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Revista Archai, Issue: 30, Published: 2020
  • An unexplained overlap between Sophist 232b1-236d4 and Republic X. The case of the sophist as a painter Artigos

    Zucchetti, Nicholas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Although most scholars agree that the lexicon of Sophist 232b1-236d4 is similar to that of Republic X, they leave undetermined whether they are theoretically compatible. Notably, both dialogues elucidate the art of imitation through the metaphor of the painter who deceives his pupils through φαντάσματα. I argue that Plato’s conception of imitation of the Republic is not only consistent with that presented in the Sophist, but also importantly integrates it.
  • Paideutikos eros: Aspasia as an ‘alter Socrates’ Artigos

    Pentassuglio, Francesca

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This paper focuses on the figure and the role of Aspasia in Aeschines’ eponymous dialogue, with special regard to the Milesian’s ‘paideutic’ activity and the double bond connecting it to Socrates’ teaching, namely the elenctic method and a particular application of Σωκρατικὸς ἔρως. The study aims to highlight some crucial traits of Aeschines’ Aspasia by examining three key texts, all numbered among the testimonies on the Aspasia: Cicero’s account in De inventione 1.31.51-53 and two fundamental passages from Xenophon’s Memorabilia (2.3.36) and Oeconomicus (3.14). After analysing a set of ancient sources which repeatedly mention the close and personal association between Socrates and Aspasia (Plato, Maximus of Tyre, Plutarch, Theodoret of Cyrus), I will try to reconstruct the dialogical context of Xenophon’s testimonies and to combine them with Cicero’s account. My final aim is to clarify the role of Aspasia in Aeschines’ presentation of the Socratic theory of ἔρως. In pursuing this main objective, in the concluding section I will address two further issues: (1) Aspasia’s connection with the figure of Diotima, as depicted in the same ancient sources and (2) the relationship between Aspasias’ pedagogical use of ἔρως and that made by Socrates in the Alcibiades.
  • The body as evidence of the soul in Plato’s Gorgias Artigos

    Montenegro, Maria Aparecida de Paiva; Santiago, Pedro Henrique Araújo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Pretendemos mostrar que, no Górgias, diálogo dedicado à crítica da retórica, as frequentes alusões de Sócrates à compleição do corpo, bem como o uso recorrente de metáforas corpóreas para referir-se ao que, por analogia, passa-se com a alma servem de ferramenta retórica para fazer frente à retórica de Górgias. Desse modo, ao mesmo tempo em que chamamos atenção para a maneira como Platão se vale das armas do adversário justamente para atacá-lo, ressaltamos o papel imprescindível do corpo como evidência da alma na filosofia platônica. Com isto, nosso intuito é reforçar a vertente interpretativa segundo a qual Platão pode ser entendido mais como um pensador que parte dos problemas prementes de seu tempo para daí nos conduzir a reflexões filosóficas - no diálogo em questão, as consequências políticas de uma paidéia pautada numa retórica sofística -, do que como um filósofo comprometido apenas com uma metafísica transcendente.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: We intend to point out that in the Gorgias, dialogue devoted to the critique of rhetoric, Socrates' frequent allusions to the body's complexion, and the recurrent use of corporeal metaphors to refer to what, by analogy, happens to the soul, function as a rhetoric tool in order to oppose Gorgias' own rhetoric. Thus, while drawing attention to the way Plato uses the weapons of the adversary precisely to attack him, we emphasize the indispensable role of the body as evidence of the soul in Platonic philosophy. Therefore, our intent is to reinforce the interpretive strand according to which Plato can be understood more as a thinker who departs from the pressing problems of his time in order to lead us into philosophical reflections - in the present dialogue, the political consequences of a paideia oriented by sophistic rhetoric -, than as a philosopher solely committed to a transcendent metaphysics.
  • From hero to antihero and his glory: Elpenor’s Odyssey after the First World War Artigos

    Costa, Lorena Lopes da

    Abstract in French:

    Résumé : En 1919, la même année où Jean Giraudoux fait son « Adieu à la guerre », il écrit « Les morts d’Elpénor ». En 1926, à côté de trois autres histoires, ce texte intégrera le corps d’Elpénor, déterminant l’ensemble, une collection de quatre textes écrits pendant dix-huit ans, le premier étant « Cyclope », écrit en 1908 ; le deuxième, « Sirènes », en 1912 ; le troisième en 1919 ; et le dernier en 1926, « Les nouvelles morts d’Elpénor ». Quand « Cyclope » et « Sirènes » (avec des titres légèrement modifiés) sortent respectivement chez Le Matin en 1908 et chez Paris-Journal en 1912 aucun d’entre eux ne mentionne Elpénor. Bref, c’est avec le développement des deux dernières histoires, que Elpénor, cette figure effacée chez Homère et absente dans les deux premiers textes de Giraudoux, vole la vedette. Cet article voudrait montrer comment la mise à jour du héros et de ses histoires est en dialogue avec la guerre vécue par l’auteur, pour proposer comment les vieilles histoires, lorsqu’elles sont renouvelées, participent à un processus qui leur permet d’élaborer les défis du présent, communiquant le présent, à travers un code déjà public, l’Odyssée.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In 1919, the same year that Jean Giraudoux made his “Adieu à la guerre” [“Farewell to the war”], he wrote “Les morts d'Elpénor” [“The deaths of Elpenor”]. In 1926, alongside three other stories, this text would integrate the book Elpénor [Elpenor], determining this collection of four texts written for eighteen years, the first being “Cyclope” [“Cyclops”], written in 1908; the second “Sirènes” [“Sirens”], in 1912; the third already mentioned in 1919; and the last in 1926, “Les nouvelles morts d'Elpénor” [“The new deaths of Elpenor”]. When “Cyclops” and “Sirens” (with slightly modified titles) were released respectively by Le Matin in 1908 and Paris-Journal in 1912, none of them mentioned Elpenor. In short, it is with the development of the last two stories that Elpenor, this erased character in Homer who is absent in the first Giraudoux's texts as well, steals the spotlight. This article analyzes how the updating of the hero and his stories are in dialogue with the war experienced by the author, thus proposing that old stories, when renewed, participate in a process that allows them to elaborate the challenges of the present, communicating the present through an already known code, which is the Odyssey.
  • The relationship between Platonic and traditional poetic paradigms in Socrates’ dream anecdote in the Phaedo Artigos

