Sort publications by
Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Volume: 8, Published: 1951
  • Pesquisas sôbre a análise estatística de experiências de adubação com o auxílio da lei de Mitscherlich

    Gomes, Frederico Pimentel; Malavolta, Eurípedes

    Abstract in English:

    Statistical analyses of an experiment on wheat were carried out with the aid of Mitscherlich's law. The experiment was made in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, by the Ministry of Agriculture of Brasil. Lime, in the form of Ca(OH)2, was applied at the levels of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 metric tons per hectare. A 5 x 5 Latin square was used. Lime was applied in 1940 and wheat was cultivated in the same plots for several years. The following fertilizers were annually used for all plots: NaNO3 100 kilograms per hectare, Superphosphate 350 kilograms per hectare, K2S04 80 kilograms per hectare. The statistical analysis of the data collected in 1941, 1942, 1943, 1947 and 1948, carried out in accordance with the methods previously introduced by Pimentel Gomes and Malavolta (1949 a, 1949 b) and Pimentel Gomes (1950), proved: I. That Mitscherlich's law could be correctly applied to the data. II. That there was a statistically significant effect of lime on wheat yield. III. That the optimum amount of lime to be applied to the soil lies between 5 and 15 hundred kilograms of Ca(OH)2 per hectare. IV. That there is a migration of calcium from some plots to others, in such a way that the data obtained in 1947 and 1948 are not representative of the amounts of lime applied in 1940. V. That the analysis of variance can be used, as the Bartlett test shows that the variances at the distinct levele of lime application are not statistically different. It must be noted that, with improved variety and fertilization, the yield was rised to about 2500 kilograms per hectare in 1947, and 1600 in 1948, being only of about 100 kilograms per hectare in 1940.
  • Não existe «Nova Sistemática»

    Piza Jor., S. de Toledo
  • Tabelas de polinômios para interpolação da equação de Mitscherlich

    Gomes, Frederico Pimentel; Nogueira, Izaias Rangel
  • Estudo sôbre a variação da produção leiteira na raça holandesa malhada de preto

    Gomes, Frederico Pimentel; Peixoto, Aristeu M.

    Abstract in English:

    The authors studied the effects of calving time, season and time elapsed after calving on milk production of the Holstein Friesian Breed of the "Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (Piracicaba, Brasil), 180 lactation periods of 300 days were studied, with 15 calvings in each month. Statistical analysis of the data proved : 1. That calving in May, June, July or August, that is, in the driest months, the cows give a milk production 17,3% larger than calving in December, January, February, March or April. August is the best month for calving, and February is the worst. 2. Spring is the most favorable, and Autumn the most unfavorable season for milk production. 3. The decrease of milk production during the lactation period depends largely on calving time. But, on the whole, linear regression can be used as a good aproximation, with a correlation coefficient r = - 0,9926 and a monthly decrease, per month elapsed after calving, of 8,06 percent of the general mean. 4. Diagram 1 shows the effects of calving month on milk production. The limits of 5%, 1% and l%o of probabilities are given there.
  • Sôbre um sistema de equações relativas a um modêlo matemático de populações de Himenópteros endogâmicos

    Gomes, Frederico Pimentel

    Abstract in English:

    This paper deals with the solution of a system of equations relating with a mathematical model of populations of endogamic Hymenoptera. The Author proves that, unless inequality (5.1) 4R5 + 8R R4 - 4R R³ + 8R² (R -1) R² - A a A a A a a A - R² (4R² + 4R - 1) R +2R³ < 0 a a A a is satisfied, one of the genes is eliminated from the population. He shows that the relative frequencies of different kinds of matings in the population can be obtained when the root R between zero and VRa of equation 2R4 + 2R³ -2R² (RA + Ra) - R(RA +Ra) + 2RA Ra =0 is known. In special, if we let b = RA / Ra > 1 , inequation (5.1) shows that we must have __________________ b³ + 2b² + b + V2b4 + 2b³ - 2b² + 2b Ra < __________________________________ = f(b) 2 (b4 + 2b³ + 2b - 1) The greatest value of f (b) is 0,75 and is obtained for b = 1, that is for RA = Ra.
  • Contribuição ao conhecimento de alguns Ithomiidae brasileiros, predadores de Solanáceas (Lep., Rhopalocera)

