Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume: 66, Issue: 1, Published: 2022
  • Inflammatory mediators in polycystic ovary syndrome: the case of interleukin-18 Editorial

    Spritzer, Poli Mara
  • Elevated levels of interleukin-18 are associated with several indices of general and visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome Original Article

    Kabakchieva, Plamena; Gateva, Antoaneta; Velikova, Tsvetelina; Georgiev, Tsvetoslav; Yamanishi, Kyosuke; Okamura, Haruki; Kamenov, Zdravko

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to analyze levels of proinflammatory biomarker interleukin-18 (IL-18) in healthy controls and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) focusing on its association with obesity, clinical, hormonal, and metabolic characteristics. Subjects and methods: Fifty-eight patients with PCOS were enrolled in the study fulfilling the Rotterdam criteria and were matched for age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity with 30 healthy controls. Detailed anthropometric measurements, clinical investigations, hormonal and biochemical tests were obtained between the 3rd and 5th day of a menstrual cycle. A subanalysis of the PCOS group was performed separating patients into several groups according to a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), insulin resistance (IR), and free androgen index (FAI). Serum IL-18 levels were measured using the ELISA method. Results: Levels of IL-18 were similar between PCOS patients and controls. IL-18 was higher in overweight/obese women compared to normal-weight women when analyzing all participants together and separately PCOS or controls group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.01, respectively). Additionally, IL-18 levels were higher in high-WHtR and IR subgroups compared to low-WHtR (p < 0.001) and non-IR PCOS women (p < 0.001). PCOS women with high FAI had greater serum IL-18 levels than normal-FAI patients (p = 0.002). Levels of IL-18 correlated positively with most of the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. In multiple linear regression, age, waist circumference, and fasting insulin were independently related factors with IL-18. Conclusion: Elevated levels of IL-18 were related to several indices of general and visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in PCOS.
  • The A allele of the rs759853 single nucleotide polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene confers risk for diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes from a Brazilian population Original Article

    Dieter, Cristine; Lemos, Natália Emerim; Corrêa, Nathalia Rodrigues de Faria; Pellenz, Felipe Mateus; Canani, Luís Henrique; Crispim, Daisy; Bauer, Andrea Carla

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: The AKR1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose into sorbitol. Chronic hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to increased AKR1B1 affinity for glucose and, consequently, sorbitol accumulation. Elevated sorbitol increases oxidative stress, which is one of the main pathways related to chronic complications of diabetes, including diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Accordingly, some studies have suggested the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene is associated with DKD; however, findings are still contradictory. The aim was to investigate the association of the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene and DKD. Materials and methods: The sample comprised 695 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and DKD (cases) and 310 patients with T2DM of more than 10 years’ duration, but no DKD (controls). The polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR. Results: Allelic and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism did not differ significantly between groups. However, the A/A genotype was associated with risk for DKD after adjustment for gender, triglycerides, BMI, presence of hypertension and diabetic retinopathy, and duration of DM, under both recessive (P = 0.048) and additive (P = 0.037) inheritance models. Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between the AKR1B1 rs759853A/A genotype and risk for DKD in Brazilians T2DM patients.
  • Vitamin D: a 14-year retrospective study at a clinical laboratory in Brazil Original Article

