Abstract in English:Abstract Boar spermatozoa are very susceptible to cryopreservation injuries and, for this reason, pig remains one of the few species in which fresh semen is still preferred to thawed one for routine artificial insemination (AI). The present work evaluated the effect of supplementing boar sperm thawing medium with Silvafeed SP (SSP), a mixture of Chestnut and Quebracho wood extracts (60/40 w/w) rich in polyphenols (92.4% tannin content) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and on the following sperm parameters: sperm motility (assessed by CASA), viability, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial function and lipid peroxidation (assessed by flow cytometry) and capacitation status (immunolocalization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins). Thawed spermatozoa were incubated 1 h at 37°C in BTS without (CTR) or with (5, 10, 20 µg/mL) SSP. After incubation sperm suspension was divided in three aliquots: one was used for IVF trials, one for sperm analysis, and the last one was capacitated for 1 h at 39°C 5% CO2 in IVF medium. Sperm motility parameters, viability, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial functionality, lipid peroxidation and tyrosine phosphorylated protein immunolocalization, used as capacitation parameter, were not influenced by SSP. However, oocytes inseminated with thawed spermatozoa pretreated with all the different SSP concentrations presented a significant (P < 0.01) increase in penetration rate compared to CTR. In addition, 5 µg/mL SSP exerted a positive effect (P<0.05) on the total efficiency of fertilization. These results encourage the use of SSP in the thawing medium since post-thawing fertility is a limit for the large-scale use of boar frozen semen.
Abstract in English:Abstract A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of rutting season on metabolism of testosterone (T) and its effect on drug metabolizing enzymes in dromedary camels. Serum and tissue samples were collected from liver, testes and poll glands of rutting and non- rutting camels treated with T at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg, given intramuscularly for 7 days. Liver samples were also used to monitor drug metabolizing enzymes. Testosterone and DHT concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) increased in testicular tissue and peripheral circulation of rutting camels compared to non-rutting camels and in non-rutting camels treated with T or DHT. Drug metabolizing enzymes of phase-1 reaction were significantly (P<0.05) inhibited in livers of rutting camels and in non-rutting camels treated with T and DHT. It is suggested that co-administration of drugs metabolized by oxidation with androgens should be avoided. Such drugs may cause adverse drug reaction in rutting camels.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) on the spermatic parameters of Wistar rats, submitted or not to testicular heat shock (HS). For this, 48 animals were treated according to the experimental groups (G1: not exposed to HS and untreated; G2: exposed to HS and untreated; G3: not exposed to HS and treated with GTE; G4: exposed to HS and treated with GTE). Subgroups of rats were euthanized on days 15, 30, and 60 to recover the spermatozoa. The total motility (TM), vigor, spermatic morphology and concentration, mitochondrial membrane potential, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity (ACi) were analyzed. The TM was higher in G1 and G3 than in G2 and G4 on day 30, and higher in G4 on day 60. The overall means of TM and vigor were higher in G1 and G3 than in G2 and G4, as well as TM on day 60. For the morphology, G2 and G4 were lower than G1 and G3 on day 15, and G4 was lower than G1 and G3 on day 30. Moreover, in G1 and G3 morphology was higher on days 15 and 30, and in G4 it was lower on day 30, with the overall means being higher in G1 and G3 than in G2 and G4, as well as on days 15 and 60 compared to day 30. The overall mean of ACi, on day 30, was lower than on days 15 and 60 for all the groups. Therefore, HS is shown to be widely deleterious to the gametes, and the daily administration of 100 mg/kg green tea extract does not improve the spermatic parameters of Wistar rats, submitted or not to testicular HS, although it leads to better recovery of spermatic motility and morphology at 60 days.
