Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume: 63, Issue: 6, Published: 2019
  • Closing 2019 with a golden key Editorial

    Bronstein, Marcello D.
  • What’s in a name? What we call growth hormone is much more than just a growth-related peptide Editorial

    Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva
  • Effects of growth hormone in the central nervous system Review

    Wasinski, Frederick; Frazão, Renata; Donato, Jose

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Growth hormone (GH) is best known for its effect stimulating tissue and somatic growth through the regulation of cell division, regeneration and proliferation. However, GH-responsive neurons are spread over the entire central nervous system, suggesting that they have important roles in the brain. The objective of the present review is to summarize and discuss the potential physiological importance of GH action in the central nervous system. We provide evidence that GH signaling in the brain regulates the physiology of numerous functions such as cognition, behavior, neuroendocrine changes and metabolism. Data obtained from experimental animal models have shown that disruptions in GH signaling in specific neuronal populations can affect the reproductive axis and impair food intake during glucoprivic conditions, neuroendocrine adaptions during food restriction, and counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, and they can modify gestational metabolic adaptions. Therefore, the brain is an important target tissue of GH, and changes in GH action in the central nervous system can explain some dysfunctions presented by individuals with excessive or deficient GH secretion. Furthermore, GH acts in specific neuronal populations during situations of metabolic stress to promote appropriate physiological adjustments that restore homeostasis. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):549-56
  • New insights of growth hormone (GH) actions from tissue-specific GH receptor knockouts in mice Review

    List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Jensen, Elizabeth A.; Kulkarni, Prateek; McKenna, Savannah; Kopchick, John J.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In order to provide new insights into the various activities of GH in specific tissues, recent advances have allowed for the generation of tissue-specific GHR knockout mice. To date, 21 distinct tissue-specific mouse lines have been created and reported in 28 publications. Targeted tissues include liver, muscle, fat, brain, bone, heart, intestine, macrophage, pancreatic beta cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and multi-tissue “global”. In this review, we provide a brief history and description of the 21 tissue-specific GHR knockout mouse lines. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):557-67
  • Growth hormone in the tumor microenvironment Review

    Chesnokova, Vera; Melmed, Shlomo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Tumor development is a multistep process whereby local mechanisms enable somatic mutations during preneoplastic stages. Once a tumor develops, it becomes a complex organ composed of multiple cell types. Interactions between malignant and non-transformed cells and tissues create a tumor microenvironment (TME) comprising epithelial cancer cells, cancer stem cells, non-tumorous cells, stromal cells, immune-inflammatory cells, blood and lymphatic vascular network, and extracellular matrix. We review reports and present a hypothesis that postulates the involvement of growth hormone (GH) in field cancerization. We discuss GH contribution to TME, promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage, tumor vascularity, and resistance to therapy. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):568-75
  • The promise of growth hormone in sport: doped or duped Review

    Ho, Ken K. Y.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle is a target tissue of GH. Based on its anabolic properties, it is widely accepted that GH enhances muscle performance in sports. Athletic performance depends on muscle strength and the energy required to power muscle function. The energy required to power muscle function is derived from a continuum of anaerobic and aerobic sources. Molecular and functional studies provide evidence that in muscle GH stimulates the anaerobic and suppresses the aerobic energy system, in turn affecting power-based functional measures in a time-dependent manner. In recreational athletes, GH improves anaerobic capacity but has not been proven to significantly enhance muscle strength, power, or maximum rate of oxygen consumption. GH appears likely to selectively benefit sprint events and not physical performance that depends on strength and endurance. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):576-81
  • Insulin signaling in the whole spectrum of GH deficiency Review

    Garmes, Heraldo Mendes; Castillo, Alejandro Rosell

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT GH is one of the insulin counterregulatory hormones which acts in the opposite way to insulin, increasing the glucose production by the liver and kidneys and decreasing glucose uptake from peripheral tissues, thus being a hyperglycemic hormone. When in excess, as in acromegaly, it induces glucose intolerance and diabetes. As expected, patients with GH deficiency (GHD) have hypoglycemia, especially in early childhood, but as GH is also a lipolytic hormone, these patients are becoming obese with higher percentages of body fat. Although obesity in general is directly related to insulin resistance, in patients with GH secretion disorders this relationship may be altered. In acromegaly there is a decrease in fat mass with worsening insulin sensitivity and mice with isolated GHD are characterized by greater insulin sensitivity despite excess fat mass. In humans with GHD, body composition shows increased body fat and decreased free fat mass, but the results regarding insulin sensitivity are still controversial in these patients. These discrepant results regarding insulin sensitivity in patients with GHD suggest the existence of other variables influencing these results. In the present review, we will try to follow the path of the different researches conducted on this subject, both in animal and human models, with the goal of understanding the current knowledge of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of GHD. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):582-91
  • Personalized approach to growth hormone replacement in adults Review

    van Bunderen, Christa C.; Glad, Camilla; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Olsson, Daniel S.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adults is well-characterized and includes abnormal body composition, reduced bone mass, an adverse cardiovascular risk profile, and impaired quality of life. In the early 1990s, it was also shown that patients with hypopituitarism without GH replacement therapy (GHRT) had excess mortality. Today, GHRT has been shown to decrease or reverse the negative effects of GHD. In addition, recent papers have shown that mortality and morbidity are approaching normal in hypopituitary patients with GHD who receive modern endocrine therapy including GHRT. Since the first dose-finding studies, it has been clear that efficacy and side effects differ substantially between patients. Many factors have been suggested as affecting responsiveness, such as sex, age, age at GHD onset, adherence, and GH receptor polymorphisms, with sex and sex steroid replacement having the greatest impact. Therefore, the individual tailoring of GH dose is of great importance to achieve sufficient efficacy without side effects. One group that stands out is women receiving oral estrogen replacement, who needs the highest dose. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is still the most used biochemical biomarker for GH dose titration, although the best serum IGF-1 target is still debated. Patients with GHD due to acromegaly, Cushing’s disease, or craniopharyngioma experience similar effects from GHRT as others. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):592-600
  • Perspectives on long-acting growth hormone therapy in children and adults Review