    Soares, Lucas

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: Platón procura establecer en el Fedro una estrecha vinculación entre la poesía y el ámbito eidético propio del saber filosófico, o al que accede el filósofo mediante una ejercitada captación sinóptico-dialéctica. Tal tipo de poesía filosófica aparece ilustrada a la perfección en la propia palinodia socrática, la cual erige a Sócrates - y en última instancia a Platón - como paradigma de filósofo poeta, palinodia que ha sido obligada a pronunciarse “con ciertos términos poéticos”. Partiendo de esa palinodia como modelo, Platón se propone abordar el tema del éros con discursos filosóficos que se nutran de términos poéticos, o sea, a través de una explícita mixtura de elementos filosóficos y poéticos, cuyo ejemplo más claro es el Fedro en su conjunto, o, en términos más generales, el género dialógico platónico en tanto este pone en escena una interacción entre los registros filosófico y poético. Teniendo en cuenta esta relación de compatibilidad que Platón establece en el Fedro entre su paradigma poético-filosófico y el de tipo tradicional - paradigmas que en los libros II, III y X de la República aparecían claramente en tensión -, en este artículo me interesa apoyar tal relación en la anécdota del sueño relatada por Sócrates al comienzo del Fedón, en la cual el filósofo confiesa ante Simmias y Cebes haber compuesto desde su encierro en la cárcel - ya que anteriormente jamás lo había hecho - poemas basados en la versificación o musicalización de las fábulas de Esopo y un himno a Apolo.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Plato seeks to establish in Phaedrus a close link between poetry and the eidetic sphere to which philosophical knowledge belongs, or which the philosopher accesses through a practiced synoptic-dialectic understanding. This type of philosophical poetry is perfectly illustrated in the Socratic palinode itself, which Socrates -and ultimately Plato - establishes as a paradigm of the poet philosopher, a palinode by necessity must be uttered “with certain poetic terms”. Working from that palinode as a model, Plato seeks to approach the subject of éros with philosophical discourses fed with poetical terms, that is, through an explicit blend of philosophical and poetic elements, the clearest example of which is the Phaedrus as a whole, or, in more general terms, the Platonic dialogical genre in as much as this puts forward an interaction between the philosophical and poetic registers. Taking into account this relationship of compatibility that Plato establishes in Phaedrus between the poetic-philosophical paradigm and the traditional paradigm - which in books I, III and X of the Republic clearly appeared in tension-in this paper I’m interested in supporting such a relationship in the dream anecdote as told by Socrates at the start of the Phaedo. In this anecdote, the philosopher confesses to Simmias and Cebes that since his time in prison, although he had never done such a thing before before, he has been composing poems based on the versification and musicalization of Aesop’s fables and a hymn to Apollo.
  • Constructing “Classical” Philosophy: Cicero and the Epicureanism Artigos

    Beltrão, Claudia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: A obra filosófica de Cícero põe em cena debates intelectuais entre membros da elite romana, e suas figuras principais exibem uma combinação equilibrada de dotes intelectuais, excelência moral e expertise política. A filosofia grega emerge como um importante aliado no projeto intelectual de Cícero, mas não in toto. Este artigo lida com o modo pelo qual Cícero denigre uma multitudo de filósofos que produziam aquilo que ele considerava obras moralmente perigosas e estilisticamente inferiores, contribuindo para a criação de uma filosofia “clássica” que ainda configura o estudo moderno da filosofia.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Cicero's philosophical works put on the scene intellectual debates among members of the Roman élite, displaying a balanced combination of intellectual skills, moral excellence and political expertise. Greek philosophy emerges as an important ally in Cicero's intellectual project, but not in toto. This paper deals with ways in which Cicero dismisses a multitudo of philosophers who churn out what he considers dangerous and stylistically inferior works. In this way, Cicero contributed to the creation of a "classical" philosophy that still guides modern study of philosophy.
  • Translation of the story An anecdote of him with three (ḫabaruhu ma c talāta) from the book Stories of Abū-Nuwās (Aḫbār Abī-Nuwās) by Abū-Hiffān Almihzamī Artigos

    Chareti, Alexandre Facuri

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Abū-Hiffān cAbd-Allāh Ibn-Aḥmad Almihzamī foi um importante transmissor da literatura árabe do século IX d.C./ III H. A compilação de histórias (aḫbār) que registrou sobre Abū-Nuwās tornou-se uma referência autorizada no que diz respeito à produção deste poeta inovador. As Histórias de Abū-Nuwās contribuem com temas de vinho e erotismo para as fabulosas narrativas que se situam à era dos califas abássidas. A seguinte apresentação e tradução do relato Uma anedota sua com três (ḫabaruhu ma c talāta) procura transpor ao português brasileiro o fragmento desse importante momento da cultura árabe, dos primeiros séculos do Islã.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Abū-Hiffān cAbd-Allāh Ibn-Aḥmad Almihzamī was an important transmitter of the Arabic literature of the ninth century AD / III H. The compilation of stories (aḫbār) that he recorded about Abū-Nuwās became an authorized reference regarding to the production of this innovative poet. The Stories of Abū-Nuwās contribute to the fabulous tales that are placed in the era of the Abbasid caliphs with themes of wine and eroticism. The following introduction and translation of the narrative An anecdote of him with three (ḫabaruhu ma 'talāta) intends to transpose into Brazilian Portuguese the fragment of this important moment of the literature in Arabic language, from the first centuries of Islam.
  • Socrates, Vlastos, Scanlon and the Principle of the Sovereignty of Virtue Artigos

