Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that compared pure endoscopic with microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in the resection of pituitary tumors. Embase, PubMed, Lilacs, and Central Cochrane were used as our data sources. The outcomes were total tumor resection, achievement of biochemical control of functioning adenomas, hospital stay and surgery complications. The randomized trials were analyzed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Two randomized and three prospective controlled non-randomized studies were included. Two studies, including 68 patients, evaluated total tumor resection and the meta-analysis did not show differences between the groups [RR: 1.45 (95% CI: 0.87, 2.44)]. Three studies involving 65 patients analyzed the achievement of biochemical control and no statistical difference was found [RR: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.7, 1.26)]. All five studies compared the frequency of postoperative complications between intervention and control group and meta-analysis favored for a low rate of postoperative complications in the endoscopic TSS group [(RR: 0.37 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.83)]. Due to the low evidence level and low number of observations, the results of our meta-analysis should not be viewed as a final proof of inferiority or superiority of one approach in relation to the other. More data including higher numbers of observations are needed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the usefulness of a third-generation PTH assay in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Subjects and methods Forty-one PHPT patients (4 men and 37 women) with 61.2 ± 10.9 (mean ± SD) years, were studied and had PTH levels measured with two different methods using the same immunochemiluminescent assay plataform (Elecsys 2010 System, Roche). We compared a second-generation assay (I-PTH) with a third-generation PTH assay (Bio-PTH). Two populations of 423 and 120 healthy adults with serum 25OHD levels above 25 ng/mL were used to define normal values in the I-PTH and Bio-PTH assays respectively. Results Normal PTH values based in the healthy adults population were 24.2-78.0 pg/mL for the I-PTH assay and 19.9-58.5 pg/mL for Bio-PTH assay. In PHPT patients, PTH values ranged from 67 to 553 pg/mL (median: 168 pg/mL) using the I-PTH assay and from 55 to 328 pg/mL (median: 111 pg/mL) using the Bio-PTH assay. Results obtained with the Bio-PTH assay were significantly lower (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon). In general I-PTH and Bio-PTH showed highly significant correlation (r = 0.952, p < 0.0001). Passing–Bablok analysis gave a regression equation of Bio PTH = 13.44 + 0.59 x intact PTH. PHPT patients had 25OHD levels ranging from 4 to 36 ng/mL (mean 16.2 ng/mL); 35 subjects (85.3%) had values bellow 25 ng/mL. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that both second and third generation PTH methods are strongly correlated in PHPT patients and control subjects. Lower results with Bio-PTH tests are expected in function of the assay specificity determined by the amino-terminal antibody used.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms are associated with an increased susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662) partially determine PON1 hydrolytic activity and protect against oxidation of LDL and HDL. This study aimed to delineate the association of PON1 status (functional 192 genotype and plasma activity levels) and atherogenicity in urbans residents aged 40 years or more. Materials and methods Anthropometric data, lipid profiles, the atherogenic index of the plasma (AIP) and Framingham score risk were measured. Three kinetic assays were conducted to assay PON1 status using phenylacetate and 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl acetate as substrates. Results Smoking per se did not significantly impact the AIP but the interaction PON1 genotype by smoking significantly increased the AIP. In subjects with the RR genotype smoking increased the AIP index from (estimated mean ± SEM) -0.038 ± 0.039 to 0.224 ± 0.094. The QR genotype increased the Framingham risk index by around 1.3 points. Smoking by RR genotype carriers significantly increased the Framingham risk score (17.23 ± 2.04) as compared to smoking (13.00 ± 1.06) and non-smoking (7.79 ± 0.70) by QQ+QR genotype carriers. The interaction RR genotype by smoking was a more important predictor (odds ratio = 7.90) of an increased Framingham risk score (> 20) than smoking per se (odds ratio = 2.73). The interaction smoking by RR genotype carriers significantly increased triglycerides and lowered HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Smoking per se has no (AIP) or a mild (Framingham risk score) effect on atherogenicity, while the interaction smoking by PON1 RR genotype has a clinically highly significant impact on atherogenicity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective The goal of this study was evaluate