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Revista Archai, Issue: 27, Published: 2019
  • The B-Side of Ancient Philosophy Editorial

    Brito, Rodrigo Pinto de; Rocha, Carol Martins da
  • On Democritean Rhysmos Artigo

    Gomes, Gustavo Laet

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In Metaphysics A.4 (985b4-19 ENT#091;DK67 A6ENT#093;), Aristotle provides crucial information about fundamental aspects of the chemistry and microphysics of the atomic theory of Leucippus and Democritus of Abdera. Besides the plenum and the void, which he identifies as the elements of the atomic theory, he presents what he himself names as differences. These fundamental differences are named so because they ought to be responsible for the emergence of all other differences in the physical world, and especially the ones that hit our senses. Aristotle provides a list of three differences both in what is recognized as autochthonous terminology from Leucippus and Democritus, and in a translation to terms apparently more intelligible to Aristotelian listeners. Among those differences there is one in particular that is harder to comprehend than the other ones: rhysmos. Aristotle’s translation of rhysmos into schēma has led most interpreters to acknowledge that it referred solely to atoms individually, while the other two differences would refer to relations between atoms. In this paper, I want to propose an interpretation in which rhysmos actually refers to several aspects of the chemistry and microphysics of the atomic theory.
  • On the “Perceptible Bodies” at De Generatione et Corruptione II.1 Artigos

    Crowley, Timothy J.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Near the beginning of De Gen. et Cor. II.1, Aristotle claims that the generation and corruption of all naturally constituted substances are “not without the perceptible bodies” (328b32-33). It is not clear what he intends by this. In this paper I offer a new interpretation of this assertion. I argue that the assumption behind the usual reading, namely, that these “perceptible bodies” ought to be distinguished from the naturally constituted substances, is flawed, and that the assertion is best understood as a claim that Aristotle has established in the second half of the first book of the De Gen. et Cor.
  • Anaxarchus of Abdera: Adiaphoria and Criterion of Truth on the Threshold of Hellenistic Age Artigos

    Leyra, Ignacio Pajón

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: La doctrina filosófica de Anaxarco de Abdera, es hoy en día muy poco conocida. A pesar de ello, Anaxarco tuvo una importancia clave en el desarrollo de la filosofía helenística. Su ética, en concreto, es de las primeras que establecen que el fin de la vida es la felicidad (el eudemonismo que le dio nombre), y además, plantea que la única vía para alcanzar ese fin es la adiaphoria, la indiferencia. Sin embargo, la interpretación escéptica de la adiaphoria como negación del criterio de verdad hará de Anaxarco una figura desde su punto de vista ajena a la corriente escéptica. El propósito de este artículo es analizar la forma en la que la tradición helenística y romana comprendió el papel de la eudaimonia de Anaxarco y su lugar en el desarrollo del pensamiento de la época.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: the philosophical doctrine of Anaxarchus of Abdera is nowadays not very well known. This notwithstanding, Anaxarchus was a character of key importance in the development of Hellenistic philosophy. His ethics, in particular, is one of the first theories in stating that the ultimate goal of life is happiness (the so-called eudaimonism). Moreover, he suggests that the only way to reach that goal is adiaphoria, i.e. ‘indifference’. However, the sceptic interpretation of adiaphoria as denial of the criterion of truth will turn Anaxarchus into a figure not related to sceptic thought, from the point of view of the sceptic philosophers themselves. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the way how Hellenistic and Roman tradition construed the role of Anaxarchus’ eudaimonia and the place of this author in the development of thought in this period.
  • Doubt and dogmatism in Cicero’s Academica Artigos

    Skvirsky, Alexandre

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The objective is to show the peculiar way in which Cicero’s philosophical thinking is original and distances itself from the main representatives of the New Academy: the Roman thinker does not practice epoche, nor does he assign any special role to it in his thought. Instead, Cicero introduces the concept of doubt to characterize his own way of thinking.
  • The Anonymous’ Commentary on Plato’s Theatetus and a Middle-Platonic Theory of Knowledge Artigos

