The effect of diets supplemented with Coriandrum sativum seeds on carcass performance, immune system, blood metabolites, rumen parameters and meat quality of lambs

ABSTRACT.

A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on carcass performance, immune system, blood metabolites, rumen parameters and meat quality of Lambs. 16 Sanjabi lambs of 27 ± 5.1 kg during post-weaning (97 d of age) period were randomly selected. Four diets including 0, 1, 3, and 5% coriander seeds, replaced by Alfa alfa in the diet, were considered. A 30:70 alfalfa hay: concentrate diet for a period of time (97 to 187 d of age) was used. The results showed that feed intake was significantly increased by adding coriander seeds, linearly. There was no significant difference for apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fat, neutral and acidic detergent fiber, crude ash, rumen fluid pH and ammonia nitrogen at 0, 2 and 4 h after feeding, Meat dry matter, ash, crude protein and fat, and the meat’s fatty acid profile (p > 0.05). Dietary coriander seeds had a significant effect on neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil’s (in days 7 and 14 of trial) and blood metabolites at the middle of trial. Obtained results suggested that supplementation of coriander seed may have limited effects on nutrient digestibility, ruminal parameters, meat quality, blood cells and metabolites.

Keywords:
Sanjabi lambs; fattening period; Coriander seed; growth performance

Introduction

The ruminants’ production performance may restricted by the fermentation process in the rumen, due to the loss of energy in the form of methane and nitrogen in the form of ammonia, preventing the release of environmental pollutants (Patra & Saxena, 2009Patra, A. K., & Saxena, J. (2009). Dietary phytochemicals as rumen modifiers: a review of the effects on microbial populations. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 96(4), 363-375. doi: 10.1007/s10482-009-9364-1
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-009-9364-...
). In recent years, edible additives such as antibiotics, ionophores, methane inhibitors and antiprostozoic agents have been successfully used to reduce this waste of energy and nitrogen in the rumen and they have increased production efficiency and reduced metabolic disorders (Cardozo, Calsamiglia, Ferret, & Kamel, 2005Cardozo, P. W., Calsamiglia, S., Ferret, A., & Kamel, C. (2005). Screening for effects of natural extracts at different pH on in vitro rumen fermentation of high-concentrate diet for beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 83(11), 2572-2579. doi: 10.2527/2005.83112572x
https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.83112572x...
). Bacterial resistance is an issue which has always been of concern to these additives in livestock production. On the other hands, using antibiotic growth stimulants in animal feed has encounter social concerns and has been banned in Europe for four years (Calsamiglia, Busquet, Cardozo, Castillejos, & Ferret, 2007Calsamiglia, S., Busquet, M., Cardozo, P. W., Castillejos, L., & Ferret, A. (2007). Invited review: essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science, 90(6), 2580-2595. doi: 10.3168/jds.2006-644
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-644...
). Removing ionophores from ruminant animal feeds would increase production costs by 3.5 to 5 percent. Therefore, evaluation and replacement of safety feed additives seems to be necessary to maintain current production levels without increasing production costs or metabolic disorders (Cardozo et al., 2005Cardozo, P. W., Calsamiglia, S., Ferret, A., & Kamel, C. (2005). Screening for effects of natural extracts at different pH on in vitro rumen fermentation of high-concentrate diet for beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 83(11), 2572-2579. doi: 10.2527/2005.83112572x
https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.83112572x...
).Indeed, paying attention to the properties of medicinal plants and using as comestible additives has opened a new horizon for research in animal nutrition (Mandal & Mandal, 2015Mandal, S., & Mandal, M. (2015). Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 5(6), 421-428. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.001
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04....
). Various phytochemicals, including saponins, essential oils, tannins, flavonoids, have been isolated from a wide range of plant species, having beneficial effects on rumen fermentation and animal productivity (Naseri, Hozhabri, & Kafilzadeh, 2013Naseri, V., Hozhabri, F., & Kafilzadeh, F. (2013). Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus offocinalis). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 97(4), 773-785. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01318.x
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012...
). One of the wealthy medicinal plants is coriander.