    Bacha, Fernanda Vaz de Melo; Gomez, Fernanda Lustosa Cabral; Silva, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Reis, Mariana Didier; Cabral, Eliane Dias Lustosa; Carvalho, Leandro Duarte de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to assess vitamin D (25OHD) levels in individuals who underwent an examination at a private laboratory (between latitudes 14° and 22° south) over 14 years, stratified by sex, age, and epidemiological profiles, and determine variations in the number of tests performed over the years. Materials and methods: All records of 25OHD tests performed at a private clinical laboratory in Brazil were analyzed. This retrospective cross-sectional study included patients stratified by sex (female or male), age range (0-17, 18-40, 41-59, and ≥ 60 years), and year of testing. The final sample size was 193,725 patients. Categorical variables are presented as absolute and relative frequencies and numerical variables as means ± standard deviation. Comparisons between groups were performed using the equality of proportions test. Results: The number of tests performed steeply increased since 2010. More tests were performed in female individuals (73.3%) and individuals aged 41-59 years (32.2%). Most samples (68.0%) demonstrated sufficient vitamin D status. Women had a higher incidence of vitamin D deficiency than men (33.1% and 26.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Individuals aged ≥ 60 years had the highest incidence of vitamin D deficiency (68.4%), while individuals aged 0-17 years had the lowest (32.2%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Despite increased testing and attention given to vitamin D in recent years, our study demonstrates high levels of deficiency in a country with geographical conditions favorable to its production.
  • When do we need to suspect maturity onset diabetes of the young in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Original Article

    Üstay, Özlem; Ateş, Esra Arslan; Apaydin, Tugçe; Elbasan, Onur; Polat, Hamza; Günhan, Gizem; Dinçer, Ceyda; Şeker, Lamia; Yabacı, Ayşegül; Güney, Ahmet Ilter; Yavuz, Dilek Gogas

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objetivo: Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients have clinical heterogeneity as shown by many studies. Thus, often it is misdiagnosed to type 1 or type 2 diabetes(T2DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate MODY mutations in adult T2DM patients suspicious in terms of MODY, and to show clinical and laboratory differences between these two situations. Subjects and methods: In this study, we analyzed 72 type 2 diabetic patients and their relatives (35F/37M) who had been suspected for MODY and referred to genetic department for mutation analysis. The gene mutations for MODY have been assessed in the laboratory of Marmara University genetics. Totally 67 (32F/35M; median age 36.1) diabetic patients were analyzed for 7 MODY mutations. Twelve patients who have uncertain mutation (VUS) were excluded from study for further evaluation. MODY(+) (n:30) patients and T2DM patients (n:25) were compared for clinical and laboratory parameters. Results: In MODY(+) subjects, mutations in GCK (MODY 2) (n:12; 40%) were the most common followed by HNF4A (MODY 1) (n:4; 13.3%). Diabetes diagnosis age was younger in MODY(+) group but not statistically significant. Sixty-six percent of MODY(+) subjects had diabetes history at 3-consecutive generations in their family compared with 28% of T2DM patients statistically significant (p:0.006). Gender, BMI, C-peptide, HbA1c, lipid parameters, creatinine, GFR, microalbuminuria, vitamin D and calcium were not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion: According to present study results, MODY mutation positivity is most probable in young autoantibody (-) diabetic patients diagnosed before 30 years of age, who have first degree family history of diabetes.
  • Number of teeth lost on diet quality and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Original Article

    Silveira, Danieli Londero da; Monteiro, Laura Emanuelle da Rosa Carlos; Christofoli, Christofer da Silva; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Telo, Gabriela Heiden

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the oral health profile and evaluate the impact of tooth loss on diet quality and glycemic control among 66 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated in an endocrinology outpatient clinic at a teaching hospital. Materials and methods: Questionnaires about diabetes self-care (SDSCA), masticatory ability, diet quality, anxiety level about dental treatment, and oral health were applied. Laboratory tests were retrieved from medical records or newly collected samples. Results: The presence of fewer than 21 teeth was associated with an unsatisfactory self-perceived masticatory ability (r = 0.44; p = 0.007). Most participants reported not having received guidance on oral health from their endocrinologists (81.8%) and having had the last visit to the dentist 2 years or more before the study (36.8%). The mean HbA1c level in the group with fewer than 21 teeth was comparable to that in the group with functional dentition (8.9 ± 1.5 and 8.7 ± 1.6%, respectively; p = 0.60). Conclusion: Adults with T2DM have a high prevalence of tooth loss and lack of information about oral hygiene care. Our results reinforce the need for more effective communication between medical and dental care teams.
  • Intraoperative frozen section performance for thyroid cancer diagnosis Original Article