the conicity index (C index) in women and its association with hypertension (SAH) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Subjects and methods This was a cross-sectional study, with 573 women between 20 and 59 years of age. After analysis of clinical and demographic characteristics, anthropometric variables were measured and used to calculate the C index. Plasma glucose and lipid profile were evaluated by standard methods. The analysis of the results was based on logistic regression and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated, which was used to assess the association of the variable outcome with the variable exposure using two logistic regression models that tested the possible influence of the C index in the chance of developing SAH or DM. A confidence interval of 95% was used. Results In the crude and adjusted models, the OR confirmed the association of the C index with DM and SAH. Compared with women that showed C index p < 75, the risk of women with C index (p ≥ 75) developing DM and SAH was 1.72 and 1.75, respectively. Results demonstrated that the negative impact of age on these associations significantly raised the odds of women having DM and SAH. The high C index was also linked to low HDL-C. Conclusion The C index is an important tool in estimating the risk of diabetes and hypertension in women. Besides, high C indexes are negatively associated with HDL-C, an important lipid marker related to cardiovascular risk.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in an experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Materials and methods Wistar, adult, male rats were used in the study. Animals were divided in the following groups: Citrate (control, citrate buffer 0.01M, pH 4.2 was administrated intravenously - i.v - in the caudal vein), Uninephrectomy+Citrate (left uninephrectomy-20 days before the study), DM (streptozotocin, 65 mg/kg, i.v, on the 20th day of the study), Uninephrectomy+DM. Physiological parameters (water and food intake, body weight, blood glucose, kidney weight, and relative kidney weight); renal function (creatinine clearance), urine albumin (immunodiffusion method); oxidative metabolites (urinary peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and thiols in renal tissue), and kidney histology were evaluated. Results Polyphagia, polydipsia, hyperglycemia, and reduced body weight were observed in diabetic rats. Renal function was reduced in diabetic groups (creatinine clearance, p < 0.05). Uninephrectomy potentiated urine albumin and increased kidney weight and relative kidney weight in diabetic animals (p < 0.05). Urinary peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased, and the reduction in thiol levels demonstrated endogenous substrate consumption in diabetic groups (p < 0.05). The histological analysis revealed moderate lesions of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion This study confirms lipid peroxidation and intense consumption of the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats. The association of hyperglycemia and uninephrectomy resulted in additional renal injury, demonstrating that the model is adequate for the study of diabetic nephropathy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the evolution to permanent or transient conditions in children with positive neonatal TSH tests in Sergipe, Brazil, from 2004 to 2010. Subjects and methods Out of 193,794 screened newborns, 713 presented a neonatal TSH level higher than the local cutoff (5.2 µU/mL). From the confirmatory serum TSH values, the children were diagnosed with initial congenital hypothyroidism (CH) or suspect CH. From the evolution, they were classified as permanent CH, hyperthyrotropinemia, or transient TSH elevation. The mean incidence of each final condition was calculated for the total period of time. Results The initial diagnosis included 37 CH (18.1%) and 167 suspect CH (81.9%) cases. The final diagnosis included 46 cases of permanent CH (22.5%), 56 of hyperthyrotropinemia (27.5%), and 102 of transient TSH elevation (50.0%). Out of the 37 cases of initial CH, 23 (62.2%) had permanent CH, nine (24.3%) had hyperthyrotropinemia, and five (13.5%) had transient TSH elevation. Out of the 167 suspect CH cases, 23 (13.8%) had permanent CH, 47 (28.1%) had hyperthyrotropinemia and 97 (58.1%) had transient TSH elevation. The mean incidence after the follow up was 1:4,166 for permanent CH, 1:3,448 for hyperthyrotropinemia, and 1:1,887 for transient TSH elevation. Eighty-six percent of the children with an initial diagnosis of CH and 41.9% with suspect CH had a permanent condition (CH or hyperthyrotropinemia). Conclusions The follow-up of children with an initial diagnosis of CH or suspect CH is necessary to determine whether the disorder is permanent because predicting the evolution of the condition is difficult.