Abstract in English:Abstract There is still a lack of information on estrus synchronization in goats. Understanding the estrus synchronization protocols and the subsequent effects is important to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and subsequently would improve the breeding procedures. This study will help in determining the most suitable estrus synchronization protocol and understand better the effect on the sexual behaviour and hormonal effects in goats. A total of 127 Boer does were used and divided into three groups with different duration of CIDR insertion intravaginally either for 14 (two groups) or 9 days (one group). Approximately 0.5 ml Estrumate® (PG) was administered intramuscularly to all groups at CIDR removal, and only groups PMSG14 and PMSG9 were administered with 200IU of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) intramuscularly. Estrus signs were observed at 4 h intervals and blood samples were collected for progesterone and luteinizing hormone determination. The percentage of does in estrus within 24 to 72 h post CIDR removal was significantly higher (P<0.05) in groups with PMSG compared to the group without the PMSG. The numbers of does display estrus signs within 24 to 28 h post CIDR removal were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group shorter period (9 days) compared to groups with 14 days CIDR. The P4 concentrations at 24 hours post CIDR removals and LH concentration was not significantly different (P>0.05) in all groups. The time of the LH peak in the group without the PMSG was significantly delayed (P<0.05) when compared to group 9 days CIDR and administered with PMSG. It is recommended to use the treatment for 9 days CIDR since the estrous cycle can be shortened.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hystrix javanica is endemic species in Indonesia. Study about fetal development of Hystrix javanica are very rare because of sample limitation. This study was carried out to describe the morphometrics and x-ray analysis of three fetuses in different stage to give basic information about fetal development of Hystrix javanica. Three fetus samples fixed in Bouin’s solution was used in this study. Observation was carried out to identify the characteristic of three fetus samples. This included the pattern of hair, body measurements, body volume, and body weight. X-ray analysis was carried out to know the ossification process in the fetal development. Statistical analysis was carried out using Microsoft 365® Excel program software. Three fetus samples had different specific hair pattern, that was hairless, smooth hairs, and smooth hairs with dense-non dense pattern. Body volume of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd fetus were 23mL, 90mL, and 170mL, respectively. Body weight of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd fetus were 19.5g, 79.22g, and 153.18g, respectively. Pearson’s correlation analysis shown strong relationship between total body length, front body length, back body length, horizontal body diameter, vertical body diameter, head length, and head diameter against body volume and body weight of three fetuses. Significant positive correlation was shown between horizontal body diameter, vertical body diameter, and head diameter against body volume and body length with P value < 0.05. Faint radiopaque images showed in the 2nd fetus sample and strong radiopaque images showed in the 3rd fetus sample. Radiopaque images were identified in the teeth, cranium, vertebrae, and extremities bones. In this study we concluded that there was a specific hair pattern in different fetal stage. All body measurements have positive correlation with body volume and body weight and x-ray analysis shown that the ossification of the bone was started to happen while the smooth hair was growth.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies on semen and sperm cells are critical to develop assisted reproductive technologies for the conservation of the collared peccary. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of different antibiotics on the bacterial load and sperm quality during short-term storage of peccary semen. Fresh semen samples from 10 males were extended in Tris-egg yolk or Tris-Aloe vera supplemented with streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1 mg/mL - 1000 IU/mL or 2 mg/mL - 2000 IU/mL) or gentamicin (30 µg/mL or 70 µg/mL) before storage at 5°C. Bacterial load and sperm motility, membrane integrity and function, mitochondrial activity, and morphology, were evaluated at different time points for 36 h. The SP and gentamicin treatments concentration inhibited (p < 0.05) bacterial growth for 36 h regardless of the extender. Compared to the other treatments, Tris-egg yolk plus 70 µg/mL gentamicin maintained the sperm parameters for longer, including total motility (41.9 ± 6.1%) at 24 h, and membrane integrity (58.3 ± 2.1%) at 36 h. In contrast, the highest SP concentration in both extenders impaired sperm membrane integrity at 36 h (p < 0.05). For the liquid storage of collared peccary semen, it therefore is recommended to use Tris extender supplemented with egg yolk and gentamicin (70 µg/mL).