Abstract in English:Abstract Wnt family members have recently been distinguished in the adult ovary with potential roles in ovarian function. Though particular growth factors interact with Wnt signaling members in extraovarian cell types, it is unclear whether this interaction is applicable in the granulosa cells. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-β) on Wnt ligands WNT2 and WNT4 and Wnt receptor Frizzled-4 (FZD4) protein levels in cultured mouse granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were isolated from antral follicles of adult Balb/C mice and cultured for 24 hours in the presence of 100 ng/mL of IGF-I, or EGF or FGF-β. WNT2, WNT4 and FZD4 protein levels were evaluated through western blotting after the culture process. IGF-I treated granulosa cells had significantly the highest level of WNT2 and WNT4 as well as FZD4 when compared to FGF-β and EGF groups. FGF-β group had a significantly higher level of WNT2, WNT4 and FZD4 expression when compared to EGF group. FZD4 expression was at the highest level in the IGF-I group and this difference was statistically significant for all groups including uncultured cells and vehicle group. In addition, FGF-β was shown to positively affect the adhesion of granulosa cells. This study demonstrates that IGF-I, FGF-β and EGF have differential effects on the expressions of WNT2, WNT4, and FZD4 in cultured mouse granulosa cells, suggesting that particular growth factors related to ovarian function might conduct their roles in the ovary through Wnt signaling.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our objective was to investigate whether the pulp and paper mill industry effluent could affect the testis and Sertoli cells in a fast exposure period. For this, the present study was carried out in immature rats at 10-day-old. Testis treated in vitro with 4% effluent for 1 h presented changes in energy metabolism in terms of a decrease in lactate content and glucose uptake. Elevation in GSH content, as an antioxidant defense mechanism, was also detected. Sertoli cells treated with 4% effluent for 1 hour showed alterations in the mitochondrial metabolism that favor the decoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and the generation of oxygen reactive species and also a time and concentration-dependent delay secretion of acidic vesicles. Our results showed that pollutants present in the pulp and paper mill effluents, in a short time of exposure, are capable of inducing alterations in important metabolic functions in the testis and in Sertoli cells that are crucial for the correct progression of spermatogenesis and fertility.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective was to determine the effect of some factors on pregnancy rate of fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET), in cows and heifers kept under Mexican tropical conditions. Recipients females (n=405) grazing in pastures were selected according to breed group (Zebu and crosses), parity (nulliparous and multiparous), body condition score (BCS) and the presence of a corpus luteum (CL). The females were synchronized on day 0 using a progesterone vaginal device and 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), two groups were established. Group 1 (conventional protocol) were animals in which the progesterone device was removed on day 7. At this time, also received an injection of 50 mg cloprostenol sodium and 1 mg estradiol cypionate. Animals also received 300 IU (heifers) or 360 IU (cows) of eCG. Group 2 (J-Synch protocol) were animals in which the progesterone device was removed on day 6. Cloprotenol and eCG injections were applied as in Group 1. Additionally, on day 9, animals of group 2 received 0.01 mg buserelin acetate. Embryo transfer of in vivo or in vitro was done on day 16 and pregnancy diagnosis was realized by ultrasonography on days 23 and 53 after FTET. Statistical analyses were carried out using Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Pregnancy rate varied between farms (P<0.05). The highest pregnancy rate was for multiparous cows (66%). The recipient utilization rate was better in the J-Synch protocol (85%), and in vivo embryos (75%) had higher pregnancy rate. The diameter of the follicle and the CL had no effect on pregnancy rate (P>0.05). However, the logistic regression determined that the only significant factor on pregnancy rate was the type of embryo. In conclusion, pregnancy rate in FTET females was higher for in vivo embryos than for in vitro embryos in cows evaluated under humid tropical conditions in Mexico.
