Occurrence of Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) in corn grains from the city of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil

Ocorrência de Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) em grãos de milho provenientes de Plácido de Castro, Acre, Brasil

Adalberto Hipólito de Sousa Davair Lopes Teixeira Júnior Josilene Ferreira Rocha Lucas Martins Lopes About the authors

ABSTRACT

Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) is a secondary pest of stored grains. It is a polyphagic and cosmopolitan species, with little information about its occurrence in the northern region of Brazil. This study was conducted to report the first occurrence of A. advena in corn grains in the city of Plácido de Castro, in the state of Acre, Brazil. In June 2019, the presence of A. advena under development was observed in a mass of corn grains. The identification was made at the species level using the available dichotomous keys. Since this is the first record of A. advena in corn grains in the city of Plácido de Castro, monitoring insects in the mass of corn grains is necessary to prevent the economic damages caused by A. advena to grains.

KEYWORDS
foreign grain beetle; fungivorous beetle; Zea mays ; storage; South-Western Amazon

RESUMO

Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) é uma praga secundária de grãos armazenados. É uma espécie polifágica e cosmopolita, com poucas informações sobre sua ocorrência na região norte do Brasil. Este estudo tem o objetivo de relatar a primeira ocorrência de A. advena em grãos de milho na cidade de Plácido de Castro, Acre, Brasil. Em junho de 2019, observou-se a presença de A. advena desenvolvendo em uma massa de grãos de milho. A identificação foi feita a nível de espécie com a utilização das chaves dicotômicas disponíveis. Como este é o primeiro registro de A. advena em grãos de milho na cidade de Plácido de Castro, o monitoramento dos insetos na massa de grãos de milho é necessário para evitar danos econômicos causados por A. advena nos grãos.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE
besouro-de-grão-estrangeiro; besouro fungívoro; Zea mays ; armazenamento; Amazônia Sul-Ocidental

Brazil is prominent in the world as one of the largest grain producers, having a record crop estimated at 250.5 million metric tons in the 2019/2020 season, which represents a growth of 3.5% compared to the 2018/2019 season (CONAB, 2020Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (CONAB). Acompanhamento da safra 2019/2020 – 9º levantamento de grãos. Brasília: Conab, 2020. 65p. Available from: https://www.conab.gov.br/info-agro/safras/graos/boletim-da-safra-de-graos/item/download/32042_910765cf5dc2d088c377e32cdef6fc72. Access on: 15 Jun. 2020.
https://www.conab.gov.br/info-agro/safra...
). However, high losses of grains during the storage stage are primarily associated with the attack of insect pests (Insecta: Coleoptera and Lepidoptera), which are widely distributed in several regions, especially due to the transportation of processed and industrialized grains and products (FARONI; SOUSA, 2006FARONI, L.R.D.; SOUSA, A.H. Aspectos biológicos e taxonômicos dos principais insetos-praga de produtos armazenados. In: ALMEIDA, F.A.C.; DUARTE, M.E.M.; MATA, M.E.R.M.C. (eds). Tecnologia de armazenagem em sementes. Campina Grande: UFCG, 2006. chap.7, p.371-402.; HAGSTRUM et al., 2013HAGSTRUM, D.W.; KLEJDYSZ, T.; SUBRAMANYAM, B.; NAWROT, J. Stored-product mites. In: Atlas of stored-product insects and mites. Saint Paul: AACC International, 2013. 533-575p. Chap. 6. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-891127-75-5.50009-5
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-891127-75...
).

