Animal Reproduction, Volume: 18, Número: 1, Publicado: 2021
  • Use of pyridoxine hydrochloride in the interruption of lactation in female dogs with pseudopregnancy Original Article

    Silva, Maíra Corona da; Guedes, Paula Elisa Brandão; Silva, Fabiana Lessa; Snoeck, Paola Pereira das Neves

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of pyridoxine hydrochloride and its associated side effects in the treatment of pseudopregnancy in female dogs. A total of 40 female dogs, with no defined breed, in non-gestational diestrus, with clinical complaint of milk production were selected. The female dogs were divided into four experimental groups of 10 animals each, treated orally for 20 days with 10mg/kg/day (G1) and 50mg/kg/day (G2) of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), 5μg/kg/day of cabergoline (G3), and with a placebo, in the case of the control group (G4). The effects of the treatments on milk production were investigated, as well as possible systemic side effects, macroscopic uterine and ovarian alterations, and uterine histology. During the investigated period, G2 and G3 were equally efficient (P>0.05) in lactation suppression, differing (P>0.05) from the other groups. There were no systemic side effects or uterine changes associated with administration of the studied drug. Vitamin B6 (50mg/kg) has shown to be a safe and economically viable alternative for lactation interruption in female dogs with pseudopregnancy.
  • Coenzyme Q-10 improves preservation of mitochondrial functionality and actin structure of cryopreserved stallion sperm Original Article

    Lançoni, Renata; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho; Giuli Júnior, Valdemar De; Carvalho, Carla Patricia Teodoro de; Zoca, Gabriela Bertaiolli; Garcia-Oliveros, Laura Nataly; Batissaco, Leonardo; Oliveira, Letícia Zoccolaro; Arruda, Rubens Paes de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10) is a cofactor for mitochondrial electron transport chain and may be an alternative to improve sperm quality of cryopreserved equine semen. This work aimed to improve stallion semen quality after freezing by adding CoQ-10 to the cryopreservation protocol. Seven saddle stallions were utilized. Each animal was submitted to five semen collections and freezing procedures. For cryopreservation, each ejaculate was divided in three treatments: 1) Botucrio® diluent (control); 2) 50 μmol CoQ-10 added to Botucrio® diluent; 3) 1 mmol CoQ-10 added to Botucrio® diluent. Semen batches were analyzed for sperm motility characteristics (CASA), plasma and acrosomal membranes integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (by fluorescence probes propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, FITC-PSA and JC-1, respectively), alterations in cytoskeletal actin (phalloidin-FITC) and mitochondrial function (diaminobenzidine; DAB). The 1 mmol CoQ-10 treatment presented higher (P<0.05) amount (66.8%) of sperm cells with fully stained midpiece (indicating high mitochondrial activity) and higher (P<0.05) amount (81.6%) of cells without actin reorganization to the post-acrosomal region compared to control group (60.8% and 76.0%, respectively). It was concluded that the addition of 1 mmol CoQ-10 to the freezing diluent was more effective in preserving mitochondria functionality and cytoskeleton of sperm cells submitted to cryopreservation process.
  • Localization and expression of ADAM2 in the dromedary camel testis, epididymis and sperm during rutting season Original Article

    Al-Shabebi, Abdulkarem; Althnaian, Thnaian; Alkhodair, Khalid

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract ADAM2 (fertilin β) is a sperm surface protein reported in several mammalian species. However, the presence of ADAM2 in the male reproductive system and sperm of the camel is not well known. The present study was to clarify the localization and expression of ADAM2 in the dromedary camel testis, epididymis and spermatozoa during rutting season using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Tissue samples were obtained from the testis (proximal and distal) and epididymis (caput, corpus, and cauda) from eight mature male camels. Epididymal and ejaculated sperms were collected from four other fertile camels. IHC analysis clearly showed the localization of ADAM2 protein in the spermatocytes and the round and elongated spermatids of the testis, in the epithelial cells along the epididymis tract, on the posterior head of the sperm within the cauda epididymis, and on the acrosomal cap of both the epididymal and ejaculated sperm. The expression of camel ADAM2 mRNA was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the testis when compared with the epididymis. These findings may suggest an important role of ADAM2 in the fertility of male dromedary camels.
  • Nanoparticles from culture media are internalized by in vitro-produced bovine embryos and its depletion affect expression of pluripotency genes Original Article

    Melo-Báez, Bárbara; Mellisho, Edwin A.; Cabezas, Joel; Velásquez, Alejandra E.; Veraguas, Daniel; Escobar, Diego Andrés Caamaño; Castro, Fidel O.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Lleretny