    Matoso, Renato

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In this paper, I defend that the historiographical category of eclecticism is a correct way to describe the epistemology and the exegetical activity of the Anonymous commentator on Plato’s Theaetetus. In addition, I show that the interpretation of the platonic philosophy presented in this text not only presupposes an eclectic philosophical attitude, but also offers a conscious defense of a positive and philosophically relevant form of eclecticism. By eclecticism, I understand a method of inquiry based on the deliberate use of hypotheses and arguments from different philosophical traditions. My claim is that Anon. intends to lay ground of his way of doing philosophy by attributing it to Plato and the platonic tradition. In doing so, Anon. provides us with a positive understanding of eclecticism as a legitimate methodology of philosophical investigation.
  • The Stoic suspension of the sense of justice. Strategies and difficulties Artigos

    Braicovich, Rodrigo

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: El objetivo del artículo consistirá en analizar las distintas estrategias que encontramos en las fuentes del estoicismo imperial destinadas a poner en suspenso nuestro sentido de justicia, el cual es considerado implícitamente por los estoicos del período como responsable de algunas actitudes no deseables en nuestra búsqueda de la eudaimonía. Organizaré las estrategias de acuerdo a dos grandes grupos: aquellas que atacan la idea de que una injusticia ha sido cometida, y aquellas que apuntan a la idea de que, aun cuando una injusticia haya sido cometida, existen actitudes más convenientes para exhibir ante la misma que la demanda de castigo o el deseo de venganza. Finalizaré enfatizando la dificultad de conciliar los dos conjuntos de estrategias y sugeriré una posible forma de explicar las razones de dicha dificultad.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of the paper will be to analyze the different strategies that the Stoics of the Imperial times designed in order to put our sense of justice on hold, due to the fact that it is deemed responsible for certain attitudes which do not contribute to our search for eudaimonía. I will organize such strategies in two groups: the first one corresponds to the strategies that target the idea that an injustice has been committed; the second one corresponds to the ones that aim to show that there are more convenient attitudes towards injustice than the demand for punishment or the desire for revenge. I will end by pointing at the difficulty of reconciling both sets of strategies, and I will suggest a possible way to account for that difficulty.
  • The Tongue and the Voice of God. Monadicity and Dyadicity in the Exegesis of Philo of Alexandria Artigos

    Calabi, Francesca

    Abstract in Italian:

    Riassunto: L’articolo si interroga sulla relazione tra parole divine, semplici, monadiche e il dire degli uomini legato alla corporeità, privo di chiarezza e di univocità. Perché la parola divina sia colta dagli uomini è necessaria una sorta di trasformazione. Si può ipotizzare l’esistenza di un linguaggio archetipico, primordiale, ad imitazione dell’essenza delle cose. È la lingua di Adamo per cui, data la perfezione di un’anima ancora pura, non intaccata da infermità, malattia o passione, il progenitore coglieva le impressioni immediate, afferrava il significato delle cose le cui nature potevano essere insieme enunciate e pensate. È la lingua perfetta originaria ed era forse comune ad uomini ed animali se nel giardino dell’Eden le parole del serpente erano comprese da Eva. Si passa dal linguaggio di Adamo, mimetico rispetto al linguaggio di Dio, alla lingua mosaica in cui interviene la traduzione del linguaggio divino in linguaggio umano. Questo, nonostante che, anche per Mosè sia detto che i nomi corrispondono alla descrizione delle cose. Un ulteriore passaggio avviene con la traduzione da una lingua in un’altra. Vi è un trascorrere tra comunicazioni di Dio che si volge all’interlocutore in maniera differente a seconda delle sue possibilità. Si tratta di “traduzione” di una lingua noetica che può esprimersi monadicamente - ed è il caso della comunicazione a Mosè - o assumere già la forma di nomi e verbi propria del linguaggio umano - ed è quanto avviene con i Settanta, traduttori al pari di Aronne.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This article deals with the relationship between simple, monadic, divine words and the words of men linked to corporeity, devoid of clarity and univocity. For the divine word to be grasped by men a kind of transformation is necessary. One can hypothesize the existence of an archetypal, primordial language, in imitation of the essence of things. It is the language of Adam: given the perfection of a still pure soul, not affected by infirmity, illness or passion, the progenitor seized immediate impressions, grasped the meaning of things whose natures could be enunciated and thought at the same time. It is the original perfect language and is perhaps common to humans and animals if in the Garden of Eden the words of the serpent were understood by Eve. A distinction is drawn between the language of Adam, mimetic of the language of God and the mosaic language in which we have the translation of the divine word in human language. This, despite that, for Moses too it is said that the names correspond to the description of things. A further passage takes place with the passing from one language into another. God addresses different kinds of communication to different people according to their capacities. It is a “translation” of a noetic language that can speak monadically - and it is the case of communication to Moses - or assume the form of names and verbs proper to human language -and it is what happens with the Septuagint, translators like Aron.
  • Pythagoras Traveling East: An Image of a Sage in Late Antiquity Artigos

