Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives: Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the presence of the pro-inflammatory state associated with the development of many comorbidities, including bone turnover marker alterations. This study aimed to investigate the role of the inflammatory state on bone turnover markers in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary weight loss treatment for one year. Subjects and methods: Thirty four post-pubescent obese adolescents with primary obesity, a body mass index (BMI) greater than > 95th percentile of the CDC reference growth charts, participated in the present investigation. Measurements of body composition, bone turnover markers, inflammatory biomarkers and visceral and subcutaneous fat were taken. Adolescents were submitted to one year of interdisciplinary treatment (clinical approach, physical exercise, physiotherapy intervention, nutritional and psychological counseling). Results: Reduction in body mass, body fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous fat, as well as, an increase in the body lean mass and bone mineral content was observed. An improvement in inflammatory markers was seen with an increase in adiponectin, adiponectin/leptin ratio and inteleukin-15. Moreover, a positive correlation between the adiponectin/leptin ratio and osteocalcin was demonstrated. Further, both lean and body fat mass were predictors of osteocalcin. Negative associations between leptin with osteocalcin, adiponectin with Beta CTX-collagen, and visceral fat with adiponectin were observed. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that the inflammatory state can negatively influence the bone turnover markers in obese adolescents. In addition, the interdisciplinary weight loss treatment improved the inflammatory state and body composition in obese adolescents. Therefore, the present findings should be considered in clinical practice.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: The role of bone markers on insulin resistance (IR) remains controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and glucose metabolism and investigate if visceral hyperadiposity, evaluated by waist circumference (WC), is an effect modifier of this association. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional analysis with 468 young adults from the fourth follow-up of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto prospective birth cohort, Brazil. BMD, total osteocalcin (OC), fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were assessed. IR, sensitivity (S) and secretion (β) were estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes. Multiple linear regression models were constructed to estimate the association between BMD and glucose metabolism. Beta coefficient, R2 and p-values were provided. WC was tested as an effect modifier and OC as a confounder. The covariates were selected based on Direct Acyclic Graph. Results: Significant interaction between BMD (femoral neck and proximal femur areas) and WC on glucose metabolism was observed in the adjusted models. Subjects with increased WC presented a positive association between BMD and log HOMA1-IR while an inverse association was found in those with normal WC (femoral neck R2 = 0.17, p = 0.036; proximal femur R2 = 0.16, p = 0.086). BMD was negatively associated with log HOMA2-S in individuals with increased WC and positively in those with normal WC (femoral neck R2 = 0.16, p = 0.042; proximal femur R2 = 0.15, p = 0.097). No significant associations between BMD, log HOMA2-β and OC and glucose metabolism markers were observed. Conclusions: BMD was associated with glucose metabolism, independently of OC, and WC modifies this association.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the following: 1) the accuracy of sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) in detecting metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 2) if SLNM could modify the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of previous cN0 PTC patients. Subjects and methods: Forty SLNM were performed prospectively in 38 consecutive cN0 PTC patients, with total thyroidectomy and elective compartment neck dissection (CND). The results of SLNM were compared with CND pathological findings to verify the accuracy of sentinel SLNM. Results: The mean patients’ follow-up was 36 months. A total of 133 SLN were found at levels VI, II, III and IV. The SLN was identified in 95% of the patients with one false negative, 95% sensitivity, a 94% negative predictive value and 97% accuracy. The SLNM upstaging from cN0 to pN+ was 49%, and to stages III and IVa, it was 21%. Conclusions: For this series of cN0 PTC patients: 1) SLNM accuracy was 97%, and 2) SLNM upstaging from cN0 to pN+ was 49%, whereas to stages III and IVa, it was 21%.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil, imposing substantial economic burden on the health care system. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is known to greatly increase the risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to estimate the economic impact of hospitalizations due to CAD attributable to FH in the Brazilian Unified Health Care System (SUS). Subjects and methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of data obtained from the Hospital Information System of the SUS (SIHSUS). We selected all adults (≥ 20 years of age) hospitalized from 2012-2014 with primary diagnoses related to CAD (ICD-10 I20 to I25). Attributable risk methodology estimated the contribution of FH in the outcomes of interest, using international data for prevalence (0.4% and 0.73%) and relative risk for events (RR = 8.56). Results: Assuming an international prevalence of FH of 0.4% and 0.73%, of the 245,981 CAD admissions/year in Brazil, approximately 7,249 and 12,915, respectively, would be attributable to an underlying diagnosis of FH. The total cost due to CAD per year, considering both sexes and all adults, was R$ 985,919,064, of which R$ 29,053,500 and R$ 51,764,175, respectively, were estimated to be attributable to FH. The average cost per FH-related CAD event was R$ 4,008. Conclusion: Based on estimated costs of hospitalization for CAD, we estimated that 2.9-5.3% are directed to FH patients. FH can require early specific therapies to lower risk in families. It is mandatory to determine the prevalence of FH and institute appropriate treatment to minimize the clinical and economic impact of this disease in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters on oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects. Subjects and methods: Individuals were divided into three groups: the control group (G1, n = 131) with a BMI between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2, the overweight group (G2, n = 120) with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and the obese group (G3, n = 79) with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Results: G3 presented higher advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in relation to G1 and G2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively) whereas G2 and G3 had lower levels of nitric oxide (NO) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively) compared to G1. Adjusted for the presence of MetS to evaluate its influence, the levels of AOPPs did not differ between the groups, whereas NO remained significantly lower. Data adjusted by the BMI showed that subjects with higher triacylglycerol levels had higher AOPPs (p = 0.001) and decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter/uric Acid (p = 0.036). Subjects with lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and patients with higher blood pressure showed increased AOPPs (p = 0.001 and p = 0.034, respectively) and lower NO levels (p = 0.017 and p = 0.043, respectively). Subjects who presented insulin resistance had higher AOPPs (p = 0.024). Conclusions: Nitrosative stress was related to BMI, and protein oxidation and nitrosative stress were related to metabolic changes and hypertension. MetS components were essential participants in oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by parathyroid hormone deficiency and hypocalcemia. It has been demonstrated that these patients may also present psychiatric symptoms and decrease of quality of life. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of psychopathological symptoms in a cohort of patients with hypoparathyroidism and compare to a control group. Subjects and methods: Patients were submitted to a cross-sectional Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) questionnaire that evaluates psychopathological symptoms by means of the Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptoms Total (PST) and Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI). A score based in the positive symptoms was calculated (T-score). The test group was composed of patients with hypoparathyroidism, and control by thyroidectomized patients without hypoparathyroidism. A correlation between the presence of psychological symptoms and clinical features was analyzed. Results: The study included 57 patients with a mean age of 51.1 ± 16.4 years; 20 as a control and 37, test group. There were no differences between groups regarding gender, mean age and age at diagnose. Hypoparathyroidism patients presented higher GSI index than the control group (p = 0.038). Mean T-score of the test group was as elevated as 58.2 ± 5.3 (reference range < 55). No correlation of the number of psychological symptoms to clinical and laboratorial parameters was observed. Conclusion: Patients with hypoparathyroidism attending our outpatient clinics presented an increase in the number of self-report of psychological symptoms when compared with a control group. However, no correlation with hypocalcemia and clinical parameters was observed. Future studies are necessary to evaluated if the absence of PTH play a role on it.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: The testosterone:cortisol ratio (T:C) is suggested to be used in order to examine whether physical exercise generates either a “catabolic environment” or an “anabolic environment”. The present study aims to evaluate the acute time-course profile of cortisol and testosterone due to an episode of physical exercise. A biphasic profile in the T:C ratio response was hypothesized. Materials and methods: Morning sessions of treadmill running at two different intensities (Heart Rate at 65% and 80% of the maximum cardiac reserve) were performed by 6 male non-runners (NR) and 12 trained male runners (subdivided into trained runners T1 and T2). Cortisol and testosterone were measured in saliva. NR and T1 ran for 30 minutes at both intensities, and T2 ran for 46 minutes (± 4.1) at 65% and 42 minutes (± 3.5) at 80%. Results: In the 80% heart rate target, both groups of runners showed the biphasic time-profile, while the non-runners group did not. However, at the 65% level, none of the groups presented the hypothesized biphasic response. Conclusions: A biphasic time-profile in the testosterone:cortisol ratio can be seen in short-bout, high intensity exercise (treadmill running) during the morning in men trained for this specific physical activity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association of isolated hypothyroxinemia in the first trimester with obstetric and neonatal outcomes and iron deficiency. Subjects and methods: The study was prospective. Women who had become pregnant spontaneously were initially selected. Next, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), free