    Goemann, Iuri Martin; Paixão, Francisco; Migliavacca, Alceu; Guimarães, José Ricardo; Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Maia, Ana Luiza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: A primary medical relevance of thyroid nodules consists of excluding thyroid cancer, present in approximately 5% of all thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a paramount role in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules due to its availability and diagnostic performance. Nevertheless, intraoperative frozen section (iFS) is still advocated as a valuable tool for surgery planning, especially for indeterminate nodules. Subjects and methods: To compare the FNAB and iFS performances in thyroid cancer diagnosis among nodules in Bethesda Categories (BC) I to VI. The performance of FNAB and iFS tests were calculated using final histopathology results as the gold standard. Results: In total, 316 patients were included in the analysis. Both FNAB and iFS data were available for 272 patients (86.1%). The overall malignancy rate was 30.4%% (n = 96). The FNAB sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for benign (BC II) and malignant (BC V and VI) were 89.5%, 97.1%, and 94.1%, respectively. For all nodules evaluated, the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.9%, 100%, and 94.9%, respectively. For indeterminate nodules and follicular lesions (BC III and IV), the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25%, 100%, and 88.7%, respectively. For BC I nodules, iFS had 95.2% of accuracy. Conclusion: Our results do not support routine iFS for indeterminate nodules or follicular neoplasms (BC III and IV) due to its low sensitivity. In these categories, iFS is not sufficiently accurate to guide the intraoperative management of thyroidectomies. iFS for BC I nodules could be an option and should be specifically investigated
  • Association among gestational diabetes mellitus, periodontitis and prematurity: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    Damante, Carla Andreotti; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Cunha, Paula de Oliveira; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena Carvalho; Zangrando, Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti; Sant’Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes maternal and infant morbidity. Periodontitis is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate periodontal status, prematurity and associated factors in pregnant women with and without GDM. Subjects and methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 80 pregnant women with GDM (G1 = 40) and without GDM (G2 = 40). Demographic and socioeconomic status, systemic and periodontal health condition, prematurity and newborns’ birth weight were analyzed. For bivariate analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test, t test and Chi-squared test were used. Binary logistic regression analyzed independent variables for periodontitis and prematurity (p < 0.05). Results: Patients from G1 presented lower socioeconomic status, higher weight and body mass index (BMI). Prematurity (G1 = 27.5%; G2 = 2.5%; p < 0.05) and severe periodontitis percentages (G1 = 22.5%; G2 = 0; p = 0.001) were higher in G1 than in G2. Logistic regression analysis showed that household monthly income (OR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003) and maternal BMI (adjusted OR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.25; p = 0.028) were significant predictors of periodontitis during the third trimester of pregnancy. Presence of GDM remained in the final logistic model related to prematurity (adjusted OR = 14.79; 95% CI 1.80-121.13; p = 0.012). Conclusions: Pregnant women with GDM presented higher severity of periodontitis, lower socioeconomic status, higher overweight/obesity and a 10-fold higher risk of prematurity. Socioeconomic-cultural status and BMI were significant predictors for periodontitis, and GDM was a predictor to prematurity.
  • Dose-ranging effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis Review

    Pinto, Lana C.; Rados, Dimitris V.; Remonti, Luciana R.; Viana, Marina V.; Leitão, Cristiane B.; Gross, Jorge L.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The lowest dosage of empagliflozin (10 mg) showed similar benefits on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, blood pressure, and total and cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the highest available dose (25 mg) in the EMPAREG trial. These findings have not been clearly demonstrated for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. The objective was to compare the effect of different doses of SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Brazil on HbA1c and body weight of patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched from inception until 11th October 2021 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients, lasting at least 12 weeks. HbA1c and body weight variations were described using standard mean difference. We performed direct and indirect meta-analysis, as well as a meta-regression with medication doses as covariates. Eighteen studies were included, comprising 16,095 patients. In the direct meta-analysis, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced HbA1c by 0.62% (95% CI −0.66 to −0.59) and body weight by 0.60 kg (95% CI −0.64 to −0.55). In the indirect meta-analysis, canagliflozin 300 mg ranked the highest regarding reductions in HbA1c and body weight. The remaining medications and dosages were clinically similar, despite some statistically significant differences among them. Canagliflozin 300 mg seems to be more potent in reducing HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. The remaining SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses lead to similar effects for both outcomes. Whether these glycemic and weight effects are reflected in lower mortality and cardiovascular events is still uncertain and may be a topic for further studies.
  • Classic and current concepts in adrenal steroidogenesis: a reappraisal Review