    Nascimento, Daniel Simão

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This article offers a new formulation of the Socratic principle known as the Principle of the Sovereignty of Virtue (PSV). It is divided in three sections. In the first section I criticize Vlastos’ formulation of the PSV. In the second section I present the weighing model of practical deliberation, introduce the concepts of reason for action, simple reason, sufficient reason and conclusive reason that were offered by Thomas Scanlon in Being realistic about reasons (2014), and then I adapt these concepts so as to render them apt to be used in the formulation I intend to offer. In the third section I present my formulation of the PSV using the concepts introduced in the second section and explain why I believe this formulation is better than the one offered by Vlastos.
  • On Dionysian lysis Artigos

    Bacelar, Agatha Pitombo

    Abstract in French:

    Résumé : Cet article est une étude sur la lysis, la « libération » dionysiaque. On commence avec la suggestion que dans la description de la mania telestike dans le Phèdre 244d-245a, le meilleur candidat parmi les pratiques cultuelles dionysiaques à l’opération de soustraction résultante de la rhétorique socratique c’est la transe ménadique (I). Les références ménadiques accompagnent également les témoins sur Dionysos Lysios à Corinthe, Sicyone et Thèbes (II), mais ici les sources nous invitent à élargir l’horizon des pratiques cultuelles dionysiaques pour regarder les cultes à mystère en l’honneur du dieu, notamment aux renseignements des lamelles d’or trouvées dans des sépultures des initiés (III). Puis, on entreprend de proposer une lecture exclusivement dionysiaque (i.e. non-orphique) de la lamelle de Pélinna (OF 485 Bernabé). Cette lecture prend appui sur: une analyse du texte de la lamelle (IV); une critique des interprétations qui mettent la lysis en rapport avec l’expiation du crime des Titans (V); un examen du rôle de Perséphone (VI) ; la signification de lysis dans l’OF 350 Bernabé (VII); l’articulation des célèbres passages de la République où il est question des initiations (2. 363a-366b) avec les dynamiques de la punition différée dans les représentations grecques anciennes de la justice divine (VIII). Puis, l’article suggère que la lysis dionysiaque porte sur une délivrance non seulement après la mort, mais aussi pendant la vie des initiés (IX). En conclusion, l’étude revient au Phèdre 245a pour mettre en contraste les transes ménadique et mystique (X).

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This paper is a study of Dionysian lysis, “liberation”. We begin with (I) the suggestion that in the description of the mania telestike in Plato’s Phaedrus 244d-245a, the best candidate among Dionysian ritual practices abstracted by Socrates’ rhetoric is maenadic trance. The maenadic references also accompany the testimonies on Dionysos Lysios in Corinth, Sicyon and Thebes (II), but here the evidence invites us to widen the scope of Dionysian cult practices and look at the god’s Mystery cults (III), notably at the evidence provided by the golden leaves founded in initiated sepultures. We propose then an exclusively Dionysian (i.e. non-Orphic) reading of the Pelinna leave (OF 485 Bernabé). This reading leans on: (IV) an analysis of the leaf’s text; (V) a critique of the interpretations associating lysis with the expiation of the Titans’ crime; (VI) an examination of Persephone’s role; (VII) the meaning of lysis in OF 350 Bernabé; and (VIII) the linking up of the famous passages of Plato’s Republic dealing with initiations (2. 363a-366-b) with the dynamics of postponed punishment in ancient Greek representations of divine justice. Finally, the article suggests that (IX) Dionysian lysis is concerned with liberation not only after death, but also during the life of the initiated. In conclusion (X), it goes back to Plato’s Phaedrus 245a, in order to contrast Dionysian maenadic and mystic trance.
  • Argumentation and counterfactual reasoning in Parmenides and Melissus Artigos

    Marcacci, Flavia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Parmenides and Melissus employ different deductive styles for their different kinds of argumentation. The former’s poem flows in an interesting sequence of passages: contents foreword, methodological premises, krisis, conclusions and corollaries. The latter, however, organizes an extensive process of deduction to show the characteristics of what is. In both cases, the strength of their argument rests on their deductive form, on the syntactical level of their texts: the formal structure of their reasonings help to identify the features and logical intersections of their thoughts. On the one hand, Parmenides uses modal reasoning, enforcing the employment of the principle of the excluded middle. On the other hand, Melissus radicalizes the use of modal reasoning and employs counterfactual statements in order to develop his doctrine of what is. Despite their differences, both deserve a place in the Stone Age of logic and theory of argumentation due to their common ambition to demonstrate what is.
  • Plato’s use of the term stoicheion. Origin and implications Artigos