    Afonasin, Eugene; Afonasina, Anna

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Our purpose on the present occasion is to evaluate some ideas the biographers of late antiquity held about the origins of European thought. Speaking about this period we are no longer dealing with the question of transferring of the archaic practices: these practices are indeed long dead. What we encounter can be better defined as the import of ideas. Equally important is a study of the changing attitudes of our authors: rather than passive witnesses, they became active participants of this import. The process is truly fascinating and we hope that the following examples, mostly from Hippolytus, will elucidate this. The best, almost a paradigmatic example is Pythagoras, who in late antiquity had many faces. His biography is an interesting instance of general change of attitude to ancient wisdom, typical for the source utilized by Hippolytus. Looking at a number of peculiar features of Hippolytus’ report which, we hope, will help us to see why the image of Pythagoras and his philosophy, formed by Hippolytus, is somewhat untypical for the period. We will see that Hippolytus’ biographic report, however garbled, shows no signs of so-called ‘Neopythagorean’ biographic development. Admittedly, the later authors frequently combine their sources to make them suitable to their needs, polemical or apologetic. Do we still have a reason to believe that these stories, however doubtful from the historical point of view, may contain the germs of truth?
  • The notion of language deviations in St. Augustine’s Ars pro fratrum mediocritate breuiata Artigos

    Fortes, Fábio; Freitas, Fernando Adão de Sá

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The notion of linguistic correction (Latinitas) with which Augustine of Hippo introduced his Ars pro fratrum mediocritate breuiata seems central to the philosopher's grammatical discussion, not only because of the various examples that Augustine offers about the definitions of barbarism and soloecism at the end of this treatise, but also because the subject of correction (Latinitas) and, consequently, of the deviations of language (barbarismus and soloecismus), are also presented in other non-grammatical works: The confessions, De ordine and De doctrina Christiana. In this article, we propose to evaluate the conceptual outlines of the notions of barbarism and solecism in the work of Augustine, considering, on the one hand, the definitions present in the Ars breuiata, and, on the other, the way in which Augustine also presents them in his philosophical work. We propose that the normative orientation contained in the text of ars must be relativised by ethical questions that arise from the comments present in the Confessions, the De ordine and the De doctrina Christiana.
  • Sextus Empiricus and the Differences between Pyrrhonism and the Philosophy of the Academics: A Translation of Outlines of Pyrrhonism 1.220-235 Artigos

    Huguenin, Rafael; Brito, Rodrigo Pinto de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Trata-se aqui de apresentar a primeira versão da tradução de Sexto Empírico, Esboços Pirrônicos 1.220-235, trecho em que o filósofo/médico cético compara o pirronismo com a filosofia da Academia.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This paper consists in the presentation of the first version of the Greek/Portuguese translation of Sextus Empiricus’ Outlines of Pyrrhonism 1.220-235, passage where Sextus traces a comparison between the Pyrrhonism and the Academic philosophy.
  • The Parmenides physikos and the Antikitera mechanism: A Response to N.-L. Cordero (Archai 25, 2019) Notas

    Rossetti, Livio
  • Review of Altman, W. The Guardians in Action: Plato the Teacher and the Post-Republic Dialogues from Timaeus to Theaetetus (2016) Resenhas

    Engler, M. R.
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