Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume: 61, Issue: 3, Published: 2017
  • Two themes in thyroid cancer: artful diagnosis and shortened lives Editorial

    Lima, Cristiane Gomes; Wartofsky, Leonard
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes: same disease in a different moment of life? Maybe not Editorial

    Zajdenverg, Lenita; Negrato, Carlos Antonio
  • Likelihood of malignancy in thyroid nodules according to a proposed Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) classification merging suspicious and benign ultrasound features Original Articles

    Delfim, Ricardo Luiz Costantin; Veiga, Leticia Carrasco Garcez da; Vidal, Ana Paula Aguiar; Lopes, Flávia Paiva Proença Lobo; Vaisman, Mário; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fatima dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasound features of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and evaluate the likelihood of malignancy associated with each feature according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology and histopathology. With this analysis, we propose a new TI-RADS classification system. Materials and methods The likelihood of malignancy from ultrasound features were assessed in 1413 thyroid nodules according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology and histopathological findings. A score was established by attributing different weights to each ultrasound feature evaluated. Results Features positively associated with malignancy in bivariate analysis received a score weight of +1. We attributed a weight of +2 to features which were independently associated with malignancy in a multivariate analysis and +3 for those associated with the highest odds ratio for malignancy (> 10.0). Hence, hypoechogenicity (graded as mild, moderate or marked, according to a comparison with the overlying strap muscle), microcalcification and irregular/microlobulated margin received the highest weights in our scoring system. Features that were negatively associated with malignancy received weights of -2 or -1. In the proposed system a cutoff score of 2 (sensitivity 97.4% and specificity 51.6%) was adopted as a transition between probably benign (TI-RADS 3) and TI-RADS 4a nodules. Overall, the frequency of malignancy in thyroid nodules according to the categories was 1.0% for TI-RADS 3, 7.8% for TI-RADS 4a, 35.3% for TI-RADS 4b, and 84.7% for TI-RADS 5. Conclusion A newly proposed TI-RADS classification adequately assessed the likelihood of malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • Deaths related to differentiated thyroid cancer: a rare but real event Original Articles

    Leite, Ana Kober N.; Cavalheiro, Beatriz G.; Kulcsar, Marco Aurélio; Hoff, Ana de Oliveira; Brandão, Lenine G.; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Matos, Leandro L.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective The present study describes the clinical and tumor characteristics of patients that died from differentiated thyroid cancer and reports on the cause and circumstances of death in these cases. Subjects and methods Retrospective analysis of all the differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) related deaths at a single institution over a 5-year period, with a total of 33 patients. Results Most of the patients were female (63.6%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 58.2 years. The most common histologic type was papillary (66.7%) and 30.3% were follicular. The distribution according to the TNM classification was: 15.4% of T1; 7.7% T2; 38.4% T3; 19.2% of T4a and 19.2% of T4b. Forty-four percent of cases were N0; 20% N1a and 36.6% of N1b. Twelve patients were considered non-responsive to radioiodine. Only one of the patients did not have distant metastases. The most common metastatic site was the lung in 69.7%. The majority of deaths were due to pulmonary complications related to lung metastases (17 patients, 51.5%), followed by post-operative complications in 5 cases, neurological disease progression in 3 cases, local invasion and airway obstruction in one patient. Median survival between diagnosis and death was reached in 49 months while between disease progression and death it was at 22 months. Conclusion Mortality from DTC is extremely rare but persists, and the main causes of death derive from distant metastasis, especially respiratory failure due to lung metastasis. Once disease progression is established, median survival was only 22 months.
  • Relation between fetal anthropometric parameters and cord blood adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in gestational diabetes mellitus Original Articles

    Aramesh, Mohammad Reza; Dehdashtian, Masoud; Malekian, Arash; ShahAli, Shiva; Shojaei, Kobra

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives The objectives were to evaluate the relation between fetal anthropometric parameters and cord blood concentration of adiponectin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Subjects and methods: A total of 104 pregnant women (52 with gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM], 52 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participated. Venous cord blood samples were obtained at delivery, centrifuged and the plasma was stored at -20°C. The samples were assessed for adiponectin and hs-CRP using the ELISA method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results The adiponectin concentration was higher in the GDM group than in the NGT group (11.05 ± 4.1 µg/mL in GDM vs. 5.34 ± 2.63 µg/mL in NGT, p < 0.001). GDM was also higher in neonates delivered at later gestational ages (p < 0.001, Pearson correlation = 0.59). There was a positive correlation between cord blood adiponectin and birth weight in the GDM group (p < 0.001, Pearson correlation = 0.619) but not in the NGT group. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and infant length or head circumference. There was also no significant difference in cord blood hs-CRP concentration between groups. No relation was found between hs-CRP and newborn anthropometric parameters. Conclusion In the GDM group, adiponectin concentration was considerably higher and had a positive correlation with the ponderal index and birth weight which was not found in the NGT group.
  • Serum Fluorescent Advanced Glycation End (F-AGE) products in gestational diabetes patients Original Articles