    Simone, Pia De

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the implications of Plato’s use of the term stoicheion, since his awareness of stoicheion’s polysemy reveals his view of the origin, the complexity and, at the same time, the order of reality. Moreover, his use of stoicheion allowed him both to inherit and to detach himself from his predecessors. I begin by presenting the history of the notion of stoicheion; then, since one of the meanings of stoicheion is ‘letter of the alphabet’, I focus on the Cratylus, which contains the first of several passages where Plato employs the alphabet as a paradigm for the structure of a complex system. Finally, I turn to the Theaetetus, where Plato, for the first time, uses stoicheion in the sense of ‘element’ and where, through the relation letters/syllables, Plato clarifies that enumeration and juxtaposition are not sufficient to attain the real knowledge. I will argue that only thanks to these steps can we understand the occurrences of stoicheion in the Timaeus, where Plato first states that air, earth, fire and water are not stoicheia tou pantos, and then reveals that, instead, the basic triangles are ‘the elements of the universe’.
  • The consistency of Thrasymachus’ theses on justice in Plato’s Republic I Artigos

    Menezes, Luiz Maurício Bentim da Rocha

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: A discussão entre Trasímaco e Sócrates no Livro I da República de Platão dá vigor à questão da justiça iniciada com Céfalo. Trasímaco é um personagem importante da obra, pois vai relacionar a justiça ao governo da cidade. Isso faz com que a justiça saia da esfera individual e entre na esfera pública. Em nosso artigo, pretendemos verificar as teses de Trasímaco sobre a justiça e se estas são consistentes entre si. O problema da consistência das teses é antigo entre os comentadores e apresenta diferentes soluções. Nosso intuito é propor uma solução para o problema e relacionar isto à arte do governo proposta por Trasímaco. Isso nos permite verificar a maneira pela qual Sócrates e Trasímaco diferem entre si em suas propostas de governo e dos tipos de governante. Desse modo, nosso trabalho pretende contribuir com a literatura platonista sobre o papel ocupado por Trasímaco dentro da obra de Platão.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The discussion between Thrasymachus and Socrates in Book I of Plato's Republic instead the question about justice started with Cephalus. Thrasymachus is an important character, who relates justice to the city government. This causes justice to leave individual sphere and enter public sphere. In our article, we want to verify how Thrasymachus' theses on justice and whether they are consistent with each other. The problem of consistency of theses is old among commentators and presents different solutions. Our intention is to propose a solution to the problem and to relate this to art of government proposed by Thrasymachus. This allows us to verify the manner in which Socrates and Thrasymachus differ in their proposals for government and types of ruler. In this way, our work intends to contribute with literature on the role played by Thrasymachus in Plato’s work.
  • The Poetics of Mimesis in Plato’s Timaeus-Critias Artigos

    Menezes Neto, Nelson de Aguiar

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: O presente estudo consiste em uma análise do processo de composição do Timeu-Crítias de Platão, sob o ponto de vista da modelagem do discurso. Pretende-se mostrar que o diálogo é marcado por uma engenhosa articulação de técnicas de composição, que combinam os aspectos pictorial e dramático da mímesis poética. Estabelecendo as Panateneias como referência implícita, a obra apresenta a performance de uma sequência de narrativas, produzidas como verdadeiras imagens discursivas. A originalidade platônica revela-se no Timeu-Crítias, portanto, no desempenho de uma construção formal ao mesmo tempo dramática e imagética, mediante um singular agenciamento mimético de formas do discurso.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The present study is an analysis of Plato’s Timaeus-Critias composition process, from the point of view of discourse modeling. It intends to show that the dialogue is distinguished by an insightful articulation of composition techniques, which combine the pictorial and dramatic aspects of poetic mimesis. Establishing the Panateneias as an implicit reference, the work presents the performance of a sequence of narratives, produced as true discursive images. Platonic originality is revealed in Timaeus-Critias, therefore, as the accomplishment of a formal construction that is both dramatic and representational, through a singular mimetic agency of discursive forms.
  • Parmenides and the Ante-Predicative Conception of Truth Artigos

    Cordero, Néstor-Luis

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: Platón sostiene que, para confirmar que el sofista es un fabricante de ilusiones (Sph.262d8), hay que refutar la tesis de Parménides que afirma que sólo existe - según Platón lo interpreta - el ser absoluto. Muy probablemente un eco de esta tesis se encuentre en Antístenes, a quien Platón parece aludir en el Sofista, para quien “lo que es, es verdadero”. Esta concepción de la verdad se conoce como “ante-predicativa” u ontológica, y, según Heidegger, sería originaria. No es así. Desde Homero y hasta Parménides, la verdad (o falsedad) fue siempre atribuida a un discurso o a un pensamiento, jamás a un ente. La concepción “ante-predicativa” de la verdad fue una creación de la filosofía, que probablemente comenzó con Parménides y continuó con Antístenes. Cuando Platón la refuta, en la segunda parte del Sofista, no hace sino regresar al pasado, pues hace del discurso el “lugar” de la verdad.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In order to confirm that the sophist is a manufacturer of illusions, Plato argues (Sph.262d8) that it is necessary to refute Parmenides’s thesis which states that there is only - as Plato interprets it - the absolute being. Most likely an echo of this thesis is found in Antisthenes, whom Plato seems to allude to in the Sophist, for whom “what is, is true”. This conception of truth is known as “ante-predicative” or ontological, and, according to Heidegger, would be original. It is not the case. From Homer to Parmenides, truth (or falsehood) was always attributed to a speech or thought, never to a “being”. The “ante-predicative” conception of truth was a creation of philosophy, which probably began with Parmenides and continued with Antisthenes. When Plato refutes it, in the second part of the Sophist, only returns to the past, because he makes speech the “place” of truth.
  • Plato. Menexenus. Introduction, translation and notes Artigos

