We present the neurological complications evaluated in a series of 1000 patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Central nervous system (CNS) neurological complications, particularly brain hemorrhages, were the most common, followed by seizures and CNS infections. An unusual neurological complication was Wernicke's encephalopathy. Less frequent neurological complications were metabolic encephalopathy, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, brain infarct and movement disorders. The most common neurological complication of the peripheral nervous system was herpes zoster radiculopathy, while peripheral neuropathies, inflammatory myopathy and myotonia were very rarely found.
neurological complications; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; stem-cell transplantation