T4 (FT4), total T4 (TT4), TSH, and ferritin were measured. TPOAb-positive women were excluded. The final sample consisted of 596 women with serum TSH between 0.1 and 2.5 mIU/l. Hypothyroxinemia was defined as FT4 < 0.86 ng/dL and < 0.92 ng/dL, corresponding to the 5th and 10th percentiles, respectively, and TT4 < 7.8 ng/dL. None of the pregnant women was treated with levothyroxine until the end of pregnancy. Results: The women ranged in age from 18 to 36 years, with a median gestation of 9 weeks. T4 levels were not correlated with BMI or maternal TSH. Isolated hypothyroxinemia was observed in 4.3% (FT4 < 0.86 ng/dL), 9% (FT4 < 0.92 ng/dL), and 7% (TT4 < 7.8 ng/dL) of the pregnant women. The frequencies of obstetric and neonatal outcomes were similar in women with versus without hypothyroxinemia. In women without iron deficiency, 8.4%, 3.9%, and 6.5% had FT4 < 0.92 ng/dl, FT4 < 0.86 ng/dL and TT4 < 7.8 ng/dL, respectively. These frequencies of hypothyroxinemia were significantly higher among women with iron deficiency (20.7%, 14.8% and 17.2%, respectively). Conclusions: This prospective Brazilian study found no association between isolated hypothyroxinemia in the first trimester of gestation and obstetric or neonatal outcomes, but an association was demonstrated with iron deficiency.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of carbohydrate counting (CHOC) in the treatment of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Materials and methods: We performed a systematic review of randomized studies that compared CHOC with general dietary advice in adult patients with DM1. The primary outcomes were changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), quality of life, and episodes of severe hypoglycemia. We searched the following electronic databases: Embase, PubMed, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The quality of evidence was analyzed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Results: A total of 3,190 articles were identified, and two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts. From the 15 potentially eligible studies, five were included, and 10 were excluded because of the lack of randomization or different control/intervention groups. Meta-analysis showed that the final HbA1c was significantly lower in the CHOC group than in the control group (mean difference, random, 95% CI: −0.49 (-0.85, −0.13), p = 0.006). The meta-analysis of severe hypoglycemia and quality of life did not show any significant differences between the groups. According to the GRADE, the quality of evidence for severe hypoglycemia, quality of life, and change in HbA1c was low, very low, and moderate, respectively. Conclusion: The meta-analysis showed evidence favoring the use of CHOC in the management of DM1. However, this benefit was limited to final HbA1c, which was significantly lower in the CHOC than in the control group.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces body weight and the comorbidities associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether glucose and lipid profiles were maintained during a 5-year follow-up period after RYGB. Subjects and methods: Anthropometric and laboratory data from 323 patients who had undergone this operation were analyzed. Differences in laboratory variables between the baseline and 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months postoperatively (PO) were assessed using a one-way ANOVA test to compare the three groups. Delta significance using one-way ANOVA was performed to assess anthropometric variable in the postoperative period (p < 0.05). Results: 77 patients (24%) were included in Group 1 (G1), 101 (32%) in Group 2 (G2), and 141 (44%) in Group 3 (G3). The majority of patients, 71.7% in G1, 82.8% in G2, and 70% in G3, showed high triglycerides (TG) before surgery. A decrease in weight loss was observed in all groups followed by an increase in body weight in G2 and G3 at 36, 48 and 60 months. Laboratory results for G1, G2 and G3 showed no significant differences between groups at baseline and during the post-operative period. Conclusion: Our results suggest that weight regain after RYGB has no significant impact on the long-term evolution of the lipid profile and glycemia.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex endocrine disorder that affects 5-20% of reproductive age women. PCOS clinical symptoms include hirsutism, menstrual dysfunction, infertility, obesity and metabolic syndrome. There is a wide heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and metabolic complications. The pathogenesis of PCOS is not fully elucidated, but four aspects seem to contribute to the syndrome to different degrees: increased ovarian and/or adrenal androgen secretion, partial folliculogenesis arrest, insulin resistance and neuroendocrine axis dysfunction. A definitive etiology remains to be elucidated, but PCOS has a strong heritable component indicated by familial clustering and twin studies. Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified several new risk loci and candidate genes for PCOS. Despite these findings, the association studies have explained less than 10% of heritability. Therefore, we could speculate that different phenotypes and subphenotypes are caused by rare private genetic variants. Modern genetic studies, such as whole exome and genome sequencing, will help to clarify the contribution of these rare genetic variants on different PCOS phenotypes. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018;62(3):352-61