    Lobo, João Paulo; Brescansin, Catiane Pompilio; Santos-Weiss, Izabella C. R.; Welter, Marciane; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Rego, Fabiane Gomes de Moraes; Picheth, Geraldo; Alberton, Dayane

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in the pathogenesis and complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Gestational DM (GDM) is characterized by increased glycemia and oxidative stress, which are factors associated with high serum AGE concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a serum fluorescence AGE (F-AGE) method as a screening tool for gestational diabetes. Subjects and methods Serum samples from 225 GDM patients and 217 healthy pregnant women (healthy controls) were diluted 50-fold in phosphate-buffered saline, and the AGEs were estimated by fluorometric analysis (λEx 350 nm/ λEm 440 nm). Results No significant (P > 0.05) differences in AGE concentrations, expressed in Arbitrary Units (UA/mL × 104), were observed in the women with GDM or in the healthy controls. Furthermore, F-AGE concentrations did not change significantly during the pregnancy (12-32 weeks of gestation). Only the GDM group had a positive correlation (r = 0.421; P < 0.001) between F-AGEs and serum creatinine concentrations. Conclusion It was not possible to distinguish women with gestational diabetes from the healthy controls on the basis of serum F-AGE concentrations.
  • Type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants of FTO, LEPR, PPARg, and TCF7L2 in gestational diabetes in a Brazilian population Original Articles

    Anghebem-Oliveira, Mauren Isfer; Martins, Bruna Rodrigues; Alberton, Dayane; Ramos, Edneia Amancio de Souza; Picheth, Geraldo; Rego, Fabiane Gomes de Moraes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder that shares pathophysiologic features with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the polymorphisms fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs1421085, leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137100, rs1137101, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg) rs1801282, and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7901695 with GDM. Subjects and methods 252 unrelated Euro-Brazilian pregnant women were classified into two groups according to the 2015 criteria of the American and Brazilian Diabetes Association: healthy pregnant women (n = 125) and pregnant women with GDM (n = 127), matched by age. The polymorphisms were genotyped using fluorescent probes (TaqMan®). Results All groups were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genotype and allele frequencies of the studied polymorphisms did not show significant differences between the groups (P > 0.05). In the healthy and GDM groups, the C allele frequencies (95% CI) of the FTO rs1421085 polymorphism were 36.8% [31–43%] and 35.0% [29–41%]; the G allele frequencies (95% CI) of the LEPR rs1137100 polymorphism were 24.8% [19–30%] and 22.8% [18–28%]; the G allele frequencies (95% CI) of the LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism were 43.6% [37–50%] and 42.9% [37–49%]; the G allele frequencies (95% CI) of the PPARg rs1801282 polymorphism were 7.6% [4–11%] and 8.3% [5–12%]; and the C allele frequencies (95% CI) of the TCF7L2 rs7901695 polymorphism were 33.6% [28–39%] and 39.0% [33–45%], respectively. Conclusion The studied polymorphisms were not associated with GDM in a Brazilian population.
  • Serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and clinical parameters in women with fibromyalgia and overweight/obesity Original Articles

    Paiva, Eduardo S.; Andretta, Aline; Batista, Emmanuelle Dias; Lobo, Márcia Maria Marques Teles; Miranda, Renata Costa de; Nisihara, Renato; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Boguszewski, César L.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of adipokines in women with fibromyalgia with and without overweight/obesity, and to correlate the adipokines levels with clinical parameters associated with fibromyalgia and adipose tissue mass (body fat). Subjects and methods The study included 100 women divided into four groups: (a) fibromyalgia and overweight/obesity; (b) fibromyalgia and normal weight; (c) controls and overweight/obesity; and (d) controls and normal weight. Patients and controls were evaluated for clinical, anthropometric, and fibromyalgia-related parameters. Assessments included serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of adipokines were further adjusted for fat mass. Results Fibromyalgia patients with overweight/obesity or normal weight had no differences in clinical parameters. Unadjusted leptin levels were lower in fibromyalgia patients than controls, a finding that was more remarkable in fibromyalgia patients with overweight/obesity. Leptin levels had no correlation with clinical parameters of fibromyalgia or inflammation markers (MCP-1 and CRP), and adiponectin levels showed no difference between groups. Conclusions No correlation was observed between adjusted leptin levels and clinical parameters of fibromyalgia. Patients with fibromyalgia and overweight/obesity presented lower levels of leptin than controls with overweight/obesity.
  • Applicability of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea Original Articles