Abstract in English:Abstract Domestic and wild goats are very susceptible animals to predation, specially when pregnancy occurs. This study aimed to evaluate the use of goat fetal ovarian tissue for vitrification followed by xenotransplantation and fresh xenotransplantation in two immunosuppressed mice models (C57BL/6 SCID and Balb-C NUDE). Goat fetus ovaries were collected in slaughterhouses, divided into small cortical pieces and were destined for fresh xenotransplantation (FX) and cryopreservation followed by xenotransplantation (CX). Five recipients from each lineage were used for FX and 10 animals from each lineage for CX. The mice were euthanized after 65 postoperative days, and the transplants were collected for microscopic assessment. The blood plasma was collected for estradiol measurement. Independently of mice strain, all recipients presented complete estrus cycle in FX and 80% after CX groups. Follicles were observed at all development stages without morphological changes. The volume density and total vessel surface observed in the transplants were different (p <0.01) between groups. The estradiol levels in the recipients did not differ (p <0.05) among the treatments. Thus, it is possible to activate the preantral follicles in the ovaries of fetuses by optimizing germplasm utilization and conservation of domestic and endangered wild goats that are in predatory situations, undesirable drowning or accidental death, since provided conditions for xenotransplantation are performed.
Abstract in English:Abstract As the main signal for the maternal recognition in ruminants, interferon-tau (IFNT) stimulates expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in uterus and many extrauterine tissues. However, it is unclear that early pregnancy induces expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), myxovirusresistance 1 (Mx1), interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and ubiquitin activating enzyme E1-like protein (UBE1L) in maternal thymus. In this study, ovine thymuses were sampled on day 16 of the estrous cycle and on days 13, 16 and 25 of gestation, and the expression of STAT1, Mx1, IP-10 and UBE1L was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that the expression of STAT1 and IP-10 reached peaks on day 16 of pregnancy, and expression of Mx1 was enhanced on day 25 of pregnancy, and STAT1 protein was located in the epithelial reticular cells, capillaries and thymic corpuscles. However, expression of UBE1L was declined during early pregnancy. In conclusion, early pregnancy influences expression of STAT1, Mx1, IP-10 and UBE1L in maternal thymus, which may participate in regulation of maternal immune tolerance during early pregnancy in sheep.
Abstract in English:Abstract This experiment aimed to verify if the proteins present in a 13th day conceptus induce changes in the equine endometrial ultra-structure, histology, and vascularization, two days after its infusion. Ten healthy cyclic mares were used. Once estrus was confirmed, mares were examined daily to detect ovulation (day 0). After ovulation, mares were examined daily until day seven by transrectal palpation and B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. In this first cycle, intrauterine biopsies were collected at day seven after ovulation, constituting the Cyclic group (n = 10). In the second cycle, the same mares daily were examined until ovulation was detected. After ovulation, mares were examined daily by transrectal palpation and B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography until day 7. On day 5, after ovulation, fragments from previously collected 13-day-old concepti were infused into the uterus of each mare. Intrauterine biopsies were collected at day 7 in all mares (n = 10), constituting the Fragment group. The percentage of ciliated and flattened cells decreased in the Fragment group. Protruded cells, superficial and intraglandular secretion, glandular lumen and diameter, blood vessel diameter, endometrial vascularization, and immune cells were higher in the Fragment group than in the Cyclic group. In summary, proteins of 13th day equine conceptus fragments infused at day five after ovulation signaled histological and vascular changes in the endometrium at the 7th day after ovulation.