Abstract in English:Abstract In several species, mating reduces the estrous length and advances ovulation. The aim of this study was to determine if multiple matings reduces the estrous length and modifies the moment of ovulation, as well as the estradiol and LH patterns in ewes. The estrous cycle of Corriedale ewes was synchronized, and the onset of receptivity was monitored every 3 h with rams, avoiding mating. At the estrous onset, ewes were assigned to two experimental groups (n=10 each): 1) estrous was monitored every 3 h with a ram avoiding mating (group CON), and 2) a ram was allowed to mate and ejaculate once every 3 h (group MAT). The ovaries were scanned with transrectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected for measuring 17β-estradiol and LH concentrations every 3 h until ovulation. Estrus was shorter in MAT than CON ewes (24.7 ± 1.5 h vs. 30.4 ± 1.5 h, respectively; P=0.02); the proportion of animals that ovulated before the end of estrus was greater in CON ewes: (9/10 vs. 3/10, P=0.009). The area under the LH curve (AUC) was greater in MAT than CON ewes (36.1 ± 3.5 ng.h-1.mL-1 vs 24.9 ± 3.5 ng.h-1.mL-1 P=0.03). However, MAT ewes had a lower 17β-estradiol AUC than CON ewes (41.0 ± 4.9 pg.h-1.mL-1 vs 59.4 ± 4.9 pg.h-1.mL-1 P=0.01). Mating reduced the estrous length, induced a greater secretion of LH but less total 17β-estradiol secreted and, additionally, ovulation occurred more frequently after the end of estrus in mated ewes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Morphology and sperm morphometry, this is an important determinant of male reproductive capacity. Morphometric data may provide relevant information in studies focused on evolutionary biology, sperm quality assessment, including prediction of the potential fertility, semen cryopreservation, or the effect of reprotoxicants. The paper presents the morphometric analysis of spermatozoa from two colour morphs of Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), and attempts to determine the relationship between selected quality indicators and dimensions and shape of spermatozoa. The research material consisted of ejaculates collected once by manual stimulation from 20 one-year-old Arctic foxes (10 individuals of the blue morph and 10 of the white morph). Ejaculates were analysed for standard parameters (volume, sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate) and used for the preparation of microscopic specimens. It was found that, the dimensions of spermatozoa from Arctic foxes depend on the male colour morphs. Spermatozoa from white Arctic foxes were significantly longer (by 1.82 µm) and had larger heads (0.32 µm longer and 0.15 µm wider) compared to spermatozoa from blue Arctic foxes (P<0.05). The interactions between particular sperm dimensions indicated the occurrence of gametes differing in shape. The all correlation coefficients between the morphometric traits of spermatozoa were statistically significant. Our research proved that in the blue Arctic foxes, sperm dimensions (tail length and total sperm length) can be related to the percentage of spermatozoa with primary changes (respectively: r = -0.68 and r = -0.75; at P <0.05). However, in the case of white Arctic foxes, these characteristics depend on the ejaculate volume (respectively: r = 0.65 and r = 0.68; at P <0.05).
