Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study assessed the efficacy of formulated biocontrol agents and nitrogen fertilization on southern blight control. Antagonism test in vitro was performed to assess the inhibitory activity of Bacillus methylotrophicus and Trichoderma asperellum against the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii. Tomato seedlings were transplanted into the substrate added with ammonium nitrate doses and inoculated with the formulated biocontrol agents Ônix (B. methylotrophicus) or Quality (T. asperellum). Subsequently, seedlings were inoculated with S. rolfsii. Plant mortality, shoot and root weight were assessed 11 days after the last inoculation. Agents had effective inhibitory activity against S. rolfsii; thus, they could reduce southern blight severity when combined with ammonium nitrate. However, plant mortality was not reduced by them.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Aristolochia plants are notable from an ethnopharmacological viewpoint, but the relevance of these species for medicinal purposes has been debated because of their inherent toxicity. The convergence of these contrasting realities can be readily achieved using bioconversion methods, which have been shown to be useful tools for numerous applications, including the detoxification of biomass. In this context, methanolic extracts of leaves from Aristolochia triangularis and Aristolochia gibertii, as well as the feces of Battus polydamas larvae fed with leaves from these plants, were prepared, and their cytotoxic activities were evaluated on a human fibroblast cell line (GM07492). The leaf extracts were found to be cytotoxic, leading to reductions of 42.1 and 33.8% on cell viability, respectively, while the fecal extracts were considered inactive. In addition to evidencing the cytotoxicity of A. triangularis and A. gibertii, these findings demonstrated a potential bioconversion strategy for obtaining aristolochiaceous extracts with reduced toxicity using the larvae of a specialist phytophagous insect, thus renewing expectations in relation to the pharmacological importance of Aristolochia spp. The results were also ecologically relevant, as B. polydamas larvae were found to be able to detoxify compounds from host plants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is a polyphagous insect of difficult control and maize is an important host crop of this insect. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are control agents of soil pests. This study aimed to verify the action of EPNs for the control of H. armigera pupae. Laboratory and greenhouse bioassays were conducted to select the concentration of nematode application and subsequently field test were conducted. It was obtained that Heterorhabditis amazonensis MC01 at the concentration of 400 infective juveniles (IJs) ·pupa-1 caused the highest mortality in a lower concentration, whereas for H. amazonensis JPM4, concentrations of both 200 and 400 IJs ·pupa-1 were similar causing pupae mortality. In the greenhouse, H. amazonensis MC01 caused mortality reached values of 80% after 10 days, at concentrations of 600 and 800 IJs ·pupa-1. The highest mortality caused by Steinernema carpocapsae was observed at eight days after the juvenile application, at a concentration of 600 IJs ·pupa-1, also reaching 80% mortality. In the field test, both forms of application were considered appropriate for H. amazonensis MC01, causing mortality rates of up to 80%.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Products such as milk and cheese produced by hand and sold by small producers in open markets and at home are a reality in Brazil, despite legal prohibitions. In many cases, this leads to the production of food without hygienic conditions, which may constitute an important source of transmission of foodborne diseases and a danger to public health. This study proposes to examine the hygienic-sanitary quality of milk and cheese sold illegally in municipalities of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil, to undertake a phenotypical investigation of the presence of resistance of isolated colonies to antimicrobials and to detect the production of β-lactamase enzymes: extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamases (AmpC) and carbapenemases. The 25 milk and 37 cheese samples analyzed were subjected to the most probable number (MPN) test, isolation on eosin-methylene blue agar (EMB) agar and Escherichia coli identification by biochemical tests and disk diffusion test. Results showed that 76% of the milk samples and 67.57% of the cheese samples had thermotolerant coliform counts above the value allowed by the legislation. The milk and cheese isolates showed 15.79 and 5.88% resistance, respectively, to at least one of the tested antimicrobials. No β-lactamase enzyme production was observed in the isolates.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, has caused significant damage to vineyards in the valley of the São Francisco River in Brazil. Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma is one of the most abundant species of predatory mites on vines in this region. This study evaluated the population growth rates of T. urticae on leaves of two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars (‘Italia’ and ‘Superior Seedless’) and jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.] and, also, to estimate the predation rates of the pest mite by N. idaeus on leaves of both grape cultivars and jack bean. A higher oviposition rate of T. urticae was observed on ‘Superior Seedless’ than on ‘Italia’ grape leaves; however, there was no significant difference in the instantaneous growth rates of T. urticae for these grape cultivars. For ‘Superior Seedless’, the spider mite egg viability was significantly lower than on ‘Italia’ grape, indicating a resistance factor in this grape cultivar. The phytoseiid N. idaeus preyed higher number of T. urticae females on ‘Superior Seedless’ leaves than on ‘Italia’ grape and jack bean leaves for the densities of 10 and 20 pest mites per leaf arena (9 cm2). Evaluations of leaf trichomes in both grape cultivars indicated the occurrence of longer trichomes on the basal portion of the main veins of ‘Superior Seedless’ leaves. The presence of these longer trichomes may be associated with the better performance of N. idaeus on ‘Superior Seedless’ leaves.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Maize (Zea mays L.) is among the most cultivated crops in the world and can be affected by several diseases, especially those transmitted by seeds. The study of alternatives to fungicides used for seed treatment has a promising field in essential oils. Thus, this study determined the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract from Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan and to evaluate its antifungal activity on the sanitary and physiological quality of maize seeds. The seeds used were of the Jaboatão cultivar, which were submitted to the following treatments: control (untreated seeds), commercial fungicide (dicarboximide) and A. colubrina extract at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 ppm. The seeds were subjected to sanitary and germination tests in a completely randomized experimental design. Phytochemical prospecting of A. colubrina extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, as well as the major compounds lupeol, gallic acid, ferulic acid, catechin and quercetin. The A. colubrina extract reduced the incidence of Aspergillus spp., including Aspergillus niger, Alternaria spp., Curvularia spp. and Fusarium spp. at all concentrations. The highest concentrations (800 and 1,000 ppm) of the A. colubrina extract reduced the incidence of Penicillium spp. and yielded an effective control of Rhizoctonia spp. The extract of A. colubrina did not present phytotoxic effect, guaranteeing the viability and vigor of maize seeds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nematode control strategies are limited and alternative control is demanded. The main aim was to evaluate control potential of Hohenbuehelia spp. (Hohenbuehelia mastrucata, Hohenbuehelia barbatula, Hohenbuehelia bullulifera, Hohenbuehelia portegna, Hohenbuehelia petaloides and Hohenbuehelia paraguayensis) and Trichoderma koningiopsis against Meloidogyne javanica in bean plants in greenhouse. The parameters evaluated were the number of galls and egg masses which were evaluated in three root regions: basal, intermediate and tip; nematode reproduction factor; vegetal growth parameters (plants height on V1, V2, V4, and R5 growth stages, root length, dry weight of root and aerial part dry weight); Treatments were composed by individual interactions of each fungal isolate with 4,000 eggs of M. javanica, having a total control (bean) and a partial control (bean + nematode) arranged in completely randomized design with four repetitions. Data were tested by Scott–Knott (5%). For vegetal growth parameters, there was only significance for dry weight of roots. All species were able to control nematodes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Crop pests have negative impacts on yield. This paper proposes a spatiotemporal geostatistical modeling to compare data of adult Syrphidae fly count and corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856) colonies in corn crops. The use of a geostatistical model that allows the space-time variation makes the approach more interesting because it is a more complete model. Multiple regression was used to model the trend component for the variable response adult Syrphidae fly count and corn leaf aphid colonies, with the coordinates serving as covariates and the spatiotemporal variations around the deviation are described by a random spacetime residual field. Finally, the prediction map obtained by kriging may be a biological indicator of possible corn leaf aphid colonies in the corn crop. It was possible to verify that the occurrence of the pest provided a significant increase in adult predators and seminatural habitats may favor populations of natural enemies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A very limited amount of information is available in relation both to the residual effect of herbicides destinated to the destruction of cotton stalks and to the time interval required to prevent that development and yield of the following crop be affected. This work aimed to identify the residual activity of herbicides intended to eliminate cotton stalks and to estimate the safety interval (SI) of time for the next cotton sowing. Two trails were simultaneously carried out, the first one for a single application and a second one for the two sequential applications of herbicide treatments, in a 15×5 factorial design organized in randomized complete blocks with four replications. Levels of first factor were constituted