Sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a case report supporting the immunologic theory

Surdez neurosensorial súbita: relato de um caso clínico corroborando a teoria auto-imune

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is one of the autoimmune diseases of the inner ear (AIED), which is characterized by a hearing loss of above 30 decibels in at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies over a time course of 72 hours or shorter. Its cause can be found in only 10% to 15% of patients. Histopathologic findings have reported retrograde neuronal degeneration and atrophy of Corti's organ and of the vascular stria. This paper describes a case of a middle-aged female patient undergoing a treatment for hyperthyroidism who developed bilateral SSNHL. The patient was treated with methylprednilisone (1mg/kg/day) for three days with considerable hearing improvement. This treatment was followed by lung and kidney tuberculosis. The immune mechanism of this entity and the possibility of interconnected participation of the antigen type, of an autoimmune disease and of bacterial infection are discussed.

sudden sensorineural hearing loss; autoimmune disease; autoimmune thyroid disease; tuberculosis

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