    Kater, Claudio E.; Giorgi, Rafael B.; Costa-Barbosa, Flavia A.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Adrenal steroid biosynthesis and its related pathology are constant evolving disciplines. In this paper, we review classic and current concepts of adrenal steroidogenesis, plus control mechanisms of steroid pathways, distribution of unique enzymes and cofactors, and major steroid families. We highlight the presence of a “mineralocorticoid (MC) pathway of zona fasciculata (ZF)”, where most circulating corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone (DOC) originate together with 18OHDOC, under ACTH control, a claim based on functional studies in normal subjects and in patients with 11β-, and 17α-hydroxylase deficiencies. We emphasize key differences between CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and the onset of a hybrid enzyme – CYP11B1/CYP11B2 –, responsible for aldosterone formation in ZF under ACTH control, in “type I familial hyperaldosteronism” (dexamethasone suppressible). In “apparent MC excess syndrome”, peripheral conversion of cortisol to cortisone is impaired by lack of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, permitting free cortisol access to MC receptors resulting in severe hypertension. We discuss two novel conditions involving the synthesis of adrenal androgens: the “backdoor pathway”, through which dihydrotestosterone is formed directly from androsterone, being relevant for the fetoplacental setting and sexual differentiation of male fetuses, and the rediscovery of C19 11-oxygenated steroids (11-hydroxyandrostenedione and 11-ketotestosterone), active androgens and important markers of virilization in 21-hydroxylase deficiency and polycystic ovaries syndrome. Finally, we underline two enzyme cofactor deficiencies: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase which partially affects 21- and 17α-hydroxylation, producing a combined clinical/hormonal picture and causing typical skeletal malformations (Antley-Bixler syndrome), and PAPSS2, coupled to SULT2A1, that promotes sulfation of DHEA to DHEAS, preventing active androgens to accumulate. Its deficiency results in reduced DHEAS and elevated DHEA and androgens with virilization. Future and necessary studies will shed light on remaining issues and questions on adrenal steroidogenesis.
  • DKA and new-onset type 1 diabetes in Brazilian children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic Brief Report

    Luciano, Thais Milioni; Halah, Mariana Peduti; Sarti, Mariana Teresa Alves; Floriano, Vitor Gonçalves; Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes da; Liberatore Junior, Raphael Del Roio; Antonini, Sonir Rauber

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We assess the severity and frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) patients and in patients with previous diagnosis of T1D in a referral Brazilian university hospital in the first five months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also compare the data with data from pre-pandemic periods. Forty-three new-onset T1D patients were diagnosed between April and August of the years 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of new-onset T1D was over twice the number of new-onset T1D in the same period in the three previous years. All the 43 patients survived and are now on outpatient follow-up. We also compared the characteristics of the T1D patients hospitalized between April and August of the years 2017, 2018, and 2019 (32 hospitalizations) to the characteristics of the T1D patients hospitalized between April and August/2020 (35 hospitalizations; 1 patient was hospitalized twice in this period). Fourteen of the 34 patients admitted during the pandemic presented with COVID-19-related symptoms (any respiratory symptom, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), but only one had positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test. Samples from 32 out of these 34 patients were assayed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and four patients were positive for total antibodies (IgM and IgG). In agreement with recent reports from European countries, we observed increased frequency of DKA and severe DKA in new-onset and previously diagnosed T1D children and adolescents in a large referral public hospital in Brazil in the first five months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The reasons for this outcome might have been fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection in emergency settings, the more limited availability of primary healthcare, and the lack of school personnel’s attention toward children’s general well-being.
  • Cushing’s syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropin secretion by a parotid carcinoma Case Report