Abstract in English:Abstract The conventional method of ovarian superstimulation requires multiple injections of gonadotropins which is time-consuming and may be stressful for the cows. This study was designed to determine whether a single epidural injection of FSH (EI group) would induce the superovulatory response in the Thai-Holstein crossbreed and evaluate FSH plasma hormone concentrations. Eight cows (replication = 3; n=24) were assigned to one of 2 treatments in switch back design. Control group (n=12): cows were received 400 mg FSH twice daily by intramuscularly for 4 days (80, 80, 60, 60, 40, 40, 20 and 20 mg), EI group (n=12): cows were received 400 mg FSH by single epidural injection. Data were collected in term of ovarian follicle responses, superovulatory responses, ova/embryo collection. FSH concentrations were examined using ELISA. The total follicular responses during oestrus were not different between treatments; however, the large follicles were less frequent (P < 0.01) while the medium follicle sizes were higher (P < 0.05) in the EI group. The plasma concentration of FSH in EI was dramatically increased within 2 hours before decreasing sharply thereafter (P < 0.01) and did not remain above baseline after 10 hours of administration. The embryo quality was better in the control than the EI groups (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the number of ovulation cysts in the EI group was 50%. The ovarian responses and embryo quality in the cows with cysts were worse compared with the non-cyst groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, alternative protocols decreased the superovulatory response and increased poor embryo quality in Thai-Holstein crossbred. Also, the incidence of ovarian follicular cysts is higher in the EI group.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study investigated the morphology and immunoexpression of aquaporins (AQPs) 1 and 9 in the rete testis, efferent ducts, epididymis, and vas deferens in the Azara’s agouti (Dasyprocta azarae). For this purpose, ten adult sexually mature animals were used in histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. The Azara’s agouti rete testis was labyrinthine and lined with simple cubic epithelium. Ciliated and non-ciliated cells were observed in the epithelium of the efferent ducts. The epididymal cellular population was composed of principal, basal, apical, clear, narrow, and halo cells. The epithelium lining of vas deferens was composed of the principal and basal cells. AQPs 1 and 9 were not expressed in the rete testis. Positive reaction to AQP1 was observed at the luminal border of non-ciliated cells of the efferent ducts, and in the peritubular stroma and blood vessels in the epididymis, and vas deferens. AQP9 was immunolocalized in the epithelial cells in the efferent ducts, epididymis and vas deferens. The morphology of Azara’s agouti testis excurrent ducts is similar to that reported for other rodents such as Cuniculus paca. The immunolocalization results of the AQPs suggest that the expression of AQPs is species-specific due to differences in localization and expression when compared to studies in other mammals species. The knowledge about the expression of AQPs in Azara’s agouti testis excurrent ducts is essential to support future reproductive studies on this animal, since previous studies show that AQPs may be biomarkers of male fertility and infertility.
Abstract in English:Abstract Spirulina (Spirulina platensis), has numerous health benefits including antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities, works against heavy metal toxicity, and is often used as a food supplement in human, animals, birds and fishes. This study aimed to evaluate the protective ability of the dietary spirulina against the toxic effects of inorganic arsenic (iAs) on male reproductive parameters in rats. Seventy-two mature Long-Evans male rats, dividing into six groups (T0, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) (12 rats/group) were included in this study. The T3, T4 and T5 group rats were treated with three consecutive doses (1.0 g, 1.5 g and 2.0 g/kg feed) of spirulina in feed along with 3.0 mg NaAsO2/kg body weight (BW) in drinking water (DW) daily for 90 days. Each rat of group T1 received NaAsO2 (3.0 mg/kg BW) in DW, and those of T2 group were fed with spirulina (2.0 g/kg feed) daily for 90 days. The rats of group T0 served as the control with normal feed and water. Total arsenic (tAs) contents, reproductive parameters (testicular weight, sperm motility and morphology), and histological changes in the testicles were evaluated in these rats. Arsenic dosing significantly (p=0.003, Kruskal-Wallis test) increased the tAs contents in the testicles, decreased testes weight, sperm morphology and motility compared to the controls. The effect of arsenic dosing was also evidenced by the histological changes like decreased germinal layers in the seminiferous tubules of the treated rats. Moreover, dietary spirulina (2.0 g/kg feed) supplementation significantly (p=0.011, Kruskal-Wallis test) lowered tAs contents in testicles and increases testes weights, sperm motility and morphology. Therefore, spirulina can be used as an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate the adverse effects of arsenic induced reproductive toxicities. However, further study is required to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of reduction of arsenic induced reproductive toxicity by spirulina.
Abstract in English:Abstract The interaction between early embryo and maternal immune system for the establishment of pregnancy is the focus of several studies; however, it remains unclear. The maternal immune response needs to keep a balance between avoiding any damage to the conceptus and maintaining its function in combating microbes as well. When conceptus-maternal crosstalk cannot achieve this balance, pregnancy losses might occur. Intercommunication between mother and conceptus is fundamental during early pregnancy to dictate the outcome of pregnancy. In ruminants, the embryo reacts with the maternal system mainly via interferon tau (IFNT) release. IFNT can act locally on the embryo and endometrial cells and systemically in several tissues and cells to regulate their response via the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Also, IFNT can induce the expression of inflammatory-related genes in immune cells. Day 7 embryo induces a shift in the maternal immune response towards anti-inflammatory (Th2) immune responses. During maternal recognition of pregnancy, peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) express markers that configure an anti-inflammatory response. However, PMNs response is more sensitive to the effects of IFNT. PMNs are more likely to express interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB), interleukin 10 (IL10), and arginase-1 (ARG1), configuring one of the most rapid immune responses to early pregnancy. This review focus on the local and peripheral immune responses during early pregnancy in ruminants, mainly the PMNs function in the immune system.