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate changes in thyroid function after 5 years, the interval proposed for new assessment, in initially euthyroid adults. Subjects and methods: Initially, 1,426 apparently healthy adults considered low risk for thyroid dysfunction, were evaluated by measurement of TSH. After 5 years, 1,215 (85.2%) subjects were reevaluated. Results: After 5 years, four subjects were receiving levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement therapy and 25 others had TSH > 4 mIU/L, only two of them with TSH > 10 mIU/L. All of these subjects had TSH > 3 mIU/L in the initial evaluation. During reassessment, none of the subjects had been or was treated for hyperthyroidism and 22 had TSH < 0.4 mIU/L (none of them < 0.1 mIU/L). Nineteen of these subjects had TSH ≤ 0.6 mIU/L in the initial evaluation. Among the 1,098 subjects with TSH between 0.6 and 3 mIU/L in the initial evaluation, reassessment showed that none of the subjects was using L-T4; only three had TSH > 4 mIU/L (none of them > 10 mIU/L); none had been or was treated for hyperthyroidism, and only three had TSH < 0.4 mIU/L (none of them < 0.1 mIU/L). These results did not differ between men and women or between subjects ≤ 60 and > 60 years. Conclusion: Repeat TSH measurement within an interval of only 5 years would not be cost-effective in adults without known thyroid disease or risk factors for dysfunction who exhibit TSH between 0.6 and 3 mIU/L.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease that leads to ocular proptosis caused by fat accumulation and inflammation, and the main treatment is corticosteroid therapy. Retinoid acid receptor-alpha (RARα) seems to be associated with inflammation and adipocyte differentiation. This study aimed to assess the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on orbital fibroblasts of GO patient treated or not with different glucocorticoid doses. Materials and methods: Orbital fibroblasts collected during orbital decompression of a female patient with moderately severe/severe GO were cultivated and treated with 10 nM and 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex). rRARα gene expression in the treated and untreated cells was then compared. Results: Fibroblast RARα expression was not affected by 100 nM Dex. On the other hand, RARα expression was 24% lower in cells treated with 10 nM Dex (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Orbital fibroblasts from a GO patient expressed the RARα gene, which was unaffected by higher, but decreased with lower doses of glucocorticoid.
Abstract in English:Summary Total thyroidectomy, radioiodine (RAI) therapy, and TSH suppression are the mainstay treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). Treatments for metastatic disease include surgery, external-beam radiotherapy, RAI, and kinase inhibitors for progressive iodine-refractory disease. Unresectable locoregional disease remains a challenge, as standard therapy with RAI becomes unfeasible. We report a case of a young patient who presented with unresectable papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and treatment with sorafenib allowed total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy. A 20-year-old male presented with severe respiratory distress due to an enlarging cervical mass. Imaging studies revealed an enlarged multinodular thyroid gland, extensive cervical adenopathy, severe tracheal stenosis, and pulmonary micronodules. He required an urgent surgical intervention and underwent tracheostomy and partial left neck dissection, as the disease was deemed unresectable; pathology revealed PTC. Treatment with sorafenib was initiated, resulting in significant tumor reduction allowing near total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection. Postoperatively, the patient underwent radiotherapy for residual tracheal lesion, followed by RAI therapy for avid cervical and pulmonary disease. The patient's disease remains stable 4 years after diagnosis. Sorafenib has been approved for progressive RAI-refractory metastatic DTCs. In this case report, we describe a patient with locally advanced PTC in whom treatment with sorafenib provided sufficient tumor reduction to allow thyroidectomy and RAI therapy, suggesting a potential role of sorafenib as an induction therapy of unresectable DTC.
Abstract in English:Summary Laminopathies are genetic disorders associated with alterations in nuclear envelope proteins, known as lamins. The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C, and LMNA mutations have been linked to diseases involving fat (type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy [FPLD2]), muscle (type 2 Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy [EDMD2], type 1B limb-girdle muscular dystrophy [LGMD1B], and dilated cardiomyopathy), nerves (type 2B1 Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease), and premature aging syndromes. Moreover, overlapping syndromes have been reported. This study aimed to determine the genetic basis of an overlapping syndrome in a patient with heart disease, myopathy, and features of lipodystrophy, combined with severe metabolic syndrome. We evaluated a 54-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic hypercortisolism (endogenous and exogenous), and a history of cured adrenal Cushing syndrome. The patient presented with a complex disorder, including metabolic syndrome associated with mild partial lipodystrophy (Köbberling-like); mild hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, with Wolff–Parkinson– White syndrome and atrial fibrillation; and limb-girdle inflammatory myopathy. Mutational analysis of the LMNA gene showed a heterozygous c.1634G>A (p.R545H) variant in exon 10 of LMNA. This variant has previously been independently associated with FPLD2, EDMD2, LGMD1B, and heart disease. We describe a new, LMNA-associated, complex overlapping syndrome in which fat, muscle, and cardiac disturbances are related to a p.R545H variant.