    Lordello, Luiz Gonzaga E.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper is a small contribution to the knowledge of some species of brazilian Ithomiidae (Lep., Rhop.). The Author, during the year 1950, had an oportunity to study the development of the following species: Mechanitis lysimnia Fabr. Mechanitis polymnia casabranca Hsch. Dircenna dero Hübn. Methona themisto (Hübn.) The three first species live, in Piracicaba (State of São Paulo, Brasil), on Solanum variabile Mart., damaging its leaves, Mechanitis polymnia casàbranca being a serious enemy of this medicinal plant. The Author presents some notes on the biological cycle of M. lysimnia, which confirm D'Almeida's observations. Methona themisto is an old pest of Brunfelsia hopeana Benth. In Argentine, according to Hayward's observations, it occurs on Brunfelsia pauciflora Benth. The biology of this species previously has been studied by Figueiredo (1939). In Piracicaba it is not an enemy of B. hopeana on which it is reported to be so harmful elsewhere. The Author's observations were made in the Laboratory of Zoology of the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" in order to protect the larvae from the attack of their possible natural enemies. Notwithstanding, the Mechanitis polymnia casabranca caterpillars were attacked by an interesting Salticidae, identified by Hélio Camargo as Hasarius adan-soni (Audouin, 1827).
  • Endotoquia matricida em Rhabditis sp. (Nematoda, Rhabditidae)

    Lordello, Luiz Gonzaga E.
  • Influência do cloro, sôbre a composição do caldo da cana de açúcar Co 290, aplicado no solo, na forma de cloreto de sódio

    Moraes, J. Mello; Almeida, J. R.; Coury, T.; Gomes, F. Pimentel; Valsechi, O.; Ranzani, G.; Kiehl, E. J.

    Abstract in English:

    Considering the economic importance of the sugar industry among ourselves, the authors carried out a field experiment (Latin square) with Co 290 sugar cane, on a white sandy soil of Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, applying NaCl in increasing rates (from 6.8 to 54.5 grams per plant), in order to study the effects of chlorides, on productivity and on the composition of juice. No toxic or stimulating effect was found, and there was no change in yield, in degree of purity of the juice, in general aspect of plants or in colour of leaves and culms. No difference was observed between potassium sulphate or chloride, as source of potash for sugar cane culture. Data collected and the literature cited suggest: (a) that the use of the variety Co 290 is indicated for soils rich in chlorine, such as the saline soils of the North-east and Atlantic Coast of Brazil; (b) that it is necessary to extend studies in Research Institutes and Agricultural Experiment Stations of the country to verify the behaviour of other varieties of sugar cane in the types of soils mentioned, especially with respect their yielding capacity. The authors are already planning such investigations.
  • Estudo comparativo entre silagem de milho e cana taquara na alimentação suplementar de vacas leiteiras

    Jardim, W. R.; Peixoto, A. Mendes; Silveira Filho, S.

    Abstract in English:

    The A. A. compare corn silage (Zea mays L.) with sugar cane (Saccharum sinensis Roxb.) in the supplementary feeding of dairy cow. Both the feeds were studied in relation to the following points: composition and nutritive value; influence of milk production, milk fat, milk acidity and body weight; cost of production. Both corn silage and sugar cane were analysed by ordinary methods, and their digestibility was determined by means of digestibility coefficients; their composition and nutritive value are, practically, equivalent, but silage showed slight superiority. The feeding experiment was carried out with two groups of six Holstein Friesian cows each, of the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" herd. Both groups were fed with the same basic concentrates mixture, calculeted according to MORRISON. During the various periods of the experiment, only the roughage supplement varied. The supplementary feeding consisted of 15 kg of chopped sugar cane or corn, silage, per day and per cow, given in two daily meals in the barn. At 4,30 p.m., the cows are set free in the field, where they pass the over night. The experiment was divided into six periods, in which there was a gradative change of the supplementary feeding between the two groups. The milk was weighed every day; the analysis of milk fat and acidity and the weighing of the animals, were made only on the first three days of every week. The analysis of data showed that: a) Milk production was increased significantly by silage feeding; b) The ri was not any influence on milk fat; c) The silage caused higher milk acidity; d) The sugar cane gave a greater increase of body weight. The cost of production of corn silage was 2,12 time higher, than sugar cane, hence, although the silage gave a higher milk production, its use is not economical, compared with sugar cane, in our conditions.
  • Observações sobre papilomatose em bovinos

    Jardim, W. R.; Spallini, A.