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) from the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae, a glabrous aromatic and herbaceous annual plant, is a source of active aroma compounds, useful in food preparation, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities, and preventing food borne diseases and food spoilage being as secondary importance (Mandal and Mandal, 2015Mandal, S., & Mandal, M. (2015). Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 5(6), 421-428. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.001
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04....
). Essential oils found in Coriander include Octane, β-Phellandrene, Undecane, Linalool, Nonanal, Decanal, Carvone, E-2-Decenal, 1-Decanol, Undecanal, Decyl acetate, Dodecanal, Z-2-Dodecenal, E-2-Dodecenal, E-2-Dodecen-1-ol, 1-Dodecanol, Tridecanal, E-2-Tridecenal, 1-Tetradecanol, and Tetradecanal (El-Zaeddi, Martínez-Tomé, Calín-Sánchez, Burló, & Carbonell-Barrachina, 2016El-Zaeddi, H., Martínez-Tomé, J., Calín-Sánchez, A., Burló, F., & Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A. (2016). Volatile composition of essential oils from different aromatic herbs grown in mediterranean regions of spain. Foods, 5(2), 41. doi: 10.3390/foods5020041
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020041...
). Essential oils from leaves and seeds containing various components which acts as preservative in food products (Kalemba & Kunicka, 2003Kalemba, D., & Kunicka, A. (2003). Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 10(10), 813-829. doi: 10.2174/0929867033457719
https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867033457719...
). Coriander seeds is a wealthy source of lipids which is important in the food industry (about 28.4% of the total seed weight) (Yeung & Bowra, 2011Yeung, E. C., & Bowra, S. (2011). Embryo and endosperm development in coriander (Coriandrum sativum). Botany, 89(4), 263-273. doi: 10.1139/b11-013
https://doi.org/10.1139/b11-013...
). The leaves contain a large amount of tocopherol including α and β ones, which play an important role in preventing lipid oxidation (Ganesan, Phaiphan, Murugan, & Baharin, 2013Ganesan, P., Phaiphan, A., Murugan, Y., & Baharin, B. S. (2013). Comparative study of bioactive compounds in curry and coriander leaves: an update. Journal of Chemistry and Pharmacy Research, 5(11), 590-594. Recovered from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279554918_Comparative_study_of_bioactive_compounds_in_curry_and_coriander_leaves_An_update
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
). As pointed out by Anita, Sharad, Amanjot and Ritu (2014Anita, D., Sharad, A., Amanjot, K., & Ritu, M. (2014). Antioxidant profile of Coriandrum sativumm ethanolic extract. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 5(3), 220-224. doi: 10.7897/2230-8407.050347
https://doi.org/10.7897/2230-8407.050347...
), antioxidant profile of C. sativum seed extract based on mg g-1 dry weight includes oxidized ascorbate (0.15), reduced ascorbate (0.136), total ascorbate (0.287), riboflavin (0.0046), tocopherol (0.181), total polyphenol (18.7), gallic acid (0.173), caffeic acid (0.08), ellagic acid (0.162), quercetin (0.608), kaempferol (0.233), involved in delay or prevent the spoilage of food. It is necessary to mention that minerals including phosphorus, calcium, sodium and potassium and amino acids including glutamine, asparagine and arginine were also found in Coriander seeds (Oganesyan, Nersesyan, & Parkhomenko, 2007Oganesyan, E., Nersesyan, Z., & Parkhomenko, A. Y. (2007). Chemical composition of the above-ground part of Coriandrum sativum. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 41(3), 149-153. doi: 10.1007/s11094-007-0033-2
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11094-007-0033-...
).