    Lal, Rayhan A.; Hoffman, Andrew R.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Growth hormone therapy with daily injections of recombinant human growth hormone has been available since 1985, and is shown to be safe and effective treatment for short stature in children and for adult growth hormone deficiency. In an effort to produce a product that would improve patient adherence, there has been a strong effort from industry to create a long acting form of growth hormone to ease the burden of use. Technologies used to increase half-life include depot formulations, PEGylated formulations, pro-drug formulations, non-covalent albumin binding growth hormone and growth hormone fusion proteins. At present, two long acting formulations are on the market in China and South Korea, and several more promising agents are under clinical investigation at various stages of development throughout the world. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):601-7
  • Update on new GH-IGF axis genetic defects Review

    Vasques, Gabriela A.; Andrade, Nathalia L. M.; Correa, Fernanda A.; Jorge, Alexander A. L.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The somatotropic axis is the main hormonal regulator of growth. Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are the key components of the somatotropic axis. This axis has been studied for a long time and the knowledge of how some molecules could promote or impair hormones production and action has been growing over the last decade. The enhancement of large-scale sequencing techniques has expanded the spectrum of known genes and several other candidate genes that could affect the GH-IGF1-bone pathway. To date, defects in more than forty genes were associated with an impairment of the somatotropic axis. These defects can affect from the secretion of GH to the bioavailability and action of IGF-1. Affected patients present a large heterogeneous group of conditions associated with growth retardation. In this review, we focus on the description of the GH-IGF axis genetic defects reported in the last decade. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):608-17
  • Laboratory investigations in the diagnosis and follow-up of GH-related disorders Review

    Schilbach, Katharina; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In addition to auxiological, clinical and metabolic features measurements of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) complement our tools in diagnosis and follow-up of GH-related disorders. While comparably robust during the pre-analytical phase, measurement and interpretation of concentrations of both hormones can be challenging due to analytical issues and biological confounders. Assay methods differ in terms of antibody specificity, interference from binding proteins, reference preparations and sensitivity. GH assays have different specificity towards different GH-isoforms (e.g. 20 kDa GH, placental GH) and interference from the GH antagonist Pegvisomant. The efficacy to prevent binding protein interference is most important in IGF-I assays. Methodological differences between assays require that reference intervals and diagnostic cut-offs are assay-specific. Among biological variables, pubertal development and age are most relevant for IGF-I, making detailed reference intervals mandatory for interpretation. GH has pulsatile secretion and short half-life. Its concentration is modified by acute factors such as stress, exercise and sleep, but also by intake of oral estrogens and anthropometric factors (e.g. BMI). Other GH dependent biomarkers such as free IGF-I, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP 3) and acid labile subunit (ALS) have been proposed. Their concentrations largely mirror the information obtained through measurement of IGF-I, but their measurement can be helpful in particular situations. In this review, we describe the evolution of analytical methods to measure biomarkers of GH action, the impact of the methodological changes on laboratory results and the need to include biological variables in their interpretation. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):618-29
  • Determinants of morbidities and mortality in acromegaly Review

    Kasuki, Leandro; Rocha, Paula da Silva; Lamback, Elisa Baranski; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Acromegaly is a systemic disease associated with increased morbidity, presenting cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, neoplastic, endocrine, articular and bone complications. Most of these comorbidities can be prevented or delayed with adequate disease treatment and, more recent studies with the use of modern treatments of acromegaly, have shown a change in the severity and prevalence of these complications. In addition, acromegaly is associated with increased mortality, but recent studies (especially those published in the last decade) have shown a different scenario than older studies, with mortality no longer being increased in adequately controlled patients and a change in the main cause of death from cardiovascular disease to malignancy. In this review, we discuss this changing face of acromegaly summarizing current knowledge and evidence on morbimortality of the disease. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):630-7
  • Acromegaly in the elderly patient Review

    Jallad, Raquel S.; Bronstein, Marcello D.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Acromegaly is an insidious disease, usually resulting from growth hormone hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma. It is most often diagnosed during the 3rd to 4th decade of life. However, recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence and prevalence of acromegaly in the elderly, probably due to increasing life expectancy. As in the younger population with acromegaly, there is a delay in diagnosis, aggravated by the similarities of the aging process with some of the characteristics of the disease. As can be expected elderly patients with acromegaly have a higher prevalence of comorbidities than younger ones. The diagnostic criteria are the same as for younger patients. Surgical treatment of the pituitary adenoma is the primary therapy of choice unless contraindicated. Somatostatin receptor ligands are generally effective as both primary and postoperative treatment. The prognosis correlates inversely with the patient’s age, disease duration and last GH level. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):638-45
  • The position of combined medical treatment in acromegaly Review

    Coopmans, Eva C.; van Meyel, Sebastiaan W. F.; van der Lely, Aart J; Neggers, Sebastian J. C. M. M.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Advances in combination medical treatment have offer new perspectives for acromegaly patients with persistent disease activity despite receiving the available medical monotherapies. The outcomes of combination medical treatment may reflect both additive and synergistic effects. This review focuses on combination medical treatment and its current position in acromegaly, based on clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of combined medical treatment(s) and our own experiences with combination therapy. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):646-52
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