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Extracellular vesicles are nanoparticles secreted by cell and have been proposed as suitable markers to identify competent embryos produced in vitro. Characterizing EVs secreted by individual embryos is challenging because culture medium itself contributes to the pool of nanoparticles that are co-isolated. To avoid this, culture medium must be depleted of nanoparticles that are present in natural protein source. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the culture medium subjected to nanoparticle depletion can support the proper in vitro development of bovine embryos. Zygotes were cultured in groups on depleted or control medium for 8 days. Nanoparticles from the medium were characterized by their morphology, size and expression of EVs surface markers. Isolated nanoparticles were labelled and added to depleted medium containing embryos at different developmental stages and evaluated after 24 hours at 2, 8-16 cells, morula and blastocyst stages. There were no statistical differences on blastocyst rate at day 7 and 8, total cell count neither blastocyst diameter between groups. However, morphological quality was better in blastocysts cultured in non-depleted medium and the expression of SOX2 was significantly lower whereas NANOG expression was significantly higher. Few nanoparticles from medium had a typical morphology of EVs but were positive to specific surface markers. Punctuated green fluorescence near the nuclei of embryonic cells was observed in embryos from all developmental stages. In summary, nanoparticles from culture medium are internalized by in vitro cultured bovine embryos and their depletion affects the capacity of medium to support the proper embryo development.
  • Using vaginal discharge score (VDS) grading system to evaluate the effect of clinical endometritis on reproductive performance of dairy cows in China Original Article

    Wang, Hongsheng; Yan, Zuoting; Wu, Xiaohu; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Yubing; Zhao, Xingxu

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Clinical endometritis (CE) is a major cause in affecting the reproductive performance of dairy cows. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence of CE and to evaluate the effect of CE on reproductive performance in dairy cows using vaginal discharge score (VDS) grading system. 803 dairy cows were examined by vaginoscope with 4-point VDS at 26 ± 3 days in milk (DIM) and classified into six groups: non-endometritis with VDS 0 (control; CON), endometritis with VDS 1 (MEM), non-treated endometritis with VDS 2 (NTME), treated endometritis with VDS 2 (TME), non-treated endometritis with VDS 3 (NTPE), and treated endometritis with VDS 3 (TPE). Cows in TME and TPE groups were treated with 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution by intrauterine infusion. The prevalence of CE was 33% at 26 ± 3 DIM. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed cows in MEM, NTME and NTPE groups had a less likelihood of first artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy than those in CON group (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves for days open were statistically different (P = 0.004). In Cox regression model, cows in NTME and NTPE groups had a reduced pregnancy rate than those in CON group (P < 0.05). The hazard of pregnancy in NTME group was lower than that in TME group (P = 0.044). Similarly, it was lower for the hazard of pregnancy in NTPE group than in TPE group (P = 0.048). Cows in MEM, NTME, and NTPE groups required more services per pregnancy than those in CON group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CE examined by the VDS grading system impaired reproductive performance, and mild endometritis with VDS 1 should be treated in the early postpartum period to ameliorate fertility in dairy herds.
  • Bull-bull mounts in Holstein bulls: a survey of its incidence, possible causes, and consequences in Uruguayan bull’ breeders Original Article

    Fajardo, Stefanie; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Bulls frequently display male-male mounts, with consequences in the incidence of injuries, and possibly affecting the reproductive performance of the bulls. This behavior is known as the “buller syndrome” when appears in steers, with several individuals mounting one or a few penmates. The study aimed to collect information on the incidence of bull-bull mounts, the possible associated factors, the productive consequences, and management applied by distributing a survey to Holstein bull breeders in Uruguay. A survey was applied and responded by most Holstein breeders in Uruguay (30/33). Nineteen of the 30 breeders observed mounting behavior among bulls, and 15 of them considered it as a relevant problem. The breeders that observed the behavior had a greater number of bulls than those that did not observe it (P = 0.002). All of them observed that mounts were persistently directed towards the same individual (considering a specific period, while it remained in the group). Of these, 11 (58%) considered that this stopped only when the “buller” bull was removed from the group, mentioning that the behavior was frequently redirected to another individual. The mounts between bulls are a major problem in the breeding of Holstein bulls, with important consequences on weight gain and animal health, reproductive problems such as low libido and seminal quality, and even provoking the death of animals. Although not all breeders reported the existence of the problem, those with the bigger herds did. While some management and/or environmental conditions seem to influence (higher density, regrouping, managements that involve movement of animals, and spring) the incidence of bull-bull mounts, there are no standardized managements to avoid this behavior. Considering that most breeders were interested in including practices to minimize this problem if available, it would be essential to understand better the causes and predisposing factors to decrease its negative impacts.
  • Reduction of seminal plasma concentration can decrease detrimental effects of seminal plasma on chilled ram spermatozoa Original Article