There are several relatively published papers showing positive effect of Coriander on performance, rumen fermentation process, blood parameters, meat quality, digestion of food and feed conversion efficiency in ruminants (Nasser, Shams Al-dain, Abou, & Mahmood, 2013Nasser, A. K., Shams Al-dain, Q. Z., Abou, N. Y., & Mahmood, A. B. (2013). Using fenugreek seeds powder as a feed additive in rations of Sharabi local cows and its effect on some hematological and biochemical parameters. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 27(1), 13-19. doi: 10.33899/ijvs.2013.82854
https://doi.org/10.33899/ijvs.2013.82854...
; Mohammed, Saeed, & Al-Jubori, 2018Mohammed, S. F., Saeed, A. A., & Al-Jubori, O. S. (2018). Effect of daily supplement of coriander seeds powder on weight gain, rumen fermentation, digestion and some blood characteristics of Awassi ewes. Journal of Research in Ecology, 6(2), 1762-1770. Recovered from http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC0570.pdf
http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC...
; Fakhraei, Siahkamari, Mansoori Yarahmadi, & Khamisabadi, 2019Fakhraei, J., Siahkamari, Gh., Mansoori Yarahmadi, H., & Khamisabadi, H. (2019). Antimicrobial and Antioxidant effects of Coriandarm sativum extract on the quality and shelf life of lambs meat during the refrigerated storage. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science, 45, 1-7. Recovered from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328064159
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
). Coriander seeds can be used as additive in sheep ration, resulting improved animal health, white blood cells, protein level (globulin), and wool traits (Al-Zwein, 2011Al-Zwein, D. H. Y. (2011). Effect of coriander seeds [Coriandrum sativum] on some haematological and immunological parameters of awassi ewes. Al-Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 4(1), 92-102. Recovered from https://www.iasj.net/iasj/article/37816
https://www.iasj.net/iasj/article/37816...
). On the other hands, added coriander seeds to the diet, make a decrease in LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol (Chitra & Leelamma, 1997Chitra, V., & Leelamma, S. (1997). Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 51, 167-172. doi: 10.1023/A:1007975430328
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007975430328...
). Mohammed et al. (2018Mohammed, S. F., Saeed, A. A., & Al-Jubori, O. S. (2018). Effect of daily supplement of coriander seeds powder on weight gain, rumen fermentation, digestion and some blood characteristics of Awassi ewes. Journal of Research in Ecology, 6(2), 1762-1770. Recovered from http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC0570.pdf
http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC...
) showed that coriander seeds powder improve the immunity and energy of ewes rather than lambs in Awassi. However, there was no significant differences in the weight gain and rumen fermentation between ewes and lambs which fed by coriander powder (Mohammed et al., 2018Mohammed, S. F., Saeed, A. A., & Al-Jubori, O. S. (2018). Effect of daily supplement of coriander seeds powder on weight gain, rumen fermentation, digestion and some blood characteristics of Awassi ewes. Journal of Research in Ecology, 6(2), 1762-1770. Recovered from http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC0570.pdf
http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC...
). They also reported that no significant differences appeared in total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, packed cell volume PCV%, HB, red blood cells RBC, GOT and GPT between ewes and lambs (Mohammed et al., 2018Mohammed, S. F., Saeed, A. A., & Al-Jubori, O. S. (2018). Effect of daily supplement of coriander seeds powder on weight gain, rumen fermentation, digestion and some blood characteristics of Awassi ewes. Journal of Research in Ecology, 6(2), 1762-1770. Recovered from http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC0570.pdf
http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC...
). Hence, in a different study, coriander supplementation also resulted in the significant decrease (p > 0.01) in triglyceride lipid and LDL (49.88 and 40.40% respectively) (Mohammed et al., 2018Mohammed, S. F., Saeed, A. A., & Al-Jubori, O. S. (2018). Effect of daily supplement of coriander seeds powder on weight gain, rumen fermentation, digestion and some blood characteristics of Awassi ewes. Journal of Research in Ecology, 6(2), 1762-1770. Recovered from http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC0570.pdf
http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC...
).

Based on importance of coriander in the sheep diet, the aim of current study was to investigate the effect of coriander seed supplementation on carcass performance, immune system, blood parameters, rumen development and meat quality in Sanjabi Lambs.

Material and methods

This study was carried out at Mehrgan Animal Research Station affiliated to Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Kermanshah, Iran, during the months of December, 2018 through April, 2019.

Lambs management and diets

This study was conducted on 16 Sanjabi lambs during post-weaning (97 to 187 d) period using a completely-randomized design. Sanjabi sheep breed is a fat-tailed, large-sized, well adapted to the mountainous regions and located in Kermanshah province, western part of Iran. It is mainly raising for mutton production under pastoral production system. All animals were treated for internal and external parasites and vaccinated against enterotoxaemia before the experiment started. Sanjabi lambs of mean weight about 27 ± 5.1 kg were randomly allocated into four groups each consisting of four animals. The lambs had a habitual period of feeding for a week (91 to 97 d). The lambs were fed by a diet with concentrate to forage ratios of 30:70 alfalfa hay: concentrate diet in individual stands. The selected ratio of alfalfa hay: concentrate is related to the research project that has been done. Feed distribution was performed three times a day (Morning, noon and evening).

The diets were formulated according to National Research Council (National Research Council [NRC], 2007National Research Council [NRC]. (2007). Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats cervids, and new world camelids (6th ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.) by using UFFDA software. The components of the diets are presented in Table 1. We had four experimental diets (treatment), the first group was fed a control diet without coriander seed; the second (coriander seed of 1%), the third (coriander seed of 3%), and the fourth group received the diet with coriander seed of 3%, respectively. Different levels of coriander seed in experimental diets were replaced by Alfa alfa. It is worth noting that each ingredient was weighed daily and fed separately to each lamb in individual stands. Feed was offered for ad libitum intake throughout the experiment. Coriander seed was mixed with the concentrate mixture in the experimental group of the lambs.

Table 1
Components of experimental diets and the proportion of different nutrients (percentage of dry matter).