    del Re, Mariana Pantaleão; Melo, Camila Maria de; Santos, Marcus Vinicius dos; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Marco Túlio de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the applicability of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the effects of OSA severity on REE. Materials and methods Twenty-nine obese men, 41.5 ± 7 years old, with moderate and severe OSA were recruited. All subjects were submitted to a clinical polysomnography, body composition, and indirect calorimetry measurements. REE was also predicted by three different equations: Harris and Benedict (1919), Cunningham (1990), and DRI (2002). Results No effects of OSA severity on REE were found. The measured REE (2416.0 ± 447.1 kcal/day) and the REE predicted by equations were different from each other (F = 2713.88; p < 0.05): Harris and Benedict (2128.0 ± 245.8 kcal/day), Cunningham (1789.1 ± 167.8 kcal/day) and DRI (2011.1 ± 181.4 kcal/day). Pearson correlations showed a moderate positive correlation between the REE measured and predicted by all equations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that predictive equations for REE underestimate the energy expenditure in obese patients with sleep apnea. Also, no effects of OSA severity on REE were found.
  • Orange juice with a high-fat meal prolongs postprandial lipemia in apparently healthy overweight/obese women Original Articles

    Coelho, Raquel Cristina L. A.; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M.; Gomide, Renata S.; Alves, Raquel Duarte M.; Bressan, Josefina

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective We investigated the postprandial response of lipid markers to a high-fat meal (HFM) with two different beverages in apparently healthy normal-weight and overweight/obese women. Subjects and methods This crossover, randomized study enrolled 36 women, of whom 21 had normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 22 ± 1.8 kg/m2) and 15 had overweight/obesity (BMI 31 ± 3.7 kg/m2). In two different test days, the participants ingested a HFM (37% of energy as saturated fat) with 500 mL of water (HFM-W) or 500 mL of orange juice (HFM-OJ). Blood samples were collected at baseline (12-hour fasting), and at 2, 3, and 5 hours postprandial. The analysis included fasting and postprandial total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides (TG), uric acid, and complement C3. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC); Primary Identification Number: RBR-2h3wjn (www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br). Results TG levels increased at 3 hours with HFM-OJ in normal-weight women (p = 0.01) and returned to normal levels at 5h. TG increased at 3 hours with HFM-W (p = 0.01) and HFM-OJ (p = 0.02), and remained high at 5 hours (p = 0.03) in overweight/obese women. Complement C3 remained unchanged, but showed different responses between meals (p = 0.01 for positive incremental area under the curve [piAUC] HFM-OJ vs. HFM-W, respectively). Conclusions In apparently healthy overweight/obese women compared with normal-weight ones, the concomitant intake of orange juice with a HFM prolonged postprandial lipemia but had no effect on postprandial complement C3 concentrations.
  • Ultrasonographic assessment of thyroid volume in oldest-old individuals Original Articles

    Duarte, Glaucia Cruzes; Araujo, Lara Miguel Quirino; Magalhães, Felix; Almada, Clineu Mello; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between thyroid volume and age, gender, anthropometric characteristics, and echogenicity in oldest-old subjects in an iodine-sufficient area. Subjects and methods The study included 81 independent elderly individuals aged ≥ 80 years (65 [80.2%] women). We determined these individuals’ anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (BMI), and lean body mass, as well as thyroid volume and echogenicity by ultrasonography. Results We observed that octogenarians and nonagenarians had different profiles of thyroid echogenicity. The volume of the thyroid was smaller in nonagenarians than octogenarians (p = 0.012, r = 0.176), and subjects aged 80–89 years had more often hypoechoic glands than those aged ≥ 90 years (p = 0.01 versus 0.602). Conclusion The identification of ultrasonographic differences in oldest-old individuals will contribute to establishing preclinical markers, such as echogenicity, to identify individuals at risk of developing autoimmune thyroid disease. Future prospective studies should identify if 80–89-year-old individuals with hypoechoic glands progress to hypothyroidism, and if the absence of changes in echogenicity (i.e. a normal thyroid parenchyma) would have a positive impact on longevity among nonagenarians.
  • Can FIB4 and NAFLD fibrosis scores help endocrinologists refer patients with non-alcoholic fat liver disease to a hepatologist? Original Articles

