Autoimmune encephalitis: a review of diagnosis and treatment

Encefalites autoimunes: uma revisão sobre diagnóstico e tratamento

Lívia Almeida Dutra Fabiano Abrantes Fabio Fieni Toso José Luiz Pedroso Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini Romana Hoftberger About the authors


Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is one of the most common causes of noninfectious encephalitis. It can be triggered by tumors, infections, or it may be cryptogenic. The neurological manifestations can be either acute or subacute and usually develop within six weeks. There are a variety of clinical manifestations including behavioral and psychiatric symptoms, autonomic disturbances, movement disorders, and seizures. We reviewed common forms of AIE and discuss their diagnostic approach and treatment.

encephalitis; antibodies, neoplasm; status epilepticus; anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor encephalitis; immunoglobulin; rituximab

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