Evaluated parameters

Performance and feed efficiency

Individual weighing was fulfilled every subsequent 30 d in the morning after fasting (feed and water), so that 14 hours of starvation was taken into accounts. Quantity of feed offered were recorded, and daily Feed intake was calculated monthly (three times in total).Mean daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated at the end of trial.

Digestibility

Digestion trial consisted of 7 d for diets adaptation and 5 d feces collection period. During the collection period, total feces were collected. Feces collection was performed directly from the rectum and the daily fecal collections were weighed and mixed thoroughly by hand at the end of each day. Feces samples immediately transferred to the refrigerator at -4°C.

Obtained samples of each daily collection of diets and feces were pre-dried in drying oven at 60 to 65°C for 48h. A certain amount of each sample was placed in plastic. The apparent nutrients digestibility including crude protein, ash, crude fiber, neutral and acidic insoluble fiber, crude fat (ether extract) was determined using the acid insoluble ash (AIA) marker. Formula based on AIA were as:

Dry matter Digestibility %=100-(100×AIA in dietAIA in feces )

N u t r i e n t D i g e s t i b i l i t y % = 100 - ( 100 × A I A i n d i e t A I A i n f e c e s × N u t r i e n t i n f e c e s N u t r i e n t i n d i e t )

Materials in whole ash were boiled with dilute solution of hydrochloric acid and minerals remained in acidic solution and on the filter paper will be considered as acid-insoluble ash, mainly comprising silica.

Blood metabolites and immune system parameters

Blood samples (10 cc) were obtained monthly from the jugular vein of each lamb before the morning feeding and at the beginning (day 97), mid (day 142) and end of the period (day 187). Blood samples were collected into serum separator tubes and centrifuged (3000 rpm 10 min.-1). These parated serum was stored at -45°C until analyzed. Analysis of cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine were based on Pars Test kits and the biochemical kits (Randox, UK. Company) used for non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyricacid. The parameters were measured by automated analyzer (Technicon RA). White blood cells and whole blood cells were counted in lymphocytes and eosinophil cells.

Rumen parameters

Samples of the rumen fluid were collected before the morning feeding and 2 and 4h after feeding using vacuum and gastric tube (50 mL). The first rumen fluid sample was discarded to remove the effect of saliva. Immediately pH was measured potentiometrically using a portable pH meter (Testo Model 230), using 4 layers of confluent rumen fluid filtered with 20% metaphosphoric acid (m-HPO3) at a ratio of five to one (five milliliters). Ruminal fluid and 1 mL of metaphosphoric acid were mixed in 15 mL Falcon tubes and stored at -20°C during testing and after freeze-thawing at refrigerator temperature (using a model refrigerated centrifuge (Sigma-2). -16-P-Germany) centrifuged for 10 min (4000 rpm)). Dissolved sections in 1.5 mL plastic micro tubes were used to determine volatile fatty acids, then 2-ethylbutyric acid was added as an internal standard and stored at -20°C until using. Acetic, propionic, butyric acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC) method (model NHP6890 equipped with isothermal oven, DB-1701 column, 0.25 mm 25 0.25 mm 30 30 mm) (Length, Internal Diameter of Film Condition, respectively) and FID type detector, helium carrier gas (1 mL min.-1), column temperature and detector were measured at 200 and 25°C, respectively. Determining ammonia nitrogen concentration, rumen fluid was equilibrated with 0.2ND (5 mL rumen fluid and 5 mL hydrochloric acid) in 15 mL falcon tubes and centrifuged (4000 rpm). The leachate was used for determination of ammonia nitrogen and stored at -20°C. Finally, the ammonia nitrogen concentration was calculated by phenol-hypochlorite method (Broderick & Kang, 1980Broderick, G. A., & Kang, J. H. (1980). Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63(1), 64-75. doi: 10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(80)82888-8
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(8...
).

Carcass performance

The number of 8 lambs (two replicates per litter) were selected and slaughtered after 14 hours of starvation. The slaughter was done with stunning by cerebral concussion and cutting the jugular veins and carotid arteries. Full and empty digestive compartments (rumen/reticulum, omasum, abomasum, small intestine and large intestine) were removed and weighed. The difference between full and empty compartments was considered as weight of gut content. This was used to get the determination of empty body weight. Therefore, the hot carcass weights were recorded. Then, carcasses were cooled for a period of 24 hours in 2 and 4°C and the cold carcass weight was achieved. Thus, weight loss due to cooling could be calculated.

Chemical composition of meat

After slaughtering, samples were taken to measure qualitative parameters of meat and fatty acids composition from three parts of the thigh, head and shoulders, and physical and chemical characteristics of meat and approximate decomposition (Fat, crude protein, ash, and moisture content were measured using the AOAC (2000Association of Official Analytical Chemists [AOAC]. (2000). Official methods of analysis of the AOAC (18th ed.). Washington, DC: AOAC.) standard.