    Antonacio, Fernanda F.; Harada, Guilherme; Vilela, Rafael S.; Freitas, Thais C.; Lima Jr., Jose V.; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Almeida, Madson Q.; Castro Junior, Gilberto de

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY We report a rare case of Cushing’s syndrome in a 37-year-old female who initially presented with localized acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. In January 2014, she underwent a right parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation and adjuvant radiotherapy. In August 2018, she presented a histologically-proven local regional relapse. The patient was considered for salvage surgery with facial nerve sacrifice and remained with no evidence of disease. One year later the patient developed pulmonary dissemination and started to gain weight and developed facial plethora and acne on the face and upper trunk. In a physical examination, the patient presented moon face, buffalo hump, acne and stage 2 hypertension. Biochemical evaluation confirmed ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. IHC for ACTH in the lung biopsy revealed strong positive staining for ACTH confirming a diagnosis of ectopic ACTH secretion by a metastatic parotid acinic cell carcinoma. Ketoconazole (600 mg/d) was started to treat the CS. In addition, as chemotherapy was initiated to treat the metastatic disease. After the fifth cycle of chemotherapy, ketoconazole was suspended and the patient remained in remission of CS for four months, when CS recurred. A unique feature of this case is related to the clinical CS relapse associated with disease progression, which needed prompt treatment with ketoconazole, resulting in a significant improvement in the patient’s condition. Although rare, should be attentive for possible CS features in patients with high-grade salivary gland carcinomas, since the diagnosis of ectopic secretion of ACTH may significantly impact their management and outcomes.
  • Two cases of subacute thyroiditis after different types of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination Case Report

    Bostan, Hayri; Unsal, Ilknur Ozturk; Kizilgul, Muhammed; Gul, Umran; Sencar, Muhammed Erkam; Ucan, Bekir; Cakal, Erman

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY Although the development of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) following viral infections is well-documented, the actual mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. The occurrence of SAT after vaccination has been reported in several case series and possible mechanisms such as molecular mimicry due to the exposure to viral proteins and/or abnormal reactogenicity by adjuvants have been implicated. We describe two cases who developed SAT three days after the messenger RNA vaccine against COVID-19 (Pfizer-BioNTech®) and six days after the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (CoronaVac®). SAT diagnosis of these patients was delayed for more than two weeks. When the current cases were evaluated together with 1 Pfizer-BioNTech® and 3 CoronaVac® related cases reported previously, the patients were female aged between 30-42, except for the male patient we presented, and the complaints of the patients initiated within the first 2-7 days. While two Pfizer-BioNTech® vaccine-related cases were severely symptomatic and thyrotoxic at presentation, there were cases with mild to moderate clinical manifestations in CoronaVac® vaccine-related group. Physicians should be aware of SAT that may occur within a few days following the COVID-19 vaccination.
  • Cushing disease due to a somatic USP8 mutation in a patient with evolving pituitary hormone deficiencies due to a germline GH1 splicing variant Case Report

    Labello, Julia Haddad; Benedetti, Anna Flávia Figueredo; Azevedo, Bruna Viscardi; Jorge, Alexander Augusto de Lima; Cescato, Valter Angelo Sperling; Rosemberg, Sergio; Frasseto, Fernando Pereira; Arnhold, Ivo Jorge Prado; Carvalho, Luciani Renata Silveira de