Abstract in English:Abstract The pampas deer is an endangered species, from which reproductive biology little is known. We aimed to describe and compare the reproductive seasonal patterns of adult and yearling pampas deer stags throughout the year, including morphological traits, testosterone concentration, sperm morphology and cryoresistance pattern changes. Six adult (AS) and five yearling (YS) stags were captured with anesthetic darts once in winter, spring, summer and autumn to study morphological variables, serum testosterone and semen. Adult males were heavier, their neck girth tended to be greater and their testosterone concentration was higher than in YS. Animals were heavier in summer and autumn. Neck girth and testosterone concentration were greater in autumn. Scrotal circumference, testicular volume and gonado-somatic index varied with seasons, decreasing from winter to spring, increasing in summer and remaining in greater values in autumn. Sperm quality had maximum values from summer to winter. However, the cryoresistance ratio of motility score was greater in spring. In conclusion, in the captivity conditions, pampas deer stags seems to present a light seasonal reproductive pattern, with maximum testis size, testosterone secretion and fresh semen quality in autumn. Nevertheless, sperm cryoresistance ratio seemed to remain stable along the year. Although YS were still growing, they achieved similar semen quality than AS.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is the largest species of this genus, despite having broad distribution in the Americas; it is included in the main list of endangered species. Their conservation is widely studied, but there is a lack of studies about their morphology. In order to contribute to the knowledge of its reproductive system, five male and female ocelots were examined macro- and microscopically by histological techniques. Macroscopic analysis of the male reproductive system revealed presence of prostate and bulbourethral gland located caudally to the urinary bladder and a penis with small spicules. Microscopically, the testes were encased by the tunica albuginea and divided it into lobules with 5-10 tubules per lobe. In females, macroscopic analysis demonstrated two ovaries position dorsally in the sublumbar region and caudal to the kidneys. The bicornuate uterus is composed by uterine horns (12 to 14 cm in length), which travels from the ovaries in a caudal direction to form a small uterine body (4 cm in length). The ovary analysis revealed, in longitudinal section, medullary region composed of loose connective tissue, a stroma rich in blood vessels, and an external parenchymal region surrounded by a tunica albuginea. The results of the study confirmed the similarity between ocelot's reproductive system as domestic cat's ones and showing for the first time the complete morphological tool to highlight these organs and tissue in this male and female endangered wild felid specie. The present study open venue for other researchers to consider morphological and preservationist features and aimed to help at long-term conservation of wild felines.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although ovarian aging is a key cause of decreased ovarian function and oocyte quality, it remains a problem in infertility treatment. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate whether Paeonia lactiflora (PL), a herb improves ovarian function and oocyte quality using aged female mice. C57BL/6 female mice aged 8 months were treated orally every day with PL of 26.5 mg/kg (n=7) and 53 mg/kg (n=7) of body weight for 4 weeks using an oral zoned needle. The control group (n=7) was treated with normal saline. Ovaries and serum were collected for the H&E stain and the evaluation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, respectively. In the second experiment, female mice were orally administered with PL (26.5 mg/kg: n=12, 53 mg/kg: n=12, control: n=12) and then superovulated with PMSG and hCG, and mated with male mice. Zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Ovaries were provided for examination of expressions of genes associated with angiogenesis (VEGF and visfatin), anti-aging (Sirt1 and Sirt2), and follicular development (c-Kit, BMP-15, and GDF-9). PL significantly increased numbers of surviving follicles (primordial, primary, secondary, and antral), numbers of zygotes retrieved, embryo development rate, and ovarian expression of VEGF, visfatin, c-Kit, BMP-15, and GDF-9 at both doses. However, ovarian expression of Sirt1 and Sirt2 was increased at 53.0 mg/kg of PL. ROS levels were not affected by PL. These results suggest that PL may possess beneficial effects regarding ovarian function and oocyte quality, possibly by activation of ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although a considerable number of studies have investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows, the response of ovine oocytes to LPS during their in vitro maturation and development is not well defined yet. Ewe’s ovaries were obtained from a slaughterhouse, the oocytes were collected and matured in the presence of increasing concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/mL) of LPS in order to evaluate the meiotic maturation by measuring the proportion of oocytes reaching the MII stage. The concentration of intracellular glutathione (GSH) was measured in oocytes following maturation in vitro. In addition, concentrations of selected metabolites including glucose, pyruvate, lactate and glutamine were quantified in the medium following maturation. A number of treated matured oocytes along with the control group were subsequently fertilized using frozen semen and assessed for the rate of cleavage and for the proportion reaching the blastocyst stage. The number of oocytes in MII stage was significantly reduced in response to the increasing concentrations of LPS (77.83%, 70.64%, 68.86%, 66.32%, respectively, in case of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/mL LPS when compared to the control group, 76.34%; P<0.05). There were no differences neither in the intracellular concentration of GSH in the oocytes nor in case of the metabolites in the maturation medium. Although the rate of cleaved oocytes was not affected by increasing levels of LPS, the blastocyst rate was reduced in a dose dependent manner (36.69%, 34.21%, 30.35%, 17.27% and 14.03% for the control, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/mL LPS, respectively (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that the developmental competence of ovine oocytes may be affected detrimentally by LPS and such deleterious effects could be related to the maturation process.