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo response of a resistance training and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on tibias and femurs of rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four experimental groups: control group (CG), diabetic group (DG), diabetic trained group (TG) and diabetic trained and laser irradiated group (TLG). DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and after two weeks laser and resistance training started, performed for 24 sessions, during eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized and tibias and femurs were removed for analysis. Histological, histomorphometrical, immunohistochemistry and mechanical analyses were performed. Results Trained groups, with or without laser irradiation, showed increased cortical area, bone density and biomechanical properties. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TG and TLG demonstrated an increased RUNX2 expression. RANK-L immunoexpression was similar for all experimental groups. Conclusion In conclusion, it can be suggested that the resistance exercise program stimulated bone metabolism, culminating in increased cortical tibial area, bone mineral content, bone mineral density and biomechanical properties. Furthermore, the association of physical exercises and LLLT produced higher values for bone mineral content and stiffness. Consequently, these data highlight the potential of physical exercise in the management of bone loss due to DM and the possible extra osteogenic stimulus offered by lasertherapy. Further long-term studies should be carried out to provide additional information.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is a common endocrine disease, and its most effective treatment is surgery. Postoperative hypocalcemia is a morbidity of parathyroid surgeries, and it may extend hospitalization durations. The purpose of this study is to determine the predictive factors related to the development of hypocalcemia and hungry bone syndrome (HBS) in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP. Materials and methods Laboratory data comprising parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate, 25-OHD, albumin, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of the patients were recorded preoperatively, on the 1st and 4th days postoperatively, and in the 6th postoperative month, and their neck ultrasound (US) and bone densitometry data were also recorded. Results Hypocalcemia was seen in 63 patients (38.4%) on the 1st day after parathyroidectomy. Ten patients (6.1%) had permanent hypocalcemia in the 6th month after surgery. Out of the patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP, 22 (13.4%) had HBS. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia was higher in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP, who had parathyroid hyperplasia, and who had osteoporosis. Preoperative PTH, ALP, and BUN values were higher in those patients who developed HBS. Furthermore, HBS was more common in patients who had osteoporosis, who had parathyroid hyperplasia, and who underwent thyroidectomy simultaneously with parathyroidectomy. Conclusions As a result, patients who have the risk factors for development of hypocalcemia and HBS should be monitored more attentively during the perioperative period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic data, histological type, treatment and follow-up of the 811 patients treated for thyroid cancer in Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP) over 5 years. Materials and methods Retrospective analyses of electronic chart information. Results There were 679 cases (83.7%) of papillary thyroid cancer, 61 (7.5%) of follicular carcinoma, 54 (6.7%) of medullary carcinoma, 11 (1.4%) of poorly differentiated carcinoma and 6 of anaplastic carcinoma (0.7%). The majority of patients were female (82.2%), and the mean age was 50.5 ± 15 years. Two hundred forty-two patients had disease persistence or recurrence. At the last follow-up, 629 (77.6%) patients were alive and disease free, 141 (17.4%) were alive with disease, and 41 (5.1%) were deceased, with 37 deaths related to thyroid cancer. Conclusion This study was able to outline the profile, disease type and evolution of patients treated for thyroid cancer at a single tertiary hospital.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To describe the safety and efficacy of pegvisomant therapy and the predictors of treatment response in acromegaly patients at a single tertiary reference center in Brazil. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, hormonal and radiological data of acromegaly patients treated with pegvisomant in our center. We also evaluated the presence of the d3 isoform of the growth hormone receptor (d3GHR). Results Twenty-seven patients were included (17 women). Pegvisomant was used in combination with octreotide LAR in 20 patients (74%), in combination with cabergoline in one (4%) and as monotherapy in six (22%). IGF-I normalization was achieved in 23 patients (85%). Mild and transitory elevation of liver enzymes was observed in two patients (7.4%), tumor growth in one (3.4%) and lipodystrophy in two (7.4%). One patient stopped the drug due to headaches. The GHR isoforms were evaluated in 14 patients, and the presence of at least one d3GHR allele was observed in 43% of them, but it was not a predictor of treatment response. Only pre-treatment IGF-I level was a predictor of treatment response. Conclusion Pegvisomant treatment was highly effective and safe in our series of Brazilian patients. A better chance of disease control can be expected in those with lower pre-pegvisomant IGF-I levels.