Statistical analysis

The SAS package was performed for statistical analyses (version 9.1) (Statistical Analysis System [SAS], 2003Statistical Analysis System [SAS]. (2003). MedCalc Statistical Software: version 4.9. Cary, NC: SAS institute Inc.). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used by a GLM procedure for all the characters. Also, the one-way ANOVA based on a completely randomized design was used to test the effect of diet on evaluated parameters including carcass, immune system, blood metabolites, rumen parameters and meat quality characteristics. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The mean for treatments were compared by Duncan statistical test. The model was as follow:

Y i j = μ + T i + e i j

where: Yij was the value of each observation, Ti: The effect of the experimental treatment and: eij random error.

Results

The effect of dietary coriander seeds on performance of Sanjabi lambs is presented in Table 2. Adding coriander seeds make a significant increase for feed intake (p < 0.05). Also, the significant increase was achieved for daily weight gain. Dietary coriander seeds in 3 and 5% reduced feed conversion ratio in compare to control. In other words, when the 5% coriander seeds used, feed conversion ratio was increased in compare to control group but not significant. Dry matter intake was significantly increased by adding coriander seeds, linearly. There was no significant difference for apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fat, neutral and acidic detergent fiber, and crude ash (p > 0.05). Compared to the control treatment, dietary coriander seed had significant effect on the apparent digestibility of calcium and phosphorus (p < 0.05).

Table 2
Effect of Dietary coriander seeds on performance and digestibility in Sanjabi lambs.

In this study, changes in the amount of white blood cells in response to anthrotoxemia vaccine were evaluated (Table 3). The results showed that dietary coriander seeds had a significant effect on neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil’s cells, in 7 and 14 days after slaughtering. On day 21 after anthrotoxemia vaccine injection, neutrophil cells decreased (5% dietary coriander seed) in compared to control.

Table 3
Effect of Dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on white blood cells in Sanjabi lambs.

Table 4 shows the effect of dietary coriander seeds on blood parameters in Sanjabi lambs. The creatinine and unesterified fatty acids increasedat the beginning of the period, but not differedfrom control (p > 0.05). Albumin, total globulin, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, β-Hydroxybutyric acid, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were not affected by diets supplemented with coriander seeds (p < 0.05). At the middle of trial, the metabolites concentration changed significantly compared to the early of trial. This can be implemented to glucose and triglyceride levels, which increased significantly by 5% dietary coriander seeds. Urea was lower by 5% dietary coriander seeds than control (p < 0.05). At the end of period, cholesterol was decreased by 5% dietary coriander seeds.

Table 4
Effect of Dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on blood parameters in Sanjabi lambs.

The results for rumen parameters are shown in Figures 1 and 2. There was no significant difference for rumen fluid pH at 0, 2 and 4h after feeding (p > 0.05). However, pH was decreased by dietary coriander seeds in compared to control. Diet supplemented by coriander seeds reduced ammonia nitrogen and there have not seen a difference for times considered.

Figure 1
Effect of Dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on rumen pH in Sanjabi lambs (before the morning feeding and 2 and 4h after feeding).

In Table 5, effect of dietary coriander seeds on carcass in Sanjabi lambs is presented. Dietary coriander seeds (5%) made a significant increase for live weight, skin weight, Slim weight, and rumen capacity in compared to control (p < 0.05). Hot and cold carcass weight, intra-abdominal fat, heart and lung weights were increased compared to the control (p < 0.05).Also, heart, kidney, liver, spleen and Gastrointestinal full weight increased linearly compared to the control group.

In Table 6, effect of dietary coriander seeds on meat composition of Sanjabi lambs is presented. Meat dry matter, ash, crude protein and fat were not affected by dietary coriander seeds (p < 0.05). The effect of dietary coriander seeds on meat color in Sanjabi lambs is shown in Table 7. Dietary coriander seeds made a significant different for L and b parameters. Hence, by adding coriander seeds, L and b parameters were decreased. There was not seen any significant difference for a, C and H parameters (p > 0.05).The meat’s fatty acid profile of Sanjabi lambs fed diets supplemented by coriander seed is shown in Table 8.Meat fatty acid profile were not affected by dietary coriander seed (p > 0.05). Linoleic and linolenic acids were higher in lambs’ meat received coriander seed than the control group.

Figure 2
Effect of Dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on rumen Ammonia Nitrogen (mg dL-1) in Sanjabi lambs (before the morning feeding and 2 and 4