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Production and use of biogas in Europe: a survey of current status and perspectives

Produção e utilização de biogás na Europa: um levantamento da situação atual e perspectivas

Abstracts

The article presents the results of a survey carried out in the European Union (EU) regarding the production and use of biogas from different sources. The EU is a world leader in the field of biogas, with a production of 10,085.8 ktoe y-1 (in 2011) in terms of primary energy, accounting for about 60% of the world's production. Germany is the EU country that has made the greatest progress in this field with a production of as much as 5,067.6 ktoe y-1, of which a share of 4,414.2 ktoe y-1 results from anaerobic digestion (and co-digestion) processes of selected organic matrices. UK is the second largest producer with 1,764.8 ktoe y-1, determined for 84% by landfill biogas and the remainder by biogas produced in sewage treatment plants (sludge digestion). Italy (1,095.7 ktoe y-1) and France (349.6 ktoe y-1) follow in the list of the largest producers. The trend of biogas production, in accordance with the action lines of the EU, is characterized by a progressive increase from anaerobic digestion (and co-digestion) of selected organic matrices and a progressive decrease from landfills. Production in 2020 is estimated at 28.0 Mtoe y-1 in accordance with the EU Renewable Energy National Plans. The uses of biogas are mainly directed to the production of electricity and heat. There are, however, several cases of conversion of biogas into biomethane injected into the natural gas grids or used as biofuel in vehicles. In this last direction, worthy of note are a few north-central EU countries which have implemented an effective policy to promote the use of biomethane for public and private transport.

natural gas; biofuels; renewable energies


O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada na União Europeia sobre a produção e utilização de biogás a partir das diferentes fontes. A União Europeia demonstra um papel de liderança mundial na área de biogás, com a sua produção de 10.085,8 ktoe ano-1 (em 2011) em termos de energia primária, respondendo por cerca de 60% da produção mundial. A Alemanha é o país europeu que tem feito os maiores progressos neste domínio, com uma produção tanto quanto 5.067,6 ktoe ano-1, dos quais uma parte de 4.414,2 ktoe ano-1 resulta dos processos de digestão anaeróbia (e co-digestão) de matrizes orgânicas selecionadas. O Reino Unido é o segundo maior produtor da Europa com uma quota de 1.764,8 ktoe ano-1, com 84% do biogás proveniente de aterros sanitários e o restante produzido em estações de tratamento de esgotos (digestão do lodo). Itália (1.095,7 ktoe ano-1) e França (349,6 ktoe ano-1) seguem na lista dos maiores produtores europeus de biogás. A tendência de produção de biogás, de acordo com as linhas de ação da UE, é caracterizada por um aumento progressivo na produção de biogás em plantas de digestão anaeróbica (e co-digestão) de matrizes orgânicas selecionadas e uma diminuição progressiva da produção de aterros sanitários, com uma estimativa de 28,0 Mtoe ano-1 a serem produzidos em 2020, de acordo com os Planos Nacionais de Energias renováveis da UE. Os usos do biogás são direcionados principalmente para a produção de eletricidade e calor. Há, no entanto, vários casos de conversão de biogás em biometano a ser injetado na rede de gás natural ou para ser usado diretamente como gás biocarburante em veículos. Esta tendência ocorre principalmente em alguns países do centro-norte da UE, que têm implementado uma política eficaz para promover o uso de biometano para transportes públicos e privados.

gás natural; biocarburantes; energia renovável


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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    30 June 2014
  • Date of issue
    June 2014

History

  • Accepted
    03 June 2014
  • Received
    21 Feb 2014
Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas (IPABHi), Estrada Mun. Dr. José Luis Cembranelli, 5000, Taubaté, SP, Brasil, CEP 12081-010 - Taubaté - SP - Brazil
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