low T3 can occur without changes in reverse T3 (different from adults), and low T4 and T3 occur mainly in patients with septic shock. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(6):528-34
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the influence of disease control, expressed by the mean values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), in the oral health of children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM). Subjects and methods A cross sectional study involving 87 children and adolescents (59 girls), 10 ± 2.6 years old. The participants were divided into three groups: HbA1c ≤ 8%, 8% < HbA1c ≤ 10% and HbA1c > 10%. The duration of the disease, age and average HbA1c were obtained from their medical records. Oral health was evaluated according to the following indexes: Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S); Community Periodontal Index (CPI); Decayed, Missing or Filled Teeth Index (DMFT/dmft) for permanent and deciduous teeth; and the stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR). Results The median SSFR was 1.1 mL/min in the group with HbA1c ≤ 8%, 0.7 mL/min in the intermediary group and 0.6 mL/min in the HbA1c > 10% group. A significant decrease in salivary flow was observed with an increase in HbA1c (p = 0.007). The DMFT/dmft and CPI indexes were higher in individuals with higher HbA1c values. More caries-free individuals were found in the group with HbA1c ≤ 8% compared to those with HbA1c > 10%. The group with HbA1c > 10% exhibited more caries and bleeding gums than the other groups. HbA1c values in girls were higher than in boys. Conclusion Children and adolescents with unsatisfactory glycemic control, represented by higher HbA1c concentrations, exhibited a higher frequency of caries and gingivitis, and a reduction in salivary flow. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(6):535-40
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective Increased arterial intima-media thickness has been observed in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). CAH has also been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. The aim of the present study was to compare youths with CAH with healthy, normal-weight individuals, evaluating carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and indicative factors of cardiovascular risk to seek for abnormalities in the CAH group. Subjects and methods Clinical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic evaluations, according to published criteria, were performed in 113 subjects (5 to 20 years old): 40 patients with 21-OHD and 73 healthy individuals matched for gender, pubertal status, and age. Results Most CAH patients were female (80%), salt-losers (72.5%), and pubescent (80%); 10 (25%) patients were overweight. An increase in CIMT was observed both on the right (p = 0.0240) and left (p = 0.0003) sides in 38 CAH patients compared with the healthy individuals. The body mass index, BMI/age Z score, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were higher in patients compared with controls (p < 0.000 and p = 0.0219, respectively). Conclusions Findings of increased CIMT, BMI, and SBP in young patients with 21-OHD indicate the need for early identification and intervention regarding cardiovascular risk. Validating these findings might result in improved therapeutic approaches for children with 21-OHD in the future. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(6):541-7
Abstract in English:SUMMARY Metastasis to the pituitary gland is an unusual situation in clinical practice, but the frequency thereof is increasing due to the increased survival of cancer patients, and greater availability of imaging. In most cases, they are found between the sixth and seventh decades of life, as determined in image examination of patients with known malignant neoplasm, but, generally, asymptomatic with respect to pituitary involvement. The most common primary sites are breast in women and lung in men. We present the case of a 64-year-old patient with clinical visual changes, polyuria, polydipsia, and decreased level of consciousness whose tests showed pan-hypopituitarism, hypernatremia and low urine specific gravity, and extensive mass in sellar region. Diabetes insipidus was confirmed and treated, corticotrophic and thyroid deficits were corrected and then the patient underwent resection by transsphenoidal surgery. The histopathological and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed pituitary metastasis of lung neuroendocrine tumor. Subsequently, a chest CT scan showed pulmonary mass consistent with primary neoplasm. Despite the water and electrolyte correction and intravenous glucocorticoid replacement, the patient continued to show decreased level of consciousness due to compression of the brain stem by the pituitary mass, evolving to death. The purpose is to call attention to the differential diagnosis of invasive lesions of the sellar region, mainly in individuals over 50 years and/or when associated with diabetes insipidus, as it may be a case of metastasis, although there is no known primary neoplasm. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(6):548-53
Abstract in English:Diabetes insipidus is a disease in which large volumes of dilute urine (polyuria) are excreted due to vasopressin (AVP) deficiency [central diabetes insipidus (CDI)] or to AVP resistance (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). In the majority of patients, the occurrence of CDI is related to the destruction or degeneration of neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. The most common and well recognized causes include local inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, vascular disorders, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), sarcoidosis, tumors such as germinoma/craniopharyngioma or metastases, traumatic brain injuries, intracranial surgery, and midline cerebral and cranial malformations. Here we have the opportunity to describe an unusual case of female patient who developed autoimmune CDI following ureaplasma urealyticum infection and to review the literature on this uncommon feature. Moreover, we also discussed the potential mechanisms by which ureaplasma urealyticum might favor the development of autoimmune CDI.