    Abstract in English:

    The A. A., in this paper, relate the observations on a bovine herd affected by papilloma or common warts; it was treated with the specific medicament "Figueirina", made in the "Laboratório de Biologia Veterinária", of Matias Barbosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In twenty-six affected animals, twenty showed complete cure after the treatment, three of them improved, and the other three didn't show any satisfactory results. Among the cured animals, twelve were young and eight were adult. The uncured animals were all adult. In most cases, the warts disappeared rapidly with two applications. In those animals that had resisted four applications, the warts didn't disappear, even with greater dosis. "Figueirina" showed more efficience in the treatment of young animals.
  • Nota preliminar sôbre a determinação biológica do enxofre em solos por meio de Aspergillus niger

    Malavolta, E.; Galli, F.; Nogueira, I. R.
  • A interpolação da lei de Mitscherlich e a análise da variância em experiências de adubação

    Gomes, Frederico Pimentel
  • Notas sôbre a evolução da Sassurana - Megalopyge lanata (Stoll, 1780). (Lep., Heterocera, Megalopygidae)

    Lordello, Luiz Gonzaga E.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper is a small contribution to the knowledge of Megalopyge lanata (Stoll, 1780). The caterpillars of this moth are called " Sassurana" and are very known by the fact of having the body densely covered with long hairs, among which are some setae connected with poison glands. They damage the leaves of a large number of plants, enclosed in at least 14 botanical families, being therefore poly-phagous. M. lanata has a great taxonomical importance for it being the type of the family Megalopygidae Berg, 1882. The Author presents some notes on the various common names used for it, on its known natural enemies and also about the biology, according to the observations made by him in the Laboratory of Zoology, of the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz, São Paulo University, Brasil.
  • Bases para o estudo da genética de populações dos Hymenoptera em geral e dos Apinae sociais em particular

    Kerr, Warwick E.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper deals with problems on population genetics in Hymenoptera and particularly in social Apidae. 1) The studies on populations of Hymenoptera were made according to the two basic types of reproduction: endogamy and panmixia. The populations of social Apinae have a mixed method of reproduction with higher percentage of panmixia and a lower of endogamy. This is shown by the following a) males can enter any hive in swarming time; b) males of Meliponini are expelled from hives which does not need them, and thus, are forced to look for some other place; c) Meliponini males were seen powdering themselves with pollen, thus becoming more acceptable in any other hive. The panmixia is not complete owing to the fact that the density of the breeding population as very low, even in the more frequent species as low as about 2 females and 160 males per reproductive area. We adopted as selection values (or survival indices) the expressions according to Brieger (1948,1950) which may be summarised as follows; a population: p2AA + ²pq Aa + q2aa became after selection: x p2AA + 2pq Aa + z q²aa. For alge-braics facilities Brieger divided the three selective values by y giving thus: x/y p2 AA + y/y 2 pq Aa + z/y q²aa. He called x/y of RA and z/y of Ra, that are survival or selective index, calculated in relation to the heterozyg
  • A lei de Mitscherlich e a análise da variância em experiências de adubação

    Gomes, Frederico Pimentel
  • O tratamento de pré-emergência com o 2, 4-D no milho

    Montenegro, Heitor W. S.; Krug, Helmut Paulo

    Abstract in English:

    In order to study the action of herbicides - sodium salt, amine salt and ester of 2,4-D, TCA and 2,4,5-T a preliminary experiment for pre-emergence weed control was corried out, and the corresponding results are given in table I and II. The corn used in the experiments was of the flint type 1A 3531. The loam soil on which the experiment has been carried out is called "terra roxa". All treatments were highly significant when compared with the check plots, except the 2B one in the control of broad leaf weeds, and 4B in the control of grass weeds. Among these treatments there are no significant differences. But we note the following: (table I). a) treatments of higher concentrations were superior to lower ones. b) the treatments which gave the best control for broad leaf weeds were in the following decreasing order: 1A, 5A and 3A. For grass weeds, they were 5A, 1A and 3A. c) the amine 2,4-D (600 grs. per hectare) supplied very good control when we get into consideration that on the acid basis, it was in very low concentration. d) TCA in high concentration affected the germination, growth and yield, in the lower one it did not show good control of weeds, especially of grasses. It is not suitable for pre-emergence control in corn. e) 2,4,5-T was not better than the 2,4-D products. As it is much more expensive than the others, economically its use in pre-emergence weed control in corn is not praticable. f) all the products used controled grass weeds as well as broad leaf ones; this show the superiority of the pre-emergence treatment method over that of post-emergence. g) Even a dose as strong as the treatment 1A (3.400g. of 2,4-D acid per hectare) did not damage corn production (table II). h) the superiority noted in the production of all the treatments with the exception of 2A, which damaged the plants, we atribute to the lack of competion between corn and weeds; all chek-plots suffered this competition, because they were not Probably, there was, also, hormonial effect of 2,4-D on the corn plant. Not withstanding the fact that the present experiment has been successful, we think that new researches are necessary, especially with the purpose of studying factors as climate and soil which in other countries, interferred with the success of the pre-emergence weed control.
  • Nota sôbre um possível fator sub-letal em gado Holstein-Friesian

    Jardim, W. R.; Peixoto, A. M.

    Abstract in English:

    In this note the A. A. relate the occurrence of a possible sub-lethal factor, on the Holstein-Friesian herd of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba. The sire Horto was mated with his own mother, Brisa, and so, were obtained two calves, a male and a female, consecutively. Both the calves presented flexion and deviation of the fore legs. The sire's death has not alloved further observations. The study of these history cases excludes the mother's nutritional deficiency, as the cause of related phenomenon. In the consulted literature, VEIGA and MEAD et al. relate similar cases, although these are observed in other breeds of cattle The A. A. admit that cause of occurrence is a possible sublethal recessive factor, put in evidence by inbreeding.
  • Em tôrno da questão "deficiências minerais em sisal e a necrose da base das fôlhas"

    Coury, Tufi
  • Fatôres que afetam a determinação da vitamina C na goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)

    Gurgel, J. T. A.; Soubihe Sobrinho, J.; Malavolta, E.; Leme Júnior, J.

    Abstract in English:

    In the present paper the authors deal with the content of ascorbic acid in guavas (Psidium guajava L.) and the methods of sampling used. Ascorbic acid was determined directly in the photoeletric colorimeter (EEL), after extraction with a 4 per cent solution of oxalic acid. Guavas from various parts of State of S.Paulo were used and the general mean found was around 100 mgm of ascorbic acid per 100 gm fresh weight of the material used for extraction. It was found that there is great variation in the ascorbic acid content according to the condition of the fruit: Ascorbic acid Condition content in Mean mgm/100 gm Green and hard 93,36 - 119,54 102,43 Small green 57,34 - 92,30 83,40 Firm ripe 71,28 - 115,98 90,32 Overripe 63,22 - 85,98 77,36 Of the diferent parts of the fruit, the skin has the highest content; the pulp between the skin and the parts containing the seeds, the "inner pulp" contains little and finallw the central parts, formed by the pulp between seeds, the "inter pulp" a engligible amount. The proportion of ascorbic acid found in the skin, inner pulp and inter pulp may be as high as 1.6: 1: 0. Furthermore, the section near the peduncule and the sepals are richer than equatorial crossections. It was proved that the amount and intensity of sun-light is at least one important factant factor determining differences in the ascorbic acid content of the fruit, which is higer in the parts which have received more light. A sharp decrease was found in the vitamin C content of ripe fruite stored in a home refrigerator. The periods of the preservation were 12-24-48-96 hours and the decrease of the ascorbic acid content m per cent was 23.4 - 42.0 - 66.8 - 76.4 of the initial content of 144.28 mgm/100 gm. The following five different methods of sampling in the determination of the amount of vitamin C were tested, with extraction in a Waring blendor: 1) whole fruit; 2,) sample taken form fruits cut into many small pieces; 3) half of a fruit divided by a crossection at equal distance from both ends; 4) half of fruit divided lenghtwise; 5) a transversal slice of about 1 cm. It was found that the two first methods geve the most reliable results.
  • A agonia do gen: teorias corpusculares de hereditariedade e papel dos cromossomos

    Piza Jr., S. de Toledo
  • A esperança matemática e algumas das suas aplicações à teoria da amostragem

    Gomes, Frederico Pimentel
  • Pequena contribuição à história natural de alguns Fringillidae do Brasil (Passeriformes)

    Lordello, Luiz Gonzaga E.

