Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: There are discrepancies about the relationship of IL-6, clusterin and irisin with obesity and obesity associated insulin resistance and also about their sexual dimorphism. This study aimed at evaluating the circulating levels of IL-6, clusterin and irisin in obese subjects of both sexes who had different grades of obesity and examining their sexual dimorphism and their association with insulin resistance. Subjects and methods: This study included 176 non-diabetic subjects of both sexes who were classified according to their sex into two groups; the male and the female groups. The male group (88 men) was classified according to BMI into; group 1 (22 lean men), group 2 (22 class I obese men), group 3 (22 class II obese men) and group 4 (22 class III obese men). The female group (88 women) was classified according to BMI exactly as the male group. Metabolic parameters, IL-6, clusterin, and irisin levels were measured. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test, post hoc Tukey’s test and independent t-test. Pearson correlation was used to assess the association between variables. Results: In obese subjects of both sexes, circulating IL-6, clusterin and irisin levels were significantly elevated and positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Obese males showed significantly higher HOMA-IR, IL-6, clusterin and irisin levels than obese females. Conclusion: Obesity in both sexes, especially in males was associated with high levels of IL-6, clusterin and irisin and worsened the metabolic pattern. Circulating IL-6, clusterin and irisin may represent possible therapeutic targets for insulin resistance in obese subjects.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: Some experimental and clinical studies suggest a possible role of irisin in central and peripheral regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of the study was to assess the associations between serum irisin levels, total and visceral fat, metabolic parameters, and blood pressure pattern during 24-h monitoring (ABPM). Materials and methods: In 206 patients with essential hypertension receiving standard antihypertensive treatments, we assessed anthropometric indices; serum irisin, blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides), glucose and insulin; body composition including lean mass and total, visceral, android and gynoid fat using a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; ABPM; and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: Baseline irisin levels were within normal reference ranges and comparable between the genders. There were no significant correlations of irisin with age, anthropometric variables, lipids, HOMA-IR, body composition, as well as 24-h blood pressure and dipping status. In univariate analysis, age, fat mass and distribution, lipids and glucose, HOMA-IR, and nocturnal blood pressure fall were poor predictors of irisin levels. These neutral associations were not affected by age, gender, and treatment modality. Conclusions: In young adult hypertensives, serum concentration of irisin was within a normal range and not associated with total and regional fat, blood lipids, insulin resistance, as well as 24-h blood pressure and the magnitude of its nocturnal fall.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: Male hypogonadism (MH) is common among infertile men. Besides testosterone, limited MH biomarkers are available, while researchers have suggested the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to help diagnose MH. Hence, we sought to evaluate the potential use of PSA to predict MH among relatively young men with infertility in Nigeria. Materials and methods: The study included 707 male partners (35–44 years) in infertile couples seeking infertility evaluation at a third-level care center in Nigeria. MH was diagnosed using standard guidelines. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and regression analyses explored the potential of serum free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) in predicting MH and MH-related clinical features. Results: In all, 29.7% of the patients had MH (MH+ve). The MH+ve group had lower mean values of fPSA and tPSA than the group without MH (MH-ve). The best fPSA threshold of < 0.25 μg/L compared with the best tPSA threshold of < 0.74 μg/L had higher accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] 0.908 versus 0.866, respectively), sensitivity (87% versus 83%, respectively), and specificity (42% versus 37%, respectively) for MH diagnosis. After adjustment for confounders, fPSA level ≤ 0.25 μg/L was more likely to predict MH-related decreased libido (odds ratio [OR] 2.728, p<0.001) and erectile dysfunction (OR 3.925, p<0.001) compared with tPSA ≤ 0.74 μg/L in the MH+ve group. Conclusion: For MH diagnosis, fPSA and tPSA had good sensitivity but very poor specificity, although fPSA had better potential for MH diagnosis and association with MH-related clinical features than tPSA. Hence, fPSA could complement other biomarkers for MH diagnosis in men 35–44 years, although we recommend further studies to confirm these findings.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the reasons for request of bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation and correlate the BMD results with previous fractures, risk factors for osteoporosis, and clinical characteristics in patients with obesity. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional, retrospective, single-site study including adult patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 and BMD evaluation between January 2015 and May 2016 selected from a BMD database. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, comorbidities, medications, risk factors, previous fractures, and indications for BMD evaluation were collected from the participants’ medical records. Results: The study included 619 patients (89.9% women, mean BMI 34.79 ± 4.05 kg/m2). In all, 382 (61.7%), 166 (26.8%), and 71 (11.5%) patients had class 1, 2, and 3 obesity, respectively. The most frequent (29.9%) reason for BMD evaluation was for osteoporosis monitoring. In all, 69.4% of the patients had low BMD. Multivariate analysis showed that age, calcium supplementation, and previous osteoporosis or osteopenia were associated with low BMD, while age, vitamin D supplementation, use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and low BMD were associated with previous fractures (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Among patients with obesity identified from a tertiary hospital database, those with low bone mass and risk factors traditionally associated with fractures had an increased history of fractures. Patients with greater BMI had better bone mass and fewer fractures. These findings indicate that the association between reduced weight, risk factors for osteoporosis, and fractures remained despite the presence of obesity in our population.