Abstract in English:Abstract Porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) plays an important role in many areas of research. However, the low efficiency of SCNT in porcine embryos limits its applications. Porcine embryos contain high concentrations of lipid, which makes them vulnerable to oxidative stress. Some studies have used melatonin to reduce reactive oxygen species damage. At present there are many reports concerning the effect of exogenous melatonin on porcine SCNT. Some studies suggest that the addition of melatonin can increase the number of blastocyst cells, while others indicate that melatonin can reduce the number of blastocyst cells. Therefore, a meta-analysis was carried out to resolve the contradiction. In this study, a total of 63 articles from the past 30 years were analyzed, and six papers were finally selected. Through the analysis, it was found that the blastocyst rate was increased by adding exogenous melatonin. Melatonin had no effect on cleavage rate or the number of blastocyst cells, but did decrease the number of apoptotic cells. This result is crucial for future research on embryo implantation.
Abstract in English:Abstract We aimed to compare the effect of three estradiol benzoate (EB) doses on follicular wave emergence (FWE) and dominant follicle growth of suckled Nelore cows submitted to TAI (D0). On a random day of estrous cycle (D−10), multiparous (MULT; n=36) and primiparous (PRIM; n=20) suckled Nelore cows received an intravaginal progesterone (P4) device and were assigned in three groups. Cows in the EB-1 (n=20), EB-1.5 (n=15) or EB-2 (n=21) groups received, respectively, an im treatment with 1, 1.5 or 2 mg EB. A subgroup (n=10-13 cows/group) were subject to daily ovarian evaluations from D−10 to D0. On D−2, P4 devices were removed, and all cows received the same treatment: 1 mg estradiol cypionate, 0.53 mg sodium cloprostenol, and 300 IU eCG. Statistical analyses were performed considering only the main effects of treatment group and parity order. The proportion of cows with a synchronized FWE and the moment of the FWE did not differ (p>0.05) among the treatment groups (overall: 80% [28/35] and 4.1 ± 0.4 days); however, the FWE occurred earlier (p=0.007) in MULT (3.8 ± 0.2 days) than PRIM (5.1 ± 0.4) cows. The proportion of animals detected in estrus was greater (86% [31/36] vs. 70% [14/20]; p=0.02) and the dominant follicle was larger on D−2 (9.7 ± 0.3 mm vs. 7.8 ± 0.7 mm; p=0.006) and D0 (11.9 ± 0.4 mm vs. 10 ± 0.5 mm; p=0.008) in MULT than PRIM cows. In conclusion, the three EB doses presented similar efficiency to synchronize the FWE in suckled Nelore cows. Moreover, a delayed FWE and smaller dominant follicle is observed in PRIM cows, contributing to the reduced reproductive performance in this parity category when using similar TAI protocols of MULT cows.
Abstract in English:Abstract The effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diluent for cryopreservation of goat semen on seminal quality and the optimal levels to be used were evaluated. After collection, semen was pooled and physically evaluated, then divided into four aliquots with different DHA levels in the diluent: 0, 10, 20, and 30 ng mL-1. The semen was cryopreserved in a TK 3000® freezing machine and then thawed for assessment at 37 °C. Sperm motility and vigor, membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activity, and sperm chromatin compaction were evaluated after thawing. A completely randomized design was used. For normally distributed variables, ANOVA and regression analysis were used to test for differences between treatments, and for non-parametric data, the Kruskal Wallis test was used at the 5% significance level. There were no differences among groups in terms of membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, or chromatin compaction. There was a decrease in class I mitochondrial activity with increasing DHA level (P<0.05), but no differences in classes II, III, and IV (P>0.05). The inclusion of 10 to 30 ng mL-1 of DHA in the diluent did not result in improvements in seminal quality parameters after thawing, with some impairment observed in the mitochondrial activity of the sperm cells.