In this research, the occurrence of Ahasverus advena (Waltl, 1834) [= Cryptophagus advena] (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) was first recorded in a mass of grains from the city of Plácido de Castro, in the state of Acre, Brazil. In general, pest attack on stored grains causes physical and physiological deterioration of grains and seeds as well as qualitative losses, including the reduction of nutritional value, resulting in economic damage or even total loss of the product (LORINI et al., 2015LORINI, I.; KRZYZANOWSKI, F.C.; FRANÇA-NETO, J.B.; HENNING, A.A.; HENNING, F.A. Manejo Integrado de Pragas de Grãos e Sementes Armazenadas. Brasília: Embrapa, 2015. 81p. Available from: https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/129311/1/Livro-pragas.pdf. Access on: 10 Jul. 2020.
https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/...
; PARASIAN et al., 2018PARASIAN, F.; TRISYONO, Y.A.; MARTONO, E. Resistance of Ahasverus advena and Cryptolestes ferrugineus to phosphine on imported cocoa beans from Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Dominican Republic. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia, Yogyakarta, v.22, n.2, p.173-180, 2018. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.25769
https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.25769...
).

The foreign grain beetle A. advena is a small red-brown beetle (Fig. 1). It is approximately 2–3 mm long. Its pronotum shape is broader than long, and it has distinctly curved and slightly serrated lateral margins. The front corners of the pronotum have distinct tooth-like lobes (PEREIRA; SALVADORI, 2006PEREIRA, P.R.V.S.; SALVADORI, J.R. Identificação dos principais Coleoptera (Insecta) associados a produtos armazenados. Documentos Online 75. Passo Fundo: Embrapa Trigo, 2006. 28p. Available from: http://www.cnpt.embrapa.br/biblio/do/p_do75.htm. Access on: 10 Jul. 2020.
http://www.cnpt.embrapa.br/biblio/do/p_d...
; NAVARRO; NAVARRO, 2018NAVARRO, S.; NAVARRO, H. Insect Pest management of oilseed crops, tree nuts and dried fruits. In: ATHANASSIOU, C.G.; ARTHUR, F.H. (eds). Recent advances in stored product protection. Berlin: Springer, 2018. chap.6, p.99-141. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-56125-6_6
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-56125-...
). The larvae are worm-like, cream-colored, and reach a length of about 3 mm before becoming darker adults (PIERCE et al.,1991PIERCE, A.M.; PIERCE JUNIOR, H.D.; OEHLSCHLAGER, A.C.; BORDEN, J.H. 1-Octen-3-ol, attractive semiochemical for foreign grain beetle, Ahasverus advena (Waltl) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, Pennsylvania, v.17, n.3, p.567-580, 1991. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00982127
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00982127...
; LAILTON et al., 2018LAILTON, L.A.; CONSTANTINO, L.M. BENAVIDES, P. Predatory capacity of Cathartus quadricollis and Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under laboratory conditions. Revista Colombiana de Entomología, Cali, v.44, n.2, p.200-205, 2018.).

Figure 1
Dorsal view of Ahasverus Advena.

Ahasverus advena is a cosmopolitan pest of American, Ethiopian, or Eastern origin. It is widely distributed in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean, Europe, North America and Mexico, Oceania, and South America (HAGSTRUM et al., 2013HAGSTRUM, D.W.; KLEJDYSZ, T.; SUBRAMANYAM, B.; NAWROT, J. Stored-product mites. In: Atlas of stored-product insects and mites. Saint Paul: AACC International, 2013. 533-575p. Chap. 6. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-891127-75-5.50009-5
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-891127-75...
). Although it is primarily a fungivorous beetle, it cannot be classified entirely as a mold feeder, but nutrients in mold are necessary to improve an otherwise inadequate diet (HILL, 1965HILL, S.T. Axenic culture of the foreign grain beetle, Ahasverus advena (Waltl) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and the role of fungi in its nutrition. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Cambridge, v.55, n.4, p.681-690, 1965. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300049786
https://doi.org/10.1017/S000748530004978...
; JACOB, 1996JACOB, T.A. The effect of constant temperature and humidity on the development, longevity and productivity of Ahasverus advena (Waltl) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, Amsterdam, v.32, n.2, p.115-121, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(96)00011-2
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(96)000...
). It infests a wide variety of food products, usually under conditions of high humidity or when mold growth occurs (REES, 2007REES, D. (ed.). Insects of Stored Grain: A Pocket Reference. Clayton: CSIRO Publishing, 2007. 77p. https://doi.org/10.1071/9780643094673
https://doi.org/10.1071/9780643094673...
). According to HAGSTRUM et al. (2013)HAGSTRUM, D.W.; KLEJDYSZ, T.; SUBRAMANYAM, B.; NAWROT, J. Stored-product mites. In: Atlas of stored-product insects and mites. Saint Paul: AACC International, 2013. 533-575p. Chap. 6. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-891127-75-5.50009-5
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-891127-75...
and PARASIAN et al. (2018)PARASIAN, F.; TRISYONO, Y.A.; MARTONO, E. Resistance of Ahasverus advena and Cryptolestes ferrugineus to phosphine on imported cocoa beans from Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Dominican Republic. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia, Yogyakarta, v.22, n.2, p.173-180, 2018. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.25769
https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.25769...
, infestations of A. advena have been found in cocoa beans, peanuts, wheat, wheat flour, wheat germ, oat flakes, soy bran, and dried insects.