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY We present the unique case of an adult Brazilian woman with severe short stature due to growth hormone deficiency with a heterozygous G to T substitution in the donor splice site of intron 3 of the growth hormone 1 (GH1) gene (c.291+1G>T). In this autosomal dominant form of growth hormone deficiency (type II), exon 3 skipping results in expression of the 17.5 kDa isoform of growth hormone, which has a dominant negative effect over the bioactive isoform, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, disrupts the Golgi apparatus, and impairs the secretion of other pituitary hormones in addition to growth hormone deficiency. This mechanism led to the progression of central hypothyroidism in the same patient. After 5 years of growth and thyroid hormone replacement, at the age of 33, laboratory evaluation for increased weight gain revealed high serum and urine cortisol concentrations, which could not be suppressed with dexamethasone. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sella turcica detected a pituitary macroadenoma, which was surgically removed. Histological examination confirmed an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. A ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) somatic pathogenic variant (c.2159C>G/p.Pro720Arg) was found in the tumor. In conclusion, we report progression of isolated growth hormone deficiency due to a germline GH1 variant to combined pituitary hormone deficiency followed by hypercortisolism due to an ACTH-secreting macroadenoma with a somatic variant in USP8 in the same patient. Genetic studies allowed etiologic diagnosis and prognosis of this unique case.
  • The impact of the genetic background in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis Case Report

    Domingues, Guilherme Augusto Barcelos; Kizys, Marina Malta Letro; Janovsky, Carolina Castro Porto Silva; Maciel, Rui Monteiro de Barros; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus Régios; Martins, João Roberto Maciel; Camacho, Cleber Pinto; Cunha, Lucas Leite

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the main subtype. The cribriform morular variant is a histological phenotype of PTC characterized by its relationship with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Description of the case: We report the genetic assessment of a 20-year-old female patient diagnosed with a cribriform-morular variant of PTC and FAP. We aimed to assess the genetic background of the reported patient, looking for variants that would help us explain the predisposition to tumorigenesis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and whole exome sequencing was performed. We applied an overrepresentation and gene-set enrichment analysis to look for an accumulation of effects of variants in multiple genes at the genome. We found an overrepresentation of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in extracellular matrix interactions and cell adhesion genes. Underrepresentation of SNVs in genes related to the regulation of autophagy and cell cycle control was also observed. We hypothesize that the package of alterations of our patient may help to explain why she presented colonic manifestations and thyroid cancer. Our findings suggest that multiple variants with minor impact, when considered together, may be helpful to characterize one particular clinical condition.
  • Subacute thyroiditis associated with COVID-19 infection: a report of an increasing entity Case Report

    Hajósi-Kalcakosz, Szofia; Dénes, Judit; Góth, Miklós

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY In March 2020, the World Health Organization characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic. By May 2021, 37 cases of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had been reported in the literature. We report a patient diagnosed with SAT associated with COVID-19 and review the previously reported cases. A 31-year-old female with no significant previous history developed SAT 5 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. She presented with anterior neck pain and fever. Thyroid function tests revealed hyperthyroidism with slightly increased inflammatory markers. Thyroid ultrasound showed diffuse hypoechoic left lobe and a hypoechoic area in the right lobe. On the fine-needle-aspiration biopsy, large histiocytes, disrupted and normal follicles, and multinucleated giant cells within colloid were seen. Under oral corticosteroid therapy, clinical progression was rapid. Seven weeks later, all thyroid function tests and inflammatory markers normalized. During the recent viral outbreak, clinicians should keep in mind the possibility of SAT after COVID-19, and patients with symptoms of SAT should be tested for SARS-CoV-2.
  • Antenatal corticosteroids may contribute to illness in children in the future Letter To The Editor

    Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Motta, Lucilia Casulari da
  • Use of unconventional antithyroid therapy in patients with thiamazole agranulocytosis in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic Letter To The Editor

    Alvarez-Gamero, Julio César; García-Ruiz, Victor Raúl; Paz-Ibarra, Jose Luis
  • Managing hyperthyroidism patients with unconventional therapy Letter To The Editor

    Martins, João Roberto M.; Villagelin, Danilo G. P.
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