    Abstract in English:

    A short contribution to the Natural History of some Brazilian Frigillidae The following species of Brazilian Fringillidae are mentioned here, the first of which being more deeply studied: 1 - Oryzoborus angolensis angolensis (Linnaeus). 2 - Oryzoborus crassirostris maximiliani Cabanis. 3 - Cyanocompsa cyanea sterea Oberholser. 4 - Coryphospingus cucullatus rubescens (Swainson). About each one of the referred species, the Author gives native names, some datas and observations on its reproduction and behaviour under captivity, as well as on its natural alimentation. Some considerations about the geographical races of Oryzoborus angolensis: O. a. angolensis (Linnaeus) and 0. a. torridus (Scopoli) -are also made. Both the races occur in Brasil and, according to the Author's opinion, they are not satisfactorily caracterized.
  • Uma questão relativa ao traçado de curvas em estradas de rodagem

    Nogueira, Izaías Rangel
  • O cereal de Adlay: estudo de seu valor agrícola e nutricional para aves

    Torres, A. Di Paravicini; Bergamin, Armando

    Abstract in English:

    Both experiments confirm Job's tears are inadequate as poultry feed due the low growing and high mortality shown on the groups receiving Job's tears meal. Considerations are done by the authors about Coix crops, that do not seem economical on the general condition of the country.
  • O excremento de vaca na alimentação de pintos em crescimento

    Bergamin, Armando

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Foram tomados 2 lotes de pintos Rhode Island Red de 40 dias de idade que foram submetidos, o lote A a uma alimentação com ração sem proteina de origem animal, na qual a farinha de carne foi substituida por igual quantidade de farelo de torta de sementes de algodão, e adicionada à mesma 2 quilos de excremento de vaca, colhido fresco, secado ao sol e triturado; o lote B, que serviu de testemunha continha os mesmos ingredientes, com exceção de excremento de vaca e da torta de algodão, em lugar da qual figurava a farinha de carne. Alimentadas durante 6 semanas as aves se comportaram de maneira idêntica, acusando as do lote A um aumento leve e progressivo do peso médio, embora sem diferença estatística. O excremento de vaca foi satisfatório e supriu as deficiências da ração de tratamento em certos amino ácidos só presentes em proteinas de origem animal como a farinha de carne.

    Abstract in English:

    The effect of cow manure as substitute of animal protein on chick growth was studied in the present paper. The results so far obtained seems to indicate a favorable action of cow manure. However, the difference between the lots compared could not be checked with the usual statistical methods.
  • A terra na alimentação de pintos

    Trivelin, A. P.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper deals with an experiment to determine the optimum period (number of days) in fattening chickens. Thirty chickens R. I. R. were numbered, weighed and feeded in crate, with one standard ration (17% crude protein). The chickens were weighted every two days and the results obtained indicate the optimum is reached between 12 and 16 days of feeding. It was observed that after 16 days the weights stop or decrease progressively as showed by the Grafic I.
  • Experiências de engorda de frangos II

    Torres, A. P.; Santos, J. M.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper deals with an experiment to determine the optimum period (number of days) in fattening chickens. Thirty chickens R. I. R. were numbered, weighed and feeded in crate, with one standard ration (17% crude protein). The chickens were weighted every two days and the results obtained indicate the optimum is reached between 12 and 16 days of feeding. It was observed that after 16 days the weights stop or decrease progressively as showed by the Grafic I.
  • Estudo de correlação entre a postura e dimensões da bacia em Rhode Island Red

    Torres, A. P.; Graner, E. A.