    Cerdas, Emerson

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Tradução para o português do diálogo Menêxeno de Platão, com notas culturais, históricas e algumas de elucidação sobre as escolhas tradutórias. Acrescenta-se uma breve introdução ao texto.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This paper aims to present not only a translation of Plato’s Menexenus into Portuguese but also cultural and historical notes, as well as explanatory ones concerning translation choices. It also contains a brief introduction to the dialogue.
  • Aristotle’s Theory of Scientific Demonstration in Posterior Analytics 1.2-9 and 1.13 Artigos

    Bastos, Davi

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Defendo uma interpretação do livro I dos Segundos Analíticos de Aristóteles que distingue dois projetos em diferentes trechos da obra: (i) explicar em que consiste uma dada ciência e (ii) explicar em que consiste o conhecimento propriamente científico. Exponho a teoria de Aristóteles que responde à questão ii, com especial atenção à definição de conhecimento científico em 71b9-12 e mostrando como isso se desdobra ao longo dos capítulos 1.2-9 e 1.13 em uma consistente Teoria da Demonstração Científica. O principal ponto dessa teoria é que demonstrações precisam capturar explicações relevantes. Alguns requisitos formais (como a estrutura silogística e a coextensão de termos) são desdobramentos do alvo principal, a saber, capturar e expor de forma apropriada relações causais-explanatórias relevantes.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: I defend an interpretation of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics Book I which distinguishes between two projects in different passages of that work: (i) to explain what a given science is and (ii) to explain what properly scientific knowledge is. I present Aristotle’s theory in answer to ii, with special attention to his definition of scientific knowledge in 71b9-12 and showing how this is developed on chapters 1.2-9 and 1.13 into a solid Theory of Scientific Demonstration. The main point of this theory is that demonstrations need to capture relevant explanations. Some formal requirements of the demonstration (as the syllogistic structure and coextension between terms) are unfoldings of the main project, 1.e., to capture and present properly relevant causal-explanatory relations.
  • The biblical age of judges without the letter ‘g’: translation of Book VII of the lipogram De aetatibus mundi et hominis by Fulgentius the Mythographer Artigos

    Santos Júnior, Cristóvão José dos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Este trabalho consiste na primeira tradução lipogramática e na primeira já realizada para a língua portuguesa do Livro VII da obra De aetatibus mundi et hominis, creditada ao escritor tardio e africano Fulgêncio, o Mitógrafo (final do séc. V - início do séc. VI d.C.). A De aetatibus se trata de um lipograma consecutivo que possui um prólogo e outros 14 Livros, com constrição nas 14 letras iniciais do alfabeto fulgenciano. Nesta sétima seção da obra, Fulgêncio discute a idade bíblica dos juízes, evitando o emprego de unidades lexicais que contenham a letra ‘g’, o que foi cultivado no texto tradutório proposto, que foi desenvolvido a partir da edição crítica efetuada por Rudolf Helm (1898).

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This work consists of the first lipogrammatic translation and the first ever made into the Portuguese language of Book VII of the work De aetatibus mundi et hominis, credited to the late and African writer Fulgentius, the Mytographer (late 5th - early 6th century). De aetatibus is a consecutive lipogram that has a prologue and other 14 Books, with constriction in the initial 14 letters of Fulgentius’ alphabet. In this seventh section of the work, Fulgentius discusses the biblical age of the judges, avoiding the use of lexical units containing the letter 'g', which was cultivated in the proposed translation text, which was developed from the critical edition by Rudolf Helm (1898).
  • If the body were a cetra, harmony would be his soul. On the soul-body relationship in Plato's philosophy Artigos

    Botter, Barbara

    Abstract in Italian:

    Resumo: L’obiettivo del testo è di indagare se sia possibile attribuire a Platone una concezione dualista della natura umana, quindi se il filosofo possa essere inscritto nella linea dei pensatori che si sono posti il cosiddetto “Mind-Body Problem”. In molteplici passi dei dialoghi platonici si rinviene l’affermazione che il corpo e l’anima costituiscono due nature differenti e, in certa misura, incompatibili. D’altro canto, la relazione fra corpo e anima è costitutiva dell’uomo e si rende manifesta nell’atto della percezione. La presente riflessione si svilupperà in tre momenti. Dapprima esporremo le ragioni per cui è giustificato affermare che esiste in Platone una differenza fra anima e corpo; quindi analizzeremo l’unione di anima e corpo come attributo essenziale della natura umana; termineremo l’indagine attraverso la ricerca della “ghiandola pineale platonica”, ossia l’elemento che permette di parlare di anima e corpo come di una relazione duale che si costituisce non come una unità indifferenziata, né come una giustapposizione di fattori estranei l’uno all’altro. La nostra proposta consiste nel mostrare che lo scambio di informazioni fra anima e corpo avviene attraverso una modifica nelle proporzioni matematico armoniche che articolano entrambe le potenze.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this text is to investigate if it is possible to attribute to Plato a dualistic conception of human nature, that is, whether the philosopher can be inscribed in the line of thinkers who establish the so-called “Mind-Body Problem”. In various passages of Platonic Dialogues we can see that the body and the soul constitute two different and quite incompatible natures. On the other hand, the relationship between body and soul is constitutive of human being and is unquestionable in the act of perception. Our study develops in three moments. At a first time we explain the reasons why it is justified to claim that there is in Plato’s Dialogues a difference between soul and body; afterwards, we analyze the relationship between soul and body just as an essential attribute of human nature; we bring about the investigation with the analysis of the “Plato’s pineal gland”, specifically, the element that allow us to consider the liaison between soul and body as a “dual relationship”, that is, not as an undifferentiated unit, nor as a juxtaposition of elements unrelated to each other. Our proposal consists in showing that the mathematical structure, proportional, harmonic and musical crosses all reality: the cosmic body and soul, as well as the human body and soul.
  • Demetrius and style: a brief history of the translation of a title Artigos