    Rajabi-Toustani, Reza; Mehr, Mohammad Roostaei-Ali; Motamedi-Mojdehi, Rasool

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of seminal plasma (SP) and cold-shock on ram spermatozoa during 36 h storage at 5°C. In both ejaculated spermatozoa coated with egg yolk (second ejaculate; coated spermatozoa) and epididymal spermatozoa, samples were treated with 0, 50 and 100% seminal plasma. Different levels of seminal plasma were added on the basis of ram spermatocrit (32%). Then half of aliquots were suddenly put on ice water (cold-shock) and other half were gradually (0.25°C/min) chilled (non- cold shock). Sperm motility, viability and functional membrane integrity were determined in both aliquots at 0, 12, 24 and 36 h storage at 5°C. Under non- cold shock and cold-shock conditions, coated spermatozoa treated with 0% SP showed the highest motility compared to ejaculated spermatozoa (first ejaculate; uncoated spermatozoa) after 12, 24 and 36 h of storage at 5°C (P<0.05). Under non- cold shock and cold-shock conditions, viability and functional membrane integrity was higher in the coated spermatozoa treated with 0% SP than in the uncoated spermatozoa during 36 h storage (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between coated spermatozoa treated with 0 and 50% SP in the percentage of motility and viability after 24 and 36 h of storage (P>0.05). Under non- cold shock and cold-shock conditions, the percentage of motility of epididymal spermatozoa treated with 0% SP was significantly (P<0.05) higher than those treated with 100% SP after 36 h of storage at 5°C. In conclusion, removal of seminal plasma and/or reduction (up to 50%) of its concentration can decrease detrimental effects of seminal plasma on chilled ram spermatozoa.
  • Investigating a method for pharmacologic semen collection in alpacas Original Article

    McAllister, Anna; Stang, Bernadette; Kutzler, Michelle Anne

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract While semen evaluation is standard practice prior to a sale or when infertility is suspected in other species, it is rarely done in camelids due to the difficulties involved in collecting a sample. The reproductive physiology of alpacas differs to that of other domestic animals and is still poorly understood. In the stallion, a technique was developed for semen collection that pharmacologically induces ejaculation without copulation (ex copula). This study investigates whether semen could be reliably collected by ex copula ejaculation in male alpacas. Eleven male Huacaya alpacas were used in this study, and six ex copula treatment protocols were evaluated: (1) saline (control); (2) xylazine only (0.1 mg/kg); (3) xylazine only (0.2 mg/kg); (4) imipramine only (1.0 mg/kg); (5) imipramine (1.0 mg/kg) followed 10 minutes later with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg); and (6) imipramine (2.0 mg/kg) followed 10 minutes later with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg). Each treatment protocol was repeated two to five times. Azoospermic samples obtained from ex copula ejaculation contained numerous epithelial cells but no sperm. A reliable treatment for pharmacologically inducing ejaculation in alpacas remains to be found.
  • Altrenogest during early pregnancy modulates uterine glandular epithelium and endometrial growth factor expression at the time implantation in pigs Original Article

    Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Carnevale, Rafaella Fernandes; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Mendonça, Maitê Vidal; Nakasone, Denis Hideki; Martinez, Cristian Hernando Garcia; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Monteiro, Matheus Saliba; Poor, André Pegoraro; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Viau, Priscila; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga de; Castro, Raquel Vasconcelos Guimarães de; Bessi, Brendon Willian; Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; Pulz, Lidia Hildebrand; Strefezzi, Ricardo Francisco; Almond, Glen William; Andrade, André Furugen Cesar de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract This study evaluated the effects of supplying altrenogest from day 6-12 of pregnancy on the endometrial glandular epithelium, corpora lutea (CL) morphology, and endometrial and CL gene expression. A total of 12 crossbred females (Landrace × Large White) were used. The females were assigned to 4 treatments according to a random design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with two categories (sow or gilt) and two treatments (non-treated and treated with altrenogest). On day 6 of pregnancy, animals were allocated to one of the following groups: non-treated (NT, n = 6; 3 sows and 3 gilts), and (T, n = 6; 3 sows and 3 gilts) treated daily with 20 mg of altrenogest, from day 6-12 of pregnancy. All animals were euthanized on day 13 of pregnancy. All CLs were individually weighed, and their volume were determined. The endometrial glandular density (GD), mean glandular area (MGA), and vascular density (VD) were determined by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Endometrium samples were collected and analyzed by qRT-PCR to evaluate the abundance of transcripts for VEGF and IGF-I. Females in the T group had higher MGA (P < 0.05) compared to the NT group. There was no effect of treatment on GD or VD for both experimental groups. Sows in the T group had augmented expression of IGF-I (P < 0.05). Progestagen had no detrimental effect on CL morphology. In conclusion, altrenogest improves the uterine environment during the peri-implantation period in pigs without compromising corpora lutea development.
  • Fixed-time artificial insemination protocols on brazilian locally adapted breed gilts on ovulatory response and embryo production Original Article