    Abstract in English:

    The AA. have studied, in this paper, the correlation of egg production in yearling R. I. R. pullets and the difference between the pelvic bones, an between the pelvic bones and keel. The distances between those bones were measured by the fingers. It was suggested an index = spread of pelvic x spread of keel bone. These three data were compared with the last 30 days production and with the production to date - six months. Comparisons have been made with 285 pullets. The AA. have concluded: (a) there is a positive correlation between the spread of the pelvic bones and the last 30 days (r = + 0,23 and pr = + 0,16); (b) there is not correlation of the distance between the pelvic bories to the keel and the last 30 days (r = + 0,11 and pr = - 0,01; (c) there is positive correlation of the distance between the pelvic bones to the keel and last six months production (r = + 0,27 and pr = + 0,19); (d) the correlation of the index sugested pratically equals correlation between pelvic bones (r = + 0,27 and pr = + 0,19); (e) correlation between last 30 days production and the total egg production is high (r = + 0,55 and pr = 0,53). Is is stated that spread of the pelvic bones is a low index of actual production and the distance of the keel a low index of total egg production in R. I. R. pullets. The last month real production is a better index of the total egg production.
  • Análise de poliembrionia em Citrus, máxime em toranjas

    Gurgel, J. T. A.; Soubihe Sobº, J.

    Abstract in English:

    1 - This paper is a joined publication of the Dept. of Genetics, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, and Secção de Citricultura e Frutas Tropicais, Instituto Agronômico, de Campinas, and deal with the number of seed per fruit and the polyembryony in Citrus, with special reference to the pummelos (C. grandis). 2 - For C. pectinifera, hibrid limon x acid lime, C. histrix and Citrus sp. the mean of seeds per fruit is 5,8 - 17,3 - 30,2 -94,6; for 14 pummelos the average was 100 and the range of variation 11 to 185 seeds per fruit. For the four above mentioned Citrus the cotyledons were classified into 3 types: big (near 8 mm.), medium (near 6 mm) and small (near 4 mm) and for the pummelos there was only one size of cotyledons, about 10 mm (table 1). 3 - The polyembryony was determined by two processes: a) counting of the embryos in the mature seed; b) counting after germination in flats or seed-beds. The rasults obtained are in table 2; the process a gave larger results than process b.The following pummelos are monoembryonics: melancia, inerme, Kaune Paune, sunshine, vermelha, Singapura, periforme, Zamboa, doce, Indochina, Lau-Tau, Shantenyau and Siamesa. Sometime it was found a branching of the main stem that gave a impression of polyembryonic seeds. 4 - It was shown by the x2 test that the distribution of embryo numbers fits the Poisson's series (table 2) in both processes. 5 - It is discussed in table 2 the variability of polyembryony for the following cases: a) between plants, within years. The teste for the differences of mean of polyembryony between 3 plants of C. pectinifera is statistically significant in 1948 and 1949; b) between yields of the same plant, within year. The same case of C. pectinifera may be used for this purpose; c) between process, within year. It is shown in table 3, for C. pectinifera and the hibrid "limon x acid lime" that there is a statistically signicicant between both process above mentioned.
  • III - Contribuição para o estudo biológico e ecológico das Podostemaceae do salto do Piracicaba

    Accorsi, Walter Radamés

    Abstract in English:

    1 - The Author, in this 3 thd. contribution, concludes the study of the biology and ecology of the species Tristicha trifaria (Willd.) Spreng. and Mourera aspera (Bong.) Tul., both of the Piracicaba Fall. 2 - According to the results of Dr. Peter van Royen (State Herbarium of Leiden, Holland), who made a complete revision of Podostemaceae of the Piracicaba Fall, the species Tristicha hypnoides (St. Hil.) Spreng. var. Hilarii Tul. and Mnioppsis Glazioviana Warm, correspond, respectively, to theTristicha trifaria (Willd.) Spreng. and Mniopsis weddelliana Tul. Apinagia Accorsii Toledo was transferred by Royen to the genus Wettsteiniola. So, its new name is Wettsteiniola accorsii (Toledo) v. Royen. 3 - Propagation by seeds may occur in the following places: a) placenta of partially open fruits; b) external and internal walls of the open capsules; c) pedicels of the fruits; d) remains of rhizomes, branches, etc. e) organic residues accumulated in water holes in the fall; f) clean rocks, in which the little groups of seedlings seems to be a colony of algae. Seeds adhere to the substrata above by means, of a mucilage produced by the transformation of the external integuments in contact with water. 4 - In the growth of the four species below it was found in Piracicaba Fall conspicuous zoning so scattered: a) Wettsteiniola accorsii (Toledo) v. Royen, in rocks situated just within the water fall, where velocity of the current and aeration of the water are very high. b) Tristicha trifaria (Willd.) Spreng. and Mniopsis weddelliana Tul., in rocks at some distance (100 m more or less) upstream until near the bridge across the river. c) Mourera aspera (Bong.) Tul., 300 m upwards the bridge. 5- During 1949, the ecological conditions of the Piracicaba Fall were changed due to the following factors: a) dry season very long, begining from last period of June until 30 november; b) stopping, during four months, of water from the Atibaia river (one of the components of Piracicaba river) near to the city of Americana, in the place where a new station of the Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz was build. In consequence, most of the Podostemaceae died. On the dry rocks there were only fruits and dried plants. 6 - Tristicha trifaria has the same biological and ecological behavior as the Mniopsis weddelliana,. 7 - The vegetative propagation of Tristicha trifaria is made by increasing of its branches, production of stolons with vegetatives buds and regeneration of old parts in especial conditions of water and aeration. 8 - Mourera aspera has the same vegetative propagation as the Wettsteiniola accorsii; it produces stolons (in very little percentage) with vegetative buds, branches of the rhizomes and regeneration of active old parts. 9 - Frequently, there is, on the plants an accumulation of sand, silt, loam, organic substances, and so on. The quantity of material stored depends of the purity of the water, of the morphology of the plants and of the situation on the fall. 10 - In extrem conditions of dry heat, the surviving of the species in its habitat depends exclusively from germination of seeds in the mentioned substrata. Exceptionally, some plants survive in a few water pockets full with the weak remaining current.
  • Considerações sôbre o emprego de variedades sintéticas no melhoramento do milho: I - sintéticos simples