    Cairus, Henrique Fortuna; Almeida, Marina Albuquerque de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: O conceito moderno de ‘estilo’ - dο qual deriva o de ‘estilística’, disciplina que foi testemunha da querela entre a Linguística e os estudos literários no século XX - herdou da Retórica antiga o seu conteúdo (figuras e tropos) e foi largamente usado como tradução direta do conceito latino ‘elocutio’ (em especial no tratado De elocutione [Περὶ ἑρμηνείας], de Demétrio), e como tradução (no geral, indireta) de conceitos gregos, como ἑρμηνεία, λέξις e φράσις. Há ainda outros conceitos que parecem intimamente ligados ao de estilo, como os de ‘ornatum’ e ‘decorum’. Compreendendo que as referências clássicas do conceito de ‘estilo’ se mostram essenciais para a escrita da história deste conceito moderno, este artigo buscará apresentar um catálogo de conceitos antigos que encontraram no ‘estilo’ (ou style, em inglês e francês) a sua tradição tradutória, além de tentar construir uma breve história de cada um desses percursos tradutórios.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The modern concept of ‘style’ - from which ‘stylistics’ is derived, a discipline that witnessed the quarrel between Linguistics and Literary studies in the 20th century - has inherited from Ancient Rhetoric its substance (figures and tropes) and was largely used as a direct translation from the Latin concept ‘elocutio’ (especially in Demetrius’ treatise De elocutione [Περὶ ἑρμηνείας]) and also as a translation for Greek concepts (usually indirectly), such as ἑρμηνεία, λέξις and φράσις. There are still some other concepts that seem intimately connected to ‘style’, for instance ‘ornatum’ and ‘decorum’. Considering that classical references of ‘style’ present themselves essential to write the history of this modern concept, this paper seeks to present a catalog of ancient concepts that have found in ‘style’ (in English and French) their traditional translation, as well as attempting to build a short history of each of these translation paths.
  • God the Father at the Table: The Centrality of the Overseer in the Letters of Ignatius of Antioch Artigos

    Piza, Pedro Luís de Toledo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: O desenvolvimento de uma autoridade concentrada em uma única pessoa é, certamente, um dos principais processos sociais do cristianismo dos dois primeiros séculos d.C. e também um dos que deixaram um legado mais duradouro e influente na Igreja cristã dos séculos seguintes. Nesse sentido, Inácio de Antioquia vem a ser não somente uma testemunha histórica das dinâmicas envolvendo tal processo na Ásia Proconsular de seu tempo, mas também, e sobretudo, um agente histórico que trabalha, usando de sua habilidade retórica e de sua condição de prisioneiro, para reorganizar as comunidades cristãs às quais se dirigia em torno daquele que defendia ser a própria representação do Deus Pai na ceia sagrada.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The development of a kind of authority concentrated in one person is surely one of the main social processes in the first two centuries CE Christianity and also one of those which left the most perennial and influent legacies in the Christian Church of posterior centuries. In this sense, Ignatius of Antioch is not only an historical witness of the dynamics around such a process in Proconsular Asia of his time. He is also, and most of all, an historical agent who, using his rhetorical abilities and imprisonment conditions, works for the reorganization of the Christian communities around the one he defended to be the representation in the holy supper of God the Father himself.
  • Miscegenation and Hybridism in Heliodorus’ Aethiopica Artigos

    Graebin, Geruza de Souza

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Dentre todos as obras do gênero, o romance Etiópicas destaca-se pelas técnicas de composição nele empregadas. Seu autor, Heliodoro, possui a habilidade de inovar e surpreender o leitor, criando cenas, personagens e situações completamente únicas e originais. Tendo como fio vermelho o verbo μιαίνω, por ser recorrente na obra e sumarizar a ideia de miscigenação, enfatizamos alguns trechos do romance em que a ideia de hibridismo, de oposição de contrários ou ainda de sobreposição de elementos é utilizada. O estudo demonstra que a miscigenação, além de ser uma marca do estilo de Heliodoro, é uma técnica que suscita questionamentos acerca de convenções sociais, geográficas e culturais da época.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Amongst all the works within the genre, the novel Aethiopica stands out for its composition techniques. In fact, the author Heliodorus shows the ability of both innovate and astonish readers, by creating scenes and characters, as well as distinguished and completely original situations. Taking the verb μιαίνω as a red string, since it is recurrently used in Heliodorus’ work and also summarizes the idea of miscegenation, some pieces of the romance in which the idea of hybridity, opposition of contraries or, still, the overlapping of elements are highlighted and used in the present study. The results show that miscegenation, besides being a sign of Helidorus’ style, is a technique that gives rise to questioning about social, geographical and cultural conventions of that time.
  • Aristotle’s objection against Forms in Metaphysics M.9 Artigos