by herbicide treatments and the levels of the second factor were composed five periods of time for cotton sowing after herbicide application (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days). Herbicides were 2,4-D, glyphosate, saflufenacil, [imazapic + imazapyr], dicamba, fluroxypyr and sulfentrazone. Results provided an indication of residual activity of herbicide treatments in soil and indicated that a single application or two sequential applications of glyphosate + dicamba + saflufenacil have a considerable potential to affect cotton and a period exceeding 100 days for a single application and exceeding 120 days for two sequential applications was necessary. Treatments with 2,4-D and 2,4-D + glyphosate provided the shortest safe interval and may be used for cotton stalk destruction with no risks for the crop sowing after the withdrawal period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis of reproductive nature that is transmitted to humans mainly by ingestion of undercooked meat or drinking oocyte-contaminated water. The slaughter of small ruminants in clandestine slaughterhouses and the presence of companion animals in these locations may be epidemiologically important for the dissemination of the disease. The objective of the present study was to determine toxoplasmosis prevalence by researching anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat sheep herds from farms in Teresina microregion, Piauí, Brazil. A total of 450 blood samples were collected from sheep of both sexes, belonging to 28 herds from the 14 municipalities that comprise the microregion. The samples were analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 62% (279/450) of the animals in all the municipalities and on at least one farm in each municipality. The high occurrence of positive animals is an indication of reproductive problems in these herds, characterizing a problem for both sheep rearing and public health.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Plant parasitic nematodes are major threats to Brazilian and world agriculture. Among them, Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne incognita stand out as major pests for several crops, including corn, cotton, soybean among others, which can be components of integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems (ICLFs). In this context, information about the host status of eucalypts (Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp.) to plant parasitic nematodes becomes more relevant in Brazil, due to the use of eucalypts in ICLFs. If tree components used on this system increase the population density of P. brachyurus and M. incognita, it is possible that these pathogens could damage shorter-cycle crops. Since information about the host status of eucalypts to plant parasitic nematodes is scarce, this study evaluated the host status of some eucalypt species to P. brachyurus and M. incognita. Two greenhouse trials were done to evaluate the reproduction of P. brachyurus and one to M. incognita, using some of the most cultivated species and hybrids of eucalypts in Brazil. The population growth of P. brachyurus increased on Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus dunnii × Eucalyptus urophylla, and E. grandis × E. urophylla after ~90 days of inoculation. Conversely, despite M. incognita reproducing well in the control plants, no individuals were recovered from C. citriodora, E. urophylla and E. grandis × E. urophylla, which were classified as resistant plants. Based on both obtained and available data, M. incognita poses no threat to eucalypt species today. However, P. brachyurus is suggested to be a threat to eucalypts.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Phytonematodes are among the main pathogens of the common bean. In general, control practices that aim to control these pathogens have not been regularly adopted in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the occurrence of phytonematodes in dry bean fields in Paraná and São Paulo states and estimate the pathogenicity of Pratylenchus brachyurus to dry bean in glasshouse experiments. Root and soil were sampled for nematode extraction, identification and estimation of population density. Four glasshouse experiments with different initial population densities were carried out to evaluate the effect of P. brachyurus on the growth of dry bean plants. Six species of phytonematodes were detected, namely Helicotylenchus dihystera, P. brachyurus, Pratylenchus crenatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus sp. The spiral nematode H. dihystera was found in all samples and was the most abundant species in both states. The lesion nematode P. brachyurus was also frequent, reaching 94% in Paraná and 100% in São Paulo. The root-knot nematodes and Rotylenchulus sp. were reported only in São Paulo fields (45% and 18% frequency, respectively), and P. crenatus only in Paraná (12%). The most abundant nematode in the soil was H. dihystera, and in roots was P. crenatus. It was demonstrated that densities of 6.66 specimens of P. brachyurus per cm3 of soil provoke visible and measurable root decay. In conclusion, survey data showed low phytonematode densities and pathogenicity tests demonstrated that densities above 6.67 specimens of P. brachyurus per cm3 of soil cause damage to the dry bean roots.