In June 2019, a large infestation by A. advena was observed in a mass of corn grains from the city of Plácido de Castro, in the state of Acre, Brazil (10°16’02”S and 67°11’18”W). A sample was collected and placed in 1.8 L clear glass jars, which were kept under constant conditions of temperature (27 ± 2 °C) and relative humidity (70 ± 5%) and a scotophase of 24 h.

After multiplication and observation, the insects were mounted with entomological pins on white cardboard triangles of 2 by 6 mm (double mounting). Three triangles were placed on a pin, containing one specimen of the species in the ventral, dorsal, and lateral positions.

The identification was made at the species level using the available dichotomous keys. The dry insects, fixed on pins, duly identified with information on the date and place of collection and the name of the collector, were accommodated in an entomological MDF box with a glass lid and a Styrofoam-coated bottom, treated with naphthalene as a preservative. The material went through the entire curatorial process (CAMARGO et al., 2015CAMARGO, A.J.A.; OLIVEIRA, C.M.; FRIZZAS, M.R.; SONODA, K.C.; CORRÊA, D.C.V. Coleções entomológicas: legislação brasileira, coleta, curadoria e taxonomia para as principais ordens. Brasília: Embrapa, 2015. 117p. Disponível em: https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/122542/1/amabilio-01.pdf. Acesso em: 10 jul. 2020.
https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/...
) and was deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Entomology Laboratory of the Federal University of Acre.

Studies have indicated that A. advena requires a nutrient found in mold and dry yeast to grow, and it can be found in pure cultures of various fungi (DAVID et al., 1974DAVID, M.H.; MILLS, R.B.; SAUER, D.B. Development and oviposition of Ahasverus advena (Waltl) (Coleoptera, Silvanidae) on seven species of fungi. Journal of Stored Products Research, Amsterdam, v.10, n.1, p.17-22, 1974. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(74)90025-3
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(74)900...
). Since they only colonize moist and moldy products and require high relative humidity conditions to grow and develop, these beetles are good indicators of poor storage conditions and spoiled food (JACOB, 1996JACOB, T.A. The effect of constant temperature and humidity on the development, longevity and productivity of Ahasverus advena (Waltl) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, Amsterdam, v.32, n.2, p.115-121, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(96)00011-2
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(96)000...
; ZHAO et al., 2018ZHAO, X.; WANG, D.; FIELDS, P.G.; LI, H. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on development, survival and fecundity of Ahasverus advena (Waltl). Journal of Stored Products Research, Amsterdam, v.77, p.255-230, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2018.04.005
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2018.04.0...
).