    González-Varela, Edgar

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: En Metafísica M.9 Aristóteles expone una aporía sobre las Formas, según la cual, los que introducen Formas las hacen substancias universales y, al mismo tiempo, entidades separadas y, por ello, particulares. Pero, sostiene, no es posible que ambos atributos, ser universal y particular, se den en la misma cosa. La interpretación que los especialistas han defendido de esta objeción es externa, en tanto que sostienen que se deriva de la propia concepción aristotélica de la separación: solo lo que es particular está separado. Aquí defiendo una interpretación interna que afirma que la objeción se deriva de un supuesto sobre el rol explicativo de las Formas que Aristóteles le atribuye a los platónicos.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Aristotle formulates in Metaphysics M.9 an aporia about Forms, according to which, those who introduce Forms make them universal substances and, at the same time, separate entities and, hence, particulars. But, he claims, it is not possible that both attributes, being a universal and being a particular, inhere in the same thing. The interpretation that scholars have offered of this objection is external, in that they hold that it derives from Aristotle’s own conception of separation: only what is particular is separate. Here I defend an internal interpretation which claims that the objection derives from an assumption about the explanatory role of Forms that Aristotle attributes to the Platonists.
  • Freedom and Praxis in Plotinus’s Ennead 6.8.1-6 Artigos

    Andrade, Bernardo Portilho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In this paper, I argue that Plotinus does not limit the sphere of free human agency simply to intellectual contemplation, but rather extends it all the way to human praxis. Plotinus’s goal in the first six chapters of Ennead 6.8 is, accordingly, to demarcate the space of freedom within human practical actions. He ultimately concludes that our external actions are free whenever they actualize, in unhindered fashion, the moral principles derived from intellectual contemplation. This raises the question of how the freedom of practical actions might relate to the freedom of intellectual contemplation. After considering two previously offered models - a model of double activity, and an Aristotelian model of practical syllogism - I offer a third alternative, namely a model of moral attunement, according to which our rational desires assume a kind of ‘care of the soul’ through active supervision. Practical life is thus imbued with freedom to the extent that the soul supervises its actions to conform to its will and choice of the good.
  • What is cognitive in metaphor according to Aristotle? Artigos

    Laks, André

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: En la Poética (21 1457b6 s.), Aristóteles define la metáfora como la transferencia (epiphora) de un nombre de un dominio extraño (allotrios) a otro. Si, como en la doctrina clásica de los tropos, vemos en ella un término figurado, que sustituye al término propio, la metáfora reviste un valor puramente ornamental y el discurso podría en principio prescindir de ella. La metáfora moderna, en cambio, tiene la ambición de ofrecer una redescripción del mundo, es una metáfora viva (Paul Ricœur), y por tanto cognitiva. La cuestión es saber en qué medida esa concepción cognitiva de la metáfora puede apoyarse en el análisis de Aristóteles, como Ricœur lo hace. La respuesta es sí, pero no, dado que la cognición de la cuál Aristóteles habla con relación a la metáfora es una cognición de tipo especial, una “cuasi-cognición”.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In the Poetics (21 1457b6 f.), Aristotle, defines metaphor as the transfer (epiphora) of a term from a given, foreign (allotrios) domain to another one. If, as does the classical doctrine of tropes, we consider that it substitutes the ‘proper’ term, the metaphor has a purely ornamental value and we can do without it. Modern theories insist, on the contrary, on the cognitive value of the metaphor: because it offers a re-description of the world, the metaphor is “alive” (Paul Ricœur). The question is to what extent this cognitive conception of metaphor, in spite of its classical reception, is already at work in Aristotle’s differentiated analysis of the phenomenon, as Ricœur claims. The answer is ‘yes but rather no’. This is because the cognition Aristotle talks about in relation to metaphor is of a special type, a “quasi-cognition”.
  • Diogenes Laërtius. Vitae Philosophorum 5.36-57 (life of Theophrastus) Artigos

    Brito, Rodrigo Pinto de; Pereira, Marcos Roberto Santos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Tradução do quinto livro, passos 36-57 de Vidas, de Diógenes Laércio, tratando da vida de Teofrasto.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Translation of Diogenes Laërtius’ Lives, book 5, steps 36-57, dealing with the life of Theophrastus.
  • References to women in Plato’s Timaeus. Reading notes about their biological aspect, social function, and metaphoric valence Artigos

    Simone, Pia De

    Abstract in Italian:

    Riassunto: Questo lavoro si propone di indagare le occorrenze del lessico femminile, in particolare γυνή e μήτηρ, nel Timeo, per far emergere la posizione di Platone riguardo alle donne che si può evincere dall’ermeneutica dei passi esaminati. Bisogna considerare anche i problemi relativi all’interpretazione degli scritti di Platone, come le strutture argomentative di cui si serve e la complessità di alcuni concetti. Le occorrenze nel Timeo, sebbene non numerose, sono contenutisticamente significative, data la natura di questo dialogo che si propone di identificare la posizione e il ruolo nel cosmo dell’uomo e della sua anima. Nel prologo del Timeo, come anche nella Repubblica, Platone esprime posizioni più aperte riguardo al ruolo sociale delle donne; invece in altri passi, come quelli che trattano della trasmigrazione delle anime, Platone si serve di immagini relative alle donne per aiutare i suoi ascoltatori a comprendere questioni molto complesse. Tali immagini, per essere comprensibili, devono rispecchiare l’idea riguardo alle donne comune al tempo di Platone.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This work aims to investigate the occurrences of the female lexicon, in particular γυνή and μήτηρ, in the Timaeus, to bring out Plato's position regarding women that can be deduced from the hermeneutics of the examined passages. It is necessary to consider all the problems related to Plato's writings, including the argumentative structures used and the complexity of some concepts. The occurrences in the Timaeus, although not numerically conspicuous, are significant in terms of content, given the very nature of this dialogue, which aims to identify the position and role of man and his soul in the cosmos. In Timaeus’ Prologue, such as in the Republic, Plato expresses more open positions regarding the social role of women; instead in other passages, such as those dealing with the transmigration of souls, Plato uses images relating to women to help his listeners to understand very complex issues. These images, to be understandable, have to be adequate to the idea about women common to Plato’s time.
  • The marvelous child in Heraclitus of Ephesus Artigos