    Silva, Priscilla Cristine Passoni; Brasil, Oscar Oliveira; Souto, Paula Lorena Grangeira; Moreira, Nathalia Hack; Silva, Joseane Padilha da; Silva, Bianca Damiani Marques; Ramos, Alexandre Floriani

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to use estrus synchronization protocols to favor fixed-time artificial insemination and consequently fixed-time embryo collection, and increase embryo production using eCG, in gits. In a cross over design, nine Piau breed gilts were subjected to 18 days of oral progesterone; P4 group did not receive any further; GnRH group received 25µg of GnRH 104 hours after the final application of P4; and eCG+GnRH group received 1000IU of eCG 24 hours after the final P4 in addition to GnRH for subsequent embryo collection, that was performed six days after first AI, by laparotomy. Artificial insemination was performed after 12 and 24 hours of estrus in P4 group, and 128 and 144 hours in GnRH and eCG+GnRH groups. The number of CL (8.6±3.9; 8.3±2.1; 26.7±15.0) and anovulatory follicles (4.3±3.7; 3.9±3.9; 17.2±9.5) was higher in the eCG+GnRH gilts (P<0.05). However, the use of 1000 IU of eCG reduced (P<0.05) the number of total structures (5.2±3.6; 5.1±3.1; 1.7±2.7), viable embryos (5.0±3.5; 4.8±3.3; 0.4±0.7), freezable embryos (3.6±3.4; 3.3±3.8; 0.1±0.3) and recovery rate (63.7±38.9; 58.6±24.7; 5.38±9.5). P4 and GnRH protocols were effective in the production and recovery of embryos. However, the use of 1000 IU of eCG, 24 hours after P4, was not effective in promoting the production of embryos, although the animals had superovulated.
  • Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive aspects of wild myomorphic and hystricomorphic rodents Review Article

    Dantas, Maiko Roberto Tavares; Souza-Junior, João Batista Freire; Castelo, Thibério de Souza; Lago, Arthur Emannuel de Araújo; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Myomorphic and hystricomorphic rodents are vital for maintaining various ecosystems around the planet. This review enables a better understanding of how these rodents respond to environmental factors and adapt to climate adversities. Innumerable factors, such as photoperiod, rainfall, and temperature, can impair or contribute to the quality of rodent reproductive parameters. Prolonged animal exposure to high ambient temperatures alters thermoregulation mechanisms and causes testicular and ovarian tissue degeneration and hormonal deregulation. Photoperiod influences the biological circannual rhythm and reproductive cycles of rodents because it strongly regulates melatonin secretion by the pineal gland, which modulates gonadotropic hormone secretion. Rainfall quantity directly regulates the abundance of fruits in an ecosystem, which modulates the reproductive seasonality of species which are most dependent on a seasonal fruit-based diet. Species with a more diversified fruit diet have smaller reproductive seasonality. As such, habitats are chosen by animals for various reasons, including the availability of food, sexual partners, intra-and inter-specific competition, and predation. This knowledge allows us to monitor and establish management plans to aid in conservation strategies for wild rodent species.
  • Conceptus-modulated innate immune function during early pregnancy in ruminants: a review Review Article

    Rocha, Cecilia Constantino; Silveira, Juliano Coelho da; Forde, Niamh; Binelli, Mario; Pugliesi, Guilherme

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract This review focuses on the innate immune events modulated by conceptus signaling during early pregnancy in ruminants. Interferon-tau (IFN-τ) plays a role in the recognition of pregnancy in ruminants, which involves more than the inhibition of luteolytic pulses of PGF2α to maintain corpus luteum function. For successful pregnancy establishment, the allogenic conceptus needs to prevent rejection by the female. Therefore, IFN-τ exerts paracrine and endocrine actions to regulate the innate immune system and prevent conceptus rejection. Additionally, other immune regulators work in parallel with IFN-τ, such as the pattern recognition receptors (PRR). These receptors are activated during viral and bacterial infections and in early pregnancy, but it remains unknown whether PPR expression and function are controlled by IFN-τ. Therefore, this review focuses on the main components of the innate immune response that are involved with early pregnancy and their importance to avoid conceptus rejection.
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