Abstract in English:Permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) can result from activating heterozygous mutations in KCNJ11 gene, encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Sulfonylureas promote KATP closure and stimulate insulin secretion, being an alternative therapy in PNDM, instead of insulin. Male, 20 years old, diagnosed with diabetes at 3 months of age. The genetic study identified a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 1 of the KCNJ11 gene – KCNJ11:c1001G>7 (p.Gly334Val) – and confirmed the diagnosis of PNDM. Therefore it was attempted to switch from insulin therapy to sulfonylurea. During glibenclamide institution C-peptide levels increased, however the suboptimal glycemic control lead us to restart an intensive insulin scheme. This new variant of KCNJ11 mutation had a phenotypic lack of response to sulfonylurea therapy. Age, prior poor metabolic control and functional change of KATP channel induced by this specific mutation may explain the observed unsuccessful switch to sulfonylurea. Interestingly, C-peptide levels raise during glibenclamide administration support some degree of improvement in insulin secretory capacity induced by the treatment. Understanding the response to sulfonylurea is crucial as successful treatment may be life-changing in these patients.
Abstract in English:Objective To search for genetic alteration in NKX2.5 gene in patients presenting both congenital heart disease (CHD) and TD. Subjects and methods Individual phenotypes were carefully analyzed in 86 children with thyroid dysgenesis (TD) using thyroid function tests, scintigraphy, ultrasound and echocardiography. DNA was extracted and NKX2.5 gene coding region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Results CHD were found in 8.1% of patients with TD. The mutation screening revealed two known polymorphisms in patients with isolated TD or TD associated with CHD. None of them are predicted to result in codon change in conserved domain. The c.63A>G polymorphism was detected in 54/86 patients (49 with isolated TD and 5 with TD combined with CHD). There was a significant association of c.63A>G polymorphism with hypoplasia (p < 0.036). The c.541G>A polymorphism was observed in only one patient with isolated thyroid hypoplasia. Conclusion NKX2.5 mutations were not found. The c.63A>G polymorphism might be associated with thyroid hypoplasia.
Abstract in English:Background The Atkins diet program is a great example of the application of low carbohydrate diets for obesity, with the intention of weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular risk (CV risk). A good CV risk predictor is the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) calculated as log (TG/HDL [mmol]), which is strongly affected by serum triglycerides, which in turn is associated with the carbohydrate intake. This study determined the effect of the initial phase of Atkins diet program, consisting in 20 g/day of carbohydrate intake with positive urinary ketones measure, in AIP of 12 adult overweight trained adapted men. The AIP was calculated before and after intervention. Results After 14 days, BMI and triglycerides decreased significantly, while HDL-C increased. No alterations were described in LDL plasmatic concentration. Prior to the diet, 58.3% of subjects presented high CV risk and after 14 days of the diet program only 33.3% of subjects were classified as high CV risk, while more than 66% were low CV risk. The intervention was effective in 11 of 12 participants. However, in one person the dietary intervention increased AIP index. Conclusion The initial phase of Atkins diet program could significantly decrease the AIP in 11 of 12 adult overweight trained adapted men. Dietary individual responses need to be more studied.