    Brieger, F. G.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    1) Inicialmente foi dado um breve resumo dos métodos básicos do melhoramento no milho os quais podem ser reunidos em dois grupos principais: o processo do milho híbrido, com as suas variantes, e os processos dos sintéticos. Estes últimos podem ainda ser subdivididos em duas categorias: os sintéticos simples e os sintéticos balançados. Na obtenção dos sintéticos simples toma-se inicialmente em consideração a capacidade combinatória das linhagens a serem misturadas, e se executa em cada geração de sintético uma seleção massal de conservação. Nos balançados devemos acrescentar uma forte seleção, na fase preparatória, contra todos os híbridos que dão segregações mendelianas fortes demais. 2) No curso de um breve resumo histórico ficou evidente que a idéia de se aproveitarem os sintéticos no melhoramento do milho, formulada pela primeira vez por Hayes e Garber (1919) deu resultados práticos apreciáveis. Assim Hayes, Rinke e Tsinang (1944) obtiveram produções de sintéticos que eram equivalentes de um híbrido duplo, Minhybrid 403. Lonnquist (1949) registrou produções de sintéticos idênticos ao híbrido duplo, US 13. Roberts, Wellhausen, Palácios e Guaves (1949) e Wellhausen (1950) relataram resultados bastante satisfatórios, obtidos no México. 3) Ficou demonstrado que as fórmulas de Sewall Wright (1932) e de Mangelsdorf (1939) não podem ser consideradas como explicações gerais do método, pois pela sua derivação pode-se mostrar facilmente que elas exigem certas premissas que nem sempre são justificáveis. 4) Para eliminar confusões na terminologia foi desenvolvido um esquema básico da constituição de sintéticos supondo que se parte de linhagens autofecundadas e que foram plantadas em conjunto para a reprodução de cruzamento livre. A geração que consiste das plantas autofecundadas, plantadas em mistura, é denominada SyO. A geração seguinte, a qual contém uma maior percentagem de híbridos simples e uma menor per-centagem de descendentes de cruzamentos dentro de mesma linhagem (descendentes consanguíneos) representa assim a geração Syl. A geração que segue depois de novo cruzamento livre, Sy2, será então composta de híbridos entre quatro linhagens (híbridos duplos"), entre três linhagens ("three way crosses"), entre duas linhagens ("híbridos simples") e descendentes de combinações consanguíneas, ("inbreds"). Porém se houver uma seleção em Sy1 que elimina todos os descendentes de combinações consanguíneas, sobrevivendo apenas híbridos simples, então a geração Sy2 será composta de híbridos entre plantas que não tem nenhuma das linhagens originais em comum, os que têm uma linhagem em comum e finalmente aqueles que têm duas linhagens em comum. 5) Empregando esta classificação das gerações, podemos verificar que a geração Sy1 de Lonnquist corresponde à geração Sy1 do esquema básico, a geração Sy1 deHayes et al corresponde à geração Sy2 do esquema básico é a geração Sy1 de Wellhausen et al corresponde aproximadamente à geração Sy3 do esquema básico. 6) Uma teoria mais correta dos sintéticos deve-se basear nas regras da genética em populações, as quais foram empregadas por Brieger para justificar o processo dos sintéticos balançados. Uma discussão mais detalhada desta teoria será assim dada numa outra publicação que se ocupara especialmente com ossintéticos balançados.