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective To compare serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and other endocrine parameters between patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and age-matched ovulatory women. Materials and methods AMH, DHEAS, FSH, LH, PRL, TSH and total testosterone (TT) were prospectively measured in oligo-ovulatory PCOS patients (n = 595) and in ovulatory non-PCOS women (n = 157) referred to a tertiary infertility center. Mean BMI was similar across the two study populations and there were no smokers in the sample. Patients in both groups were further classified into three categories by age: < 25 yrs, 25-34 yrs, and ≥ 35 yrs. Selected clinical and demographic characteristics were tabulated for each group. Results Serum AMH was significantly higher among PCOS patients compared to non-PCOS controls in the non-stratified sample (7.54 ± 5.8 vs. 2.49 ± 2.0 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.0001), while serum FSH, DHEAS, TSH and prolactin were similar for both groups (p > 0.05). As expected, mean (total) testosterone levels were notably different between PCOS vs. non-PCOS controls (0.84 ± 0.76 vs. 0.43 ± 0.38 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001), and mean AMH level was significantly lower in the oldest age category (> 35 yrs) compared to both younger control groups (p < 0.0001). Both DHEAS and total testosterone decreased with age among PCOS patients, although mean serum DHEAS for women age > 35 yrs was significantly lower than DHEAS measured in younger women with PCOS (p < 0.02). For PCOS patients, AMH remained relatively stable irrespective of age. Conclusion Although AMH can serve as a satisfactory marker of ovarian reserve, for PCOS patients the expected decline in AMH associated with reproductive aging appears attenuated despite ovarian senescence. In contrast, mean DHEAS levels were markedly lower among older PCOS women (> 35 yrs) compared to younger PCOS patients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Subjects and methods 356 patients diagnosed with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection and lateral lymph node dissection between January 2005 and December 2011 were enrolled. The relation between LLNM and clinicopathological features such as gender, age, tumor size, tumor spread, psammoma bodies, tumor multifocality, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), unilateral or bilateral disease, tumor primary location and central lymph node metastases (CLNM) was analyzed. Results The rate of LLNM was 75.0%. In the univariate analysis, it was significantly associated with age, tumor size, tumor spread, extrathyroidal extension, primary tumor location and central lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). In contrast, in the multivariate analysis, it was significantly associated with primary tumor location, central lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05) and tumor size > 1.5 cm with p = 0.05 but was unrelated to the other factors. Conclusion Patients with PTC, with the primary tumor located in the upper part of the lobe and positive central compartment lymph node metastasis with a tumor size > 1.5 cm diameter are more likely to have LLNM. Therefore, more meticulous evaluations including the lateral lymph nodes should be performed before surgery.
Abstract in English:SUMMARY P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that is caused by POR gene mutations. The POR gene encodes a flavor protein that transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 type II (including 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase 17,20 lyase and aromatase), which is fundamental for their enzymatic activity. POR mutations cause variable impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities that result in wide phenotypic variability ranging from 46,XX or 46,XY disorders of sexual differentiation, glucocorticoid deficiency, with or without skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixler syndrome to asymptomatic newborns diagnosed during neonatal screening test. Little is known about the PORD long-term evolution. We described a 46,XX patient with mild atypical genitalia associated with severe bone malformation, who was diagnosed after 13 years due to sexual infantilism. She developed large ovarian cysts and late onset adrenal insufficiency during follow-up, both of each regressed after hormone replacement therapies. We also described a late surgical approach for the correction of facial hypoplasia in a POR patient.