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and the treatment satisfaction in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using insulin analogues. Subjects and methods: This observational retrospective study included 516 adult patients with T1D from 38 cities in Southern Brazil. Demographics and clinical data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Hypoglycemia was defined as an event based on either symptoms or self-monitored blood glucose < 70 mg/dL. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status version (DTSQs) and with a specific question with scores ranging from 0–10. Common mental disorders were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: Overall, the mean age was 38 ± 14 years and 52% of the participants were women. The median diabetes duration was 18 years. The scores for insulin analogue treatment satisfaction were higher than those for previous treatments. DTSQ scores had a median value of 32 (interquartile range 29–35) and remained unchanged over time. The percentage of patients with hypoglycemia (including severe and nocturnal) was comparable across groups divided according to duration of use of insulin analogues. Most patients (n=395, 77%) screened positive for common mental disorders. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with insulin analogue treatment was high and remained unchanged with time. Episodes of hypoglycemia also remained unchanged over time among patients using insulin analogues.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: Abnormalities involving the TGFB1 gene and its receptors are common in several types of cancer and often related to tumor progression. We investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the susceptibility to cancer, their impact on its features, as well as the role of mRNA expression of these genes in thyroid malignancy. Materials and methods: We genotyped TGFB1, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2 SNPs in 157 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients and 200 healthy controls. Further, we investigated RNA samples of 47 PTC and 80 benign nodules, searching for differential mRNA expression. Results: SNPs rs1800472 and rs1800469 were associated with characteristics of PTC aggressiveness. Effect predictor software analysis of nonsynonymous SNP rs1800472 indicated increasing protein stability and post-translational changes. TGFB1 mRNA expression was upregulated in PTC and downregulated in benign samples, differentiating malignant from benign nodules (p<0.0001); PTC from goiter (p<0.0001); and PTC from FA (p<0.0001). TGFBR1 mRNA expression was upregulated in goiter and PTC, but downregulated in FA, distinguishing PTC from goiter (p=0.0049); PTC from FA (p<0.0001); and goiter from FA (p=0.0267). On the other hand, TGFBR2 was downregulated in all histological types analyzed and was not able to differentiate thyroid nodules. Conclusion: TGFB1 polymorphism rs1800472 may confer greater activity to TGF-β1 in the tumor microenvironment, favoring PTC aggressiveness. Evaluation of TGFB1 and TGFBR1 mRNA levels may be useful to identify malignancy in thyroid nodules.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate the patients’ glycemic control and adherence to self-care tasks. Materials and methods: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) using a multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen with carbohydrate counting (n = 25, Subgroup B) or fixed insulin dose (n = 25, Subgroup C) were allocated to use the application (app) for 12 weeks. Both subgroups were compared with each other and against a control group (n = 25, Group A) comprising patients with T1DM or LADA treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in a parallel-group, open-label, clinical treatment trial. All patients had glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels measured and were asked to fill out the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) questionnaire at study start and end. The patients were instructed to measure capillary glucose six times daily in study weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Mean A1C levels decreased 0.725% in Subgroup C in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0063), and had a mean variation of 0.834% compared with Group A (p = 0.003). Mean DSMP scores increased 5.77 points in Subgroup B in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0004) and increased by a mean of 6.815 points in relation to Group A (p = 0.002). Conclusion: OneTouch Reveal improved both A1C levels and DSMP scores in patients with T1DM or LADA compared with standard treatment (CSII).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of exercise interventions in DPN patients from randomized controlled trials. The primary outcomes were the risk of falls, fear of falling, balance and quality of life. Two reviewers independently selected studies from Embase, Medline, LILACS, CENTRAL, and PEDro. They assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the trials. The relative risk (RR) and the differences between means (MD) were calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and used as the effect size. We used a random-effects model to pool results across studies, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to evaluate the certainty of evidence. Eight trials were included. No clear effect was observed in the risk of falls (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.41 to 2.09, 79 participants, 1 trial, low-certainty evidence). Regarding fear of falling, using the Falls Efficacy Scale, a small difference in favor of the intervention was observed (MD: −2.42, 95%, CI: −4.7 to −0.15, 3 trials, 185 participants, low-certainty evidence). The meta-analysis of balance using the unipedal stance test showed a small difference in favor of the intervention. One study evaluated quality of life, and in the mental score there was a MD in favor of the intervention. In DPN patients, a combination of gait, balance, and functional training improved balance, the fear of falling, quality of life in the mental score, but not the risk of falls.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Hypopituitarism is a disorder characterized by insufficient secretion of one or more pituitary hormones. New etiologies of hypopituitarism have been recently described, including head trauma, cerebral hemorrhage, and drug-induced hypophysitis. The investigation of patients with these new disorders, in addition to advances in diagnosis and treatment of hypopituitarism, has increased the prevalence of this condition. Pituitary hormone deficiencies can induce significant clinical changes with consequent increased morbidity and mortality rates, while hormone replacement based on current guidelines protects these patients. In this review, we will first discuss the different etiologies of hypopituitarism and then address one by one the clinical aspects, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic options for deficiencies of TSH, ACTH, gonadotropin, and GH. Finally, we will detail the hormonal interactions that occur during replacement of pituitary hormones.