    Abstract in English:

    1) The author gives a short resume of the principal breeding methods in maize. Since mass selection cannot be considered as a method for improving corn, two groups of methods remain: the hybrid corn method and the method of the synthetics. Reasons are given why it seems important that the latter should be applied, after a further improvement of the breeding technique and its theoreticsl basis. The method may still be subdivided into the method of simple synthetics and of balanced synthetics. In the preparation of the former, only the following two points have to be considered: selection for combining ability before the constitution of the synthetic, and mass selection aganst weak descendants of consanguineous matings after the establishment of the synthetic. In the case of the balanced synthetics, a third element is added: selection against or rather previous elination of all hybrids which give too strong mendelian segregation in a synthetic. 2) The first proposal to use synthetics has been made by Hayes and Gardner in 1919. Positive results were obtained howewer only much later, since before 1940 the importance of selection for combining ability was not recognized. Hayes, Rinke and Tsiang (1944) obtained a synthetic which equalled the double hybrid Minhybrid 403.Lonnquist (1949) obtained a synthetic which eaqulled the double hybrid US13. Roberts, Wellhausen, Palacios and Cuevas (1949), Roberts and Wellhausen (1948) and Wellhausen (1950) reported on satisfatory results from Mexico. Brieger (1944 and later) produced balanced synthetics of subtropical sweet corn. 3) The author demostrates that the formulae of Sewall Wright (1922) and of P. C. Magelsdorf (1939) cannot be used satisfactorily to explain the composition of synthetics. Both these formulae start from certain assumptions which are not allways satisfeid, and disregard the principles of genetics in populations under selection. 4) In oder to avoid confusion in discussions on the theory of synthetics, a basic scheme is proposed for the identficiation of subsequent generations. The first generation of plants, planted out in mixture and left to free pollinisation should be called So. and it should be composed of the offspring of individual selected plants which had suffered at least one selfing or more. The first generation after free pollinisation, or generation Sy1, consists thus mainly of simple hybrids except for some individuals resulting from consanguineous matings between sister plants. If there were no selection, the next generation Sy2 should be composed of individuals from matings between individuals which may have none,, one, two, three or even four lines in their ancestry in common. Howewer if artificial selection against weaker and less productive plants is carried out in the generations Syl and Sy2, than we may assume that only individuals remain from matings wich had from none up to two ancestral lines in common. 5) Using this classification we can say that the generation Syl in Lonnquist's experiment corresponds to the generation Syl of the basic scheme, Syl of Hayes, Rinke and Tsiang correspond to Sy2 of the basic scheme and Syl of the Mexican authors corresponds to a generation of about the order Sy3. 6) A correct theory of synthetics should take fully into consideration the principals of population genetics, taking furthermore into consideration modern theories on the genetic basis of heterosis in maize.
  • Nota preliminar sôbre a variação em orquídeas brasileiras

    Brieger, F. G.

    Abstract in English:

    Preliminary studies on brazilian orchid species show that the existing material offers the possibility for studying the following general questions: a) In spite of the rule about the relative proportion between numbers of individuals per species and number of species per unit area in tropical and in temperate zones, the orchid genera seem to follow more closely the rule of temperate zone species, and this in spite of the fact that the family is undoubtedly of tropical origin. b) The large amont of paralell variation existing between different genera recquires a detailed explanation, and extensive introgressive hybridization is mentioned as one possibility. c) The existence of natural sympatric hybrids, both inter-generic and interspecific, and the simultaneous existence of the species in the pure form, show that mechanismes of reproductive isolation must exist, though of an incomplete nature.
Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Av.Páduas Dias, 11, C.P 9 / Piracicaba - São Paulo, Brasil, tel. (019)3429-4486, (019)3429-4401 - Piracicaba - SP - Brazil
E-mail: scientia@esalq.usp.br