    Nones, Rodrigo Bremer; Ivantes, Cláudia Pontes; Pedroso, Maria Lucia Alves

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of mathematical models used in non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients to determine when the patient needs to be referred to a hepatologist. Subjects and methods Patients referred by endocrinologists to the liver outpatient departments in two hospitals in Curitiba, Brazil, over a 72-month period were analyzed. The results calculated using the APRI, FIB 4, FORNS and NAFLD Fibrosis Score non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment models were analyzed and compared with histological staging of this population. Results Sixty-seven patients with NAFLD were analyzed. Forty-two of them (62.68%) were female, mean age was 54.76 (±9.63) years, mean body mass index 31.42 (±5.64) and 59 (88.05%) of the 67 cases had glucose intolerance or diabetes. A diagnosis of steatohepatitis was made in 45 (76.27%) of the 59 biopsied patients, and advanced liver fibrosis (stages 3 and 4) was diagnosed in 18 (26.86%) of the 67 patients in the study population. The FIB 4 and NAFLD Fibrosis Score models had a high negative predictive value (93.48% and 93.61%, respectively) in patients with severe liver fibrosis (stages 3 and 4). Conclusion In conclusion, use of the FIB 4 and NAFLD Fibrosis Score models in NAFLD patients allows a diagnosis of severe liver disease to be excluded.
  • Visceral adiposity index and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in hypogonadism Original Articles

    Haymana, Cem; Sonmez, Alper; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Tapan, Serkan; Basaran, Yalcin; Meric, Coskun; Baskoy, Kamil; Dinc, Mustafa; Yazici, Mahmut; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Barcin, Cem; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Bolu, Erol; Azal, Omer

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Background Cardiometabolic risk is high in patients with hypogonadism. Visceral adiposity index (VAI) and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio are the practical markers of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance and independent predictors of cardiaovascular risk. To date, no study has evaluated VAI levels and TG/HDL-C ratio in hypogonadism. Subjects and methods A total of 112 patients with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age, 21.7 ± 2.06 years) and 124 healthy subjects (mean age, 21.5 ± 1.27 years) were enrolled. The demographic parameters, VAI, TG/HDL-C ratio, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were measured for all participants. Results The patients had higher total cholesterol (p = 0.04), waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels (p = 0.001 for all) than the healthy subjects. VAI and ADMA and TG/HDL-C levels were also higher in patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.001 for all). VAI was weakly correlated with ADMA (r = 0.27, p = 0.015), HOMA-IR (r = 0.22, p = 0.006), hs-CRP (r = 0.19, p = 0.04), and total testosterone (r = −0.21, p = 0.009) levels, whereas TG/HDL-C ratio was weakly correlated weakly with ADMA (r = 0.30, p = 0.003), HOMA-IR (r = 0.22, p = 0.006), and total testosterone (r = −0.16, p = 0.03) levels. Neither VAI nor TG/HDL-C ratio determined ADMA, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP levels. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that patients with hypogonadism have elevated VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio. These values are significantly correlated with the surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the predictive roles of VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio are not significant. Prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the role of VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio in predicting cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism.
  • Intrathoracic stomach mimicking bone metastasis from thyroid cancer in whole-body iodine-131 scan diagnosed by SPECT/CT Case Reports

    García-Gómez, Francisco Javier; la Riva-Pérez, Pablo Antonio de; Calvo-Morón, Cinta; Buján-Lloret, Cristina; Cambil-Molina, Teresa; Castro-Montaño, Juan

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY The whole-body iodine-131 scintigraphy is an imaging technique in monitoring patients with a history of thyroid cancer. Although the rate of false positives is negligible, it is not nonexistent. We report the case of an intervened and treated patient for thyroid cancer with good clinical and biochemical response. Scintigraphic findings were consistent with unsuspected bone metastasis. Fused SPECT/CT data allowed accurate diagnosis of giant diaphragmatic hernia associated with intrathoracic stomach, a very rare pathology that can lead to false positive results.
  • A rare case of ectopic ACTH syndrome originating from malignant renal paraganglioma Case Reports