Abstract in English:SUMMARY Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) is an emerging form of diabetes mellitus characterized by unprovoked ketoacidosis, absence of autoimmunity and beta-cell dysfunction. The KPD may improve after initial glycemic compensation and evolve to exogenous insulin independence, most cases were observed in populations with African or Hispanic backgrounds. We reviewed the literature on KPD and, to date, only one case of KPD has been described in Brazil's multi-ethnic population. A group of adult Brazilian KPD patients without autoimmunity and insulinopenia was identified for this study. We report a retrospective study of four KPD cases (3 males) evaluated in southeast Brazil, the patients were overweight or obese, age between the third and fifth decades of life, had a family history of type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia (809.5 ± 344.2 mg/dL), acidosis (pH 7.21 ± 0.07; normal range (nr): 7.35-7.45 and bicarbonate 9.1 ± 6.2; nr: 22-26 mEq/mL), ketonuria (142.5 ± 114.4 mg/dL; nr: absence), absence of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-65), and beta-cell function reserve (C-peptide 1.19 ± 0.53 ng/mL - nr: 1.1-4.4 ng/mL) on diagnosis. After glycemic compensation, there was increase of C-peptide (2.21 ± 0.41) indicating the recovery of beta-cell function and the time to insulin independence was 7.7 ± 3.5 months. They evolved after the period of glucotoxicity with insulin withdrawal and could be treated with oral antidiabetic therapy. This is the first case series of KPD described in Brazil being characterized by ketoacidosis at diagnosis, absence of autoimmunity, recovery of beta-cell function and insulin independence.
Abstract in English:SUMMARY Falsely elevated estradiol is rare, may result from heterophile antibody interference, and can result in unnecessary investigation and intervention. We present the case of a 56-year-old female with falsely elevated estradiol levels inconsistent with her overall clinical picture, which ultimately led to an unnecessary surgical procedure. With the use of alternative analytical platforms and a heterophile antibody blocking agent, we determined the false elevation was due to heterophile antibody interference. Clinicians must suspect and investigate for laboratory error when the clinical picture contradicts laboratory results.
Abstract in English:SUMMARY Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the rarest tumor of the thyroid gland, representing less than 2% of clinically recognized thyroid cancers. Typically, it has an extremely rapid onset, fatal outcomes in most cases, and a median overall survival of 3 to 10 months despite aggressive multidisciplinary management. The presence of targetable mutations in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patients is an opportunity for treatment when conventional therapeutics approaches are not effective, a frequent situation in the majority of patients. We present our experience in the management of a patient with unresectable anaplastic thyroid cancer who had a remarkable and rapid response to treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib during the COVID-19 pandemic. After four weeks of dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily plus trametinib 2 mg daily, he showed a dramatic reduction of the cervical mass around 90%. Nearly eight weeks under treatment with dabrafenib plus trametinib, the patient remains with minimal locoregional disease without distant metastases.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: Choosing Wisely (CW) is an initiative that aims to advance the dialogue between physicians and patients about low-value health interventions. Given that thyroid conditions are frequent in clinical practice, we aimed to develop an evidence-based list of thyroid CW recommendations. Materials and methods: The Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism (SBEM) named a Task Force to conduct the initiative. The Task Force work was based on an electronic Delphi approach. The 10 recommendations that received the highest scores by the Task Force were submitted for voting by all SBEM associates. The 5 recommendations that received the highest scores by SBEM associates are presented herein. Results: The Task Force was composed of 14 thyroidologists from 10 tertiary-care, teaching-based Brazilian institutions. The brainstorming/ideation phase resulted in 69 recommendations. After the removal of duplicates and recommendations that did not adhere to the initiative's scope, 35 remained. Then the Task Force voted to attribute a grade (0 [lowest agreement] to 10 [highest agreement]) for each recommendation. The 10 recommendations that received the highest scores by the Task Force were submitted to all SBEM associates. A total of 683 associates voted electronically, attributing a grade (0 to 10) for each recommendation. The 5 recommendations that received the highest scores by the SBEM associates compose our final list. Conclusion: A set of recommendations to avoid unnecessary medical tests, treatments, or procedures for thyroid conditions are offered with a transparent methodology. This initiative aims to foster productive interactions between physicians and patients, stimulating shared decision-making.