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The epidemiology of salmonellosis in poultry is complex, which makes it difficult to identify the origin and spread of this disease in poultry farms. The aims of this study were to characterize the spatial distribution of Salmonella enterica in epidemiological units in Paraná, Brazil; and to investigate correlations between this microorganism and associated factors. Among the epidemiological units, 78 of 243 (32.10%) were positive. Spatially, the northwestern and western regions had higher concentrations of positive cases than the other regions. In bivariate analyses, the presence of other animal species in the epidemiological unit (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.43–0.95; p = 0.022) and proximity to establishments at risk (PR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32–0.81; p = 0.001) did not influence positivity, but the average population per poultry shed (between 30,501 and 32,500; PR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.72–3.83; p = 0.001) was associated with Salmonella positivity. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that the average population per poultry shed, presence of surrounding risk-posing establishments and presence of surrounding poultry sheds produced a significant multiple model for S. enterica. The results indicated that the presence of S. enterica may be related to higher density broiler in poultry sheds, presence of surrounding poultry sheds, proximity between positive and negative epidemiological units and altitude of the municipality. The information obtained showed that some factors were related to positivity for this microorganism and emphasizes the importance of serotyping to obtain other epidemiological data.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The state of Pará has oil palm plantings of different ages and distinct genotypes. The understanding of which factors influence the occurrence and abundance of defoliating caterpillars in palm groves is paramount for control strategies based on integrated pest management (IPM). This study quantified the effect of oil palm age independently, and that of oil palm age and genotype, on the occurrence and abundance of defoliating caterpillars. Data were collected from 1994–2014 and consisted of counting the average number of caterpillars/leaf/parcel. For Opsiphanes invirae and Talima sp., leaf 17 was sampled; for Acharia spp., Euclea sp., Euprosterna elaeasa, Natada sp., and Automeris liberia, leaf 25 was sampled. For Oiketicus kirbyi, Antaeotricha sp., and Brassolis sophorae no specific leaf was considered. Palm trees were classified into three groups: young palm trees (0–8 years after planting), adult palm trees (9–19 years after planting), and old palm trees (over 20 years after planting). Talima sp. showed the highest population peak followed by O. invirae, Acharia spp., Elaeis elaeasa and Euclea sp. This study concludes that genotype has an impact on the infestation by defoliating caterpillars. Also, oil palms at reproductive age are more prone to higher infestation levels than young trees. While population levels of defoliating caterpillars are low in general, outbreaks are frequent. Importantly, intraspecific genotypes are more vulnerable than interspecific genotypes to infestations by defoliating caterpillars. This study contributes to the bioecological knowledge on defoliating caterpillars on oil palm and therefore provides important information to strengthen integrated pest management practices.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of tick populations on 16 family farms that were members of the agricultural producers’ cooperative of the São Pedro region of the state of São Paulo (COOPAMSP). Bioassays were conducted on nine commercial products in 2018 and 2019. Their active agents were as follows: deltamethrin, amitraz, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronella, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + fenthion, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide, dichlorvos + chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos + dichlorvos, and ivermectin. On some farms, a larval packet test (LPT) was also performed. Overall, four acaricides presented mean efficacy greater than 89%, among which two were associations of pyrethroids + organophosphates and two were associations of organophosphates + organophosphates. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin and ivermectin presented mean efficacy lower than 50%. In the bioassays using the LPT, all five farms showed resistance to diazinon, while only one farm presented resistance to cypermethrin. The results were handed over to each farmer with appropriate guidance for treatments. This study demonstrated that the important points to be implemented related directly to use control strategies, based on direct assistance for farmers and diagnosis of tick population sensitivities.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Potato scab caused by different species of phytopathogenic Streptomyces is considered one of the main bacterial diseases of economic crop importance worldwide. Several studies are being carried out in order to control the disease, but until now, there is no efficient way to do this. Some management strategies have been investigated including application of chemical and biological products and utilization of resistant cultivars of potato but there are few reports about the impact of pH and irrigation regimes on the disease. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of these last two factors on the incidence and severity of potato scab caused by S. scabiei, S. acidiscabies, Streptomyces sp., S. caviscabies and S. europaeiscabiei in assays at pH 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5; and irrigation regimes of once a week, alternate days and daily in greenhouse conditions. The experimental design for the pH tests was randomized blocks arranged in a 5x2 factorial scheme, with 5 replications and 3x2 for the irrigation regimes with 5 replications. The pH tests showed significant differences between the treatments and pH 4,0 - 4,5 presented lower incidence and severity of the disease for the most species tested but no significant differences were observed between the irrigation regimes. The soil acidification is considered a classic strategy for management of the disease and the results obtained herein corroborated this hypothesis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Weevil is one of the main pests of stored corn. The adults feed on intact and broken seeds or bran, while the larvae develop by feeding on the inside of the seeds, resulting in a reduction in weight and physiological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Sitophilus zeamais infestation on corn seeds during storage. Corn seeds were infested using insect densities: 0, 36, 72, 108, and 144 individuals per 240 g of seeds. The infested seeds were placed in individualized plastic containers and covered with voile fabric. The seeds were stored for 60 days under laboratory conditions with an average temperature of around 27 °C and relative humidity of 85%. Initially and every 15 days of storage for 60 days, the seeds were evaluated using the parameters: number of S. zeamais individuals, total number of infested seeds, seed weight loss, germination test and seedling emergence in the tray. The population increase of S. zeamais causes a decrease on the physical and physiological quality of stored corn seeds, but the deterioration rate does not increase in the same proportion as the weevil population growth rate.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present research evaluated the seroprevalence of anti-zika virus (anti-ZIKV) antibodies by virus neutralization test (VNT) in 529 bovines from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil. The reading was performed in an inverted optical microscope, considering reagents when the antibodies were capable to neutralize the ZIKV. Of the 529 samples, 53 (10.01%) were reagents. The animals were healthy at the time of collection. The samples were collected in February 2018, a favorable period for the multiplication of the vector and the highest risk of disease transmission. None of the animals showed anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (anti-BVDV) antibodies, ruling out a possible cross-reaction, reinforcing the possible contact of the bovine with the ZIKV. In the herd, 88 pregnant females were evaluated; of these, 12 cows were reactive, with no history of reproductive problems or fetal malformations. This is the first research on the seroprevalence of ZIKV in cattle in Brazil, and studies should continue to evaluate cattle as a possible host of this arbovirus and its possible consequences for unique health and agribusiness.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB) by molecular techniques has been broadly studied. These methods allow accelerating the diagnosis, in addition to presenting high specificity and sensitivity in the identification of the pathogen, critical characteristic for public health, especially when it comes to the direct diagnosis of the biologic samples, which has been little explored. This paper has evaluated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) as a tool to diagnose TB, which was performed directly on the granulomatous material of suspicious lesions collected in a cold chamber under state inspection in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Of the 74 samples evaluated, 14.86% were positive, with 10.81% positive for mPCR and culture, 4.05% negative for cultivation and positive for mPCR. The correlation between the cultivation and the mPCR presented agreeance higher than 61.54% of the cases. The results have indicated that the protocol proved itself effective, fast and very promising in the surveillance in slaughterhouses for the diagnosis of tuberculosis directly from the granuloma.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The consumption of meat and meat products can pose consumers into risk due to the presence of biological hazards that can cause foodborne diseases. Thus, this study aimed to compare the microbiological quality of illegal and inspected salami sold in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. For this purpose, 80 salami samples (40 illegal and 40 inspected) were purchased and their microbiological quality was assessed according to the protocol established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. All samples were considered as acceptable for consumption according to the Brazilian law. However, the samples of illegal salami were significantly higher contaminated with bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus (p = 0.002) and had a higher trend to be contaminated with total coliforms (p = 0.08) and thermotolerant ones (p = 0.07) compared to inspected salami. Salmonella spp. and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus were not detected. In conclusion, although all samples were considered as safe for consumption, illegal salami had a worse microbiological quality when compared to inspected ones.