    Tutal, Esra; Yılmazer, Demet; Demirci, Taner; Cakır, Evrim; Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Celep, Bahadır; Topaloğlu, Oya; Çakal, Erman

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is characterized by hypercortisolism due to the hypersecretion of a non-pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor leading to Cushing’s syndrome. Only a few cases have been reported previously as causing ectopic ACTH related to paraganglioma. Herein, we present a case of Cushing’s syndrome, in who was proved to be attributable to an ACTH-secreting renal malignant paraganglioma. A 40-year-old woman presented with a five-month history of newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes, weakness, hyperpigmentation, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, and acneiform lesions. She showed cushingoid features, including moon face, facial hirsutism, facial and truncal acne, hyperpigmentation, and severe muscle weakness of the limbs. She did not have other findings such as striae, supraclavicular fat accumulation, and buffalo hump. Laboratory examination showed the presence of hypopotasemia, hyperglycemia, hyperthyroidism, and leukocytosis. The serum levels of ACTH, cortisol, and urine-free cortisol were markedly elevated. Results of an overnight 2-mg dexamethasone suppression test included a basal serum cortisol of 61.1 mcg/dL (normal range: 4.6-22.8 mcg/dL) and a cortisol value of 46.1 mcg/dL after dexamethasone administration. There was no suppression found after 2-day 8-mg dexamethasone administration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland indicated two microadenomas. An abdominal MRI scan revealed horseshoe kidney, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, and masses with dimensions of 35 x 31 mm in the left kidney. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed no evidence of a central-to-peripheral gradient of ACTH. A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan showed intense increased activity in the lower pole of the left kidney. Left adrenalectomy and left partial nephrectomy were performed. The resected tumor was diagnosed as the ACTH-secreting paraganglioma in the pathological examination, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies with chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and ACTH. Only a few cases of paragangliomas as a cause of ectopic ACTH syndrome have been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first case of renal paraganglioma resulting in Cushing’s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH hypersecretion.
  • Glycated albumin: a potential biomarker in diabetes Review

    Freitas, Priscila Aparecida Correa; Ehlert, Lethicia Rozales; Camargo, Joíza Lins

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and metabolic disease that presents a high global incidence. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) is the reference test for long-term glucose monitoring, and it exhibits an association with diabetic chronic complications. However, A1C is not recommended in clinical situations which may interfere with the metabolism of hemoglobin, such as in hemolytic, secondary or iron deficiency anemia, hemoglobinopathies, pregnancy, and uremia. The glycated albumin (GA) is a test that reflects short-term glycemia and is not influenced by situations that falsely alter A1C levels. GA is the higher glycated portion of fructosamine. It is measured by a standardized enzymatic methodology, easy and fast to perform. These laboratory characteristics have ensured the highlight of GA in studies from the last decade, as a marker of monitoring and screening for DM, as well as a predictor of long-term outcomes of the disease. The aim of this review was to discuss the physiological and biochemistry characteristics of the GA, as well as its clinical utility in DM.
  • Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism Review

    Vilela, Leticia A. P.; Almeida, Madson Q.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension (HTN), with an estimated prevalence of 4% of hypertensive patients in primary care and around 10% of referred patients. Patients with PA have higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than age- and sex-matched patients with essential HTN and the same degree of blood pressure elevation. PA is characterized by an autonomous aldosterone production causing sodium retention, plasma renin supression, HTN, cardiovascular damage, and increased potassium excretion, leading to variable degrees of hypokalemia. Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) account for around 40% and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism for around 60% of PA cases. The aldosterone-to-renin ratio is the most sensitive screening test for PA. There are several confirmatory tests and the current literature does not identify a “gold standard” confirmatory test for PA. In our institution, we recommend starting case confirmation with the furosemide test. After case confirmation, all patients with PA should undergo adrenal CT as the initial study in subtype testing to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma. Bilateral adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method to define the PA subtype, but it is not indicated in all cases. An experienced radiologist must perform AVS. Unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the preferential treatment for patients with APAs, and bilateral hyperplasia should be treated with mineralocorticoid antagonist (spironolactone or eplerenone). Cardiovascular morbidity caused by aldosterone excess can be decreased by either unilateral adrenalectomy or mineralocorticoid antagonist. In this review, we address the most relevant issues regarding PA screening, case confirmation, subtype classification, and treatment.
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