Abstract in English:Abstract To clarify the effect of busulfan on the depletion of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from shal rams testis, in the first experiment, lambs were treated by intraperitoneal injection with 4 mg/kg busulfan. In the second experiment, different concentrations of busulfan (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg) were injected directly into both sides of the left testis. The testes of 8 lambs were collected by standard castration procedure for histological analysis five weeks after the treatments and the left testis of remaining lambs were collected after eight weeks and a two-time enzymatic digestion process was used to isolate SSCs. The results showed that all rams that had received intraperitoneal injections of busulfan died. But by testicular injecting of same dose of the drug, 40% of the animals died. The testicular injection of rams with 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg of busulfan resulted in a dose dependent decrease in testis size and also spermatocytes population after 5 weeks of treatments. From the results of colony formation 8 weeks after treatment with busulfan, it can be concluded that only in 1 and 2 mg/kg of busulfan, recovery of endogenous germ cells was performed. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that intra-testicular injections of busulfan (2 mg/kg) reduced spermatocytes population in ram testis within 5 weeks of treatments, and this effect was reversible within 8 weeks of injection. However, it was not recommended to inject 4 mg/kg busulfan into the peritoneal cavity or testis of lambs based on its side effects.
Abstract in English:Abstract Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) have been isolated from domestic and wild cats. For wild cats, the isolation of AMSCs has been reported in the black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) and guigna (Leopardus guigna). Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) isolated from cougar adipose tissue have been used to restore elbow functionality in the cougar (Puma concolor) but multipotent characteristics of these cells have not been described. The present study describes for the first time the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue of cougar. AMSCs and fibroblasts from six months female cougar were isolated and cultured in DMEM/F12, supplemented with FBS 10% + 1% Antibiotic/Antifungal + 2.4 mM L-Glutamine + 2.4 mM pyruvate up to passage 5. Expression of pluripotent and surface marker genes was evaluated at mRNA level. Mesodermal differentiation (adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic) was described. AMSCs expressed mRNA of pluripotent genes Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Klf4 and surface markers Cd44, Cd90, Cd105 and MHCII. Fibroblasts showed similar mRNA expression with the exception of Sox2. AMSCs obtained from cougar exhibit multipotency features similar to domestic cats MSC, nevertheless, other analyses are required. AMSCs from cougar could be a source of interest for treatment of individuals that remain in captivity or arrive to wildlife rehabilitation centers.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study investigated the effect of Folliculinum 6 cH on the oocyte meiosis resumption and viability rates, progesterone production and mitochondrial activity after in vitro maturation of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in sheep. Sheep ovaries were collected at a local slaughterhouse and COCs were recovered by slicing technique. The selected COCs were maturated in TCM199 (Control treatment), or control medium supplemented with 0.05% ethanol (v/v) (the vehicle of the homeopathic preparation – Ethanol treatment) or with Folliculinum 6 cH. After 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM), oocytes were mechanically denuded and incubated with Hoechst 33342 and MitoTracker (0.5 μM) Orange CMTMRos for analysis of viability and chromatin configuration, and mitochondrial activity, respectively. The results showed that Folliculinum 6 cH addition increased oocyte degeneration and reduced meiotic resumption compared to the control (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the percentages meiotic resumption and oocyte maturation were lower in the Folliculinum 6 cH treatment compared to its vehicle (Ethanol treatment) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, when the treatments were compared, higher mitochondrial activity was observed in the Ethanol treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, contrary to its vehicle, the addition of Folliculinum 6 cH to the IVM medium promoted oocyte degeneration and affected negatively the mitochondrial distribution, impairing meiosis resumption.