    Kwietniewska, Małgorzata

    Abstract in French:

    Résumé : Dans la phrase marquée DK22 B52, Héraclite décrit un enfant jouant avec de petits objets (pessoi). Le garçon a tout un royaume à sa disposition et il est identifié lui-même avec l’éon. Ce célèbre fragment a été interprété de nombreuses manières par les philologues classiques et les philosophes. De nos jours, il est le plus souvent considéré comme une métaphore de la vie humaine. L’enfant, qui ne connaît pas encore les règles de la vie sociale, introduit dans cette vie des éléments de hasard et de jeu insouciant. Cependant, lorsqu’on compare la phrase d'Héraclite avec des récits de l’Inde ancienne, on peut reconnaître en lui le motif mythologique de l’acte de création - Dieu créant et gouvernant le monde. Dans ce contexte gouverner signifie établir des droits mathématiques fondamentaux - les mêmes droits que ceux appliqués aux observations astronomiques et à la recherche scientifique dans son ensemble. L’hypothèse, selon laquelle l’ancienne culture indoeuropéenne a affecté - à travers l’Inde - Héraclite, permet de mieux comprendre la pensée de ce philosophe qui sait combiner harmonieusement des éléments de science, de religion et d’art. L'hypothèse indienne explique également l’aura de sublimité et de sainteté qu’on retrouve chez les penseurs de l’Antiquité tardive qui ont sauvé la phrase d’Héraclite et l’ont transmise à la littérature occidentale.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In the sentence marked DK22 B52, Heraclitus describes a boy playing with small objects (pessoi). The boy has the entire kingdom at his disposal and he himself is identified with the eon. This famous fragment has been interpreted in numerous ways both by classical philologists and philosophers. Its current interpretation is that it is a metaphor for human life. The child, not yet familiar with rules of social life, introduces elements of randomness and careless play into that life. Meanwhile, comparison of Heraclitus’ sentence with the Old Indic tales, lets recognize in the sentence the mythological theme of the act of creation - God creating and governing the world. Such governing means establishing fundamental mathematical rights - the same rights that are applied in astronomical observations and scientific research as a whole. Hypothesis, that the ancient Indo-European culture affected - through India - Heraclitus, lets better understand this philosopher’s thought which harmonically combines elements of science, religion and arts. The India hypothesis also explains the aura of sublimity and holiness found in our tradition. The aura that was present in the late antiquity thinkers who acknowledged Heraclitus’ sentence and passed it to the Western literature.
  • The possibility of reading the Plotinian noetic thought as non-predicative Artigos

    Silva, Robert Brenner Barreto da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: A caracterização do pensamento como a reflexão de um sujeito sobre um dado objeto se expressa através de um enunciado de ordem predicativa. A introdução da possibilidade de um tipo de pensamento que não se constitua a partir desse pressuposto traz dificuldades, motivo pelo qual Lloyd (1970) tratou esse tema, a saber, o pensamento não discursivo, como um enigma da filosofia grega. Plotino parece estabelecer uma distinção entre pensamento racional e intelectual tendo como ponto de partida a definição sui generis de um pensamento que pensa o próprio pensamento. A natureza intrigante dessa descrição, isto é, do autopensamento como não discursivo, tem pautado estudos cujos objetivos são, em primeiro lugar, compreender e, depois, esclarecer o que significa adotar tal abordagem. Esse trabalho pretende analisar essa problemática à luz da antepredicatividade de Santos (2018). A hipótese é de que tal conceito pode contribuir para acrescer esclarecimento sobre a distinção entre razão e Intelecto no contexto do tratado V.3 [49] das Enéadas de Plotino. A natureza do pensamento intelectual seria antepredicativa e a do racional predicativa.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The characterization of thought as a subject reflection about a given object is expressed by an enunciation of predicative order. The introduction of the possibility of a type of thought that it is not constituted in virtue of this presupposition brings a lot of difficulties, which is responsible for why Lloyd (1970) treats this theme as an enigma of Greek philosophy, i.e, non-discursive thinking. Plotinus seems to make a distinction between rational and intellectual thought, taking as a starting point the sui generis definition of a thinking that thinks itself. The intriguing nature of this description, i.e, the self-thinking as non-discursive thought, has raised studies with the primary aim to understand how it works this type of thinking. Then to clarify what does it mean to adopt the non-discursive approach. This paper intends to analyze the cited problem in the light of the “non-predicative” of Santos (2018). The hypothesis is that by applying this concept to the discussion it will contribute to increase clarification on the distinction between reason and Intellect. That exercise will be conducted in majority through the reading of V.3 [49] of Plotinus Enneads. The nature of the intellectual thought would be non-predicative and the rational would be predicative.
  • Review of Arruzza, C. A Wolf in the City: Tyranny and the Tyrant in Plato’s Republic (2019) Resenhas

    Maia, Rosane de Almeida
  • Review of Quinália, R. O Belo em Platão (2019) Resenhas

    Dinucci, Aldo Lopes
  • Review of Casertano, G. Venticinque studi sui preplatonici (2019) Resenhas

    Santos, José Gabriel Trindade
  • Review of Gutiérrez, D. Sócrates y la práctica de la espiritualidad (2019) Resenhas

    Iversen, Francisco
  • Review of Salles, R.; Molina Ayala, J. Alejandro de Afrodisia. De la mixtura y el crecimiento (2019) Resenhas

    Constantino, Genaro Valencia
  • Review of Rossetti, L. Parmenide e Zenone sophoi ad Elea (2020) Resenhas

    Montagnino, Marco
  • ERRATA Errata

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