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Ammonium quaternary compounds are widely used in poultry and swine production as disinfectants in the control of pathogens. They act on gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, enveloped fungi and viruses. However, in some conditions of pH and presence of organic matter can be inactivated. This study evaluated the action of ammonium quaternary compounds at 1:1,000 and 1:2,000 dilutions against Salmonella enterica serovarTyphimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in the presence of three different organic matter simulators, fetal bovine serum, skim milk and whole milk concentration of 1, 3, 5, and 7% and at pH 6 and 9, with 15 min of contact. It was possible to verify that the organic matter simulators adjusted in the same conditions of contact time and percentage, in the in vitro tests, presented different results and the fetal bovine serum did not inactivate the disinfectant. However, the best result against S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis was obtained at pH 6 at the dilution of 1:1,000 in all organic matter simulators.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam (Convolvulaceae), is an essential crop for food security in developing countries. Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the main pests of I. batatas in tropical and subtropical regions. It feeds on the tuberous roots of I. batatas and induces perforations tunnel-shaped with excrement. The objective of this study was to register, for the first time, the occurrence of E. postfasciatus in I. batatas in the municipality of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Individuals of E. postfasciatus were found in the larval, pupal and adult stages feeding on the roots, in the genotypes, Brasilândia Branca, Rubisol, UFVJM01, UFVJM02, UFVJM03, UFVJM04, UFVJM08, UFVJM18, UFVJM91, UFVJM291 and UFVJM526 in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Euscepes postfasciatus injuries formed superficial and deep galleries with the presence of excrement and unpleasant odor. The record of E. postfasciatus in I. batatas in the municipality of Diamantina is important to develop local strategies for integrated pest management of the crop in the region.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This work carried out a literary review of the different aspects related to the use of propolis in the management of plant crops and their advances in agriculture. Propolis is a product widely known for its therapeutic capacity. Due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among other biological activities, its use has been studied in agriculture. Studies they show that the use of propolis via ethanolic propolis extract (EEP) provides beneficial effects on crops. These benefits are associated with the control of phytopathogens, postharvest preservation and conservation of fruits and vegetables and promotion of plant growth. There is evidence that benefits are the result of the propolis chemical composition that is especially rich in phenolic compounds and nutrients. In addition, the typical waxy property of propolis results in an efficient biofilm in plant tissues. There are still scarce reports showing that the use of EEP in crop management controls the presence of insects and reduces water stress in plants. Generally, studies are mainly focused on in vivo and greenhouse evaluations, requiring further research to elucidate the full potential of the use of propolis in crop management.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The genus Coffea belongs to the Rubiaceae family and includes two species with optimum economic performances, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. The state of São Paulo is one of the states that produce the species C. arabica in Brazil. Arabica coffee has been of great importance to São Paulo, providing relevant contributions to the historical, political, architectural, gastronomic, touristic, artistic, agricultural, industrial and social sectors since its introduction into the state in the nineteenth century. The agricultural sector includes crops produced by both small farmers and by highly technological agricultural groups. Coffea arabica plants present six phenological phases, all sensitive to changes in temperature and rainfall. In the reproductive phases, the species requires short days, low temperatures and no rainfall, followed by the rainy season. However, the phenological phases of the coffee plants can be harmed or even inhibited by dry or rainy seasons that are too long or too short. In the state of São Paulo, the municipalities of Garça and Franca show optimal coffee productivity, whereas those of Adamantina and Registro are low, and the agricultural aptitudes of these four municipalities show strong relationships with their geographical distributions in the state. Garça and Franca are situated in areas where the predominant dry and rainy seasons favor the occurrence of the phenological phases of arabica coffee plants, whereas Adamantina and Registro are located in areas with long dry and rainy seasons, respectively, characteristics that harm the development of the reproductive phenological phases of this culture.