The first step to solve any agricultural pest problem is directly linked to species identification (CUI et al., 2020CUI, J.; SU, Y.; FENG, S.; WEI, P.; LIU, X.; LI, Z. Morphological and molecular identification of Liposcelis corrodens (Heymons, 1909) (Psocodea: Liposcelididae) as the first record from China. Journal of Stored Products Research, Amsterdam, v.87, p.101588, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2020.101588
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2020.1015...
). Once the scientific name of the insect is known, it is possible to obtain all bibliographic information about it (PEREIRA; SALVADORI, 2006PEREIRA, P.R.V.S.; SALVADORI, J.R. Identificação dos principais Coleoptera (Insecta) associados a produtos armazenados. Documentos Online 75. Passo Fundo: Embrapa Trigo, 2006. 28p. Available from: http://www.cnpt.embrapa.br/biblio/do/p_do75.htm. Access on: 10 Jul. 2020.
http://www.cnpt.embrapa.br/biblio/do/p_d...
). Discovering any insect attacks at the beginning of the infestation is extremely important to control the pest and preserve the quality of the grains, especially attacks from insects of great economic importance, such as some pests that do not yet have their occurrence recorded (NOURI et al., 2019NOURI, B.; FOTOUHI, K.; MOHTASEBI, S.S.; NASIRI, A.; GOLDANSAAZ, S.H. Detection of different densities of Ephestia kuehniella pest on white flour at different larvae instar by an electronic nose system. Journal of Stored Products Research, Amsterdam, v.84, p.101522, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2019.101522
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2019.1015...
).

Since this is the first record of A. advena in a grain mass in Plácido de Castro, monitoring these insect pests in stored corn grains is recommended to alleviate the risks of the development of large colonies and to prevent economic damage. Furthermore, greater attention should be paid to the proper drying of corn grains to about 13% moisture content (wet base), thus preventing the formation of fungal colonies, with which the presence of A. advena, among other pests, is usually associated.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Not applicable.

  • FUNDING

    This work did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
  • ETHICAL APPROVAL

    Not applicable.
  • AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIAL

    Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.

REFERENCES

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    » https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/122542/1/amabilio-01.pdf
  • Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (CONAB). Acompanhamento da safra 2019/2020 – 9º levantamento de grãos. Brasília: Conab, 2020. 65p. Available from: https://www.conab.gov.br/info-agro/safras/graos/boletim-da-safra-de-graos/item/download/32042_910765cf5dc2d088c377e32cdef6fc72 Access on: 15 Jun. 2020.
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  • CUI, J.; SU, Y.; FENG, S.; WEI, P.; LIU, X.; LI, Z. Morphological and molecular identification of Liposcelis corrodens (Heymons, 1909) (Psocodea: Liposcelididae) as the first record from China. Journal of Stored Products Research, Amsterdam, v.87, p.101588, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2020.101588
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2020.101588
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    » https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(74)90025-3
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    » https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300049786
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    » https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(96)00011-2
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    » https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-56125-6_6
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    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2019.101522
  • PARASIAN, F.; TRISYONO, Y.A.; MARTONO, E. Resistance of Ahasverus advena and Cryptolestes ferrugineus to phosphine on imported cocoa beans from Cameroon, Ivory Coast and Dominican Republic. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia, Yogyakarta, v.22, n.2, p.173-180, 2018. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.25769
    » https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.25769
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    » http://www.cnpt.embrapa.br/biblio/do/p_do75.htm
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    » https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00982127
  • REES, D. (ed.). Insects of Stored Grain: A Pocket Reference. Clayton: CSIRO Publishing, 2007. 77p. https://doi.org/10.1071/9780643094673
    » https://doi.org/10.1071/9780643094673
  • ZHAO, X.; WANG, D.; FIELDS, P.G.; LI, H. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on development, survival and fecundity of Ahasverus advena (Waltl). Journal of Stored Products Research, Amsterdam, v.77, p.255-230, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2018.04.005
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2018.04.005

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    30 Oct 2020
  • Date of issue
    2020

History

  • Received
    11 Dec 2019
  • Accepted
    02 Aug 2020
Instituto Biológico Av. Conselheiro Rodrigues Alves, 1252 - Vila Mariana - São Paulo - SP, 04014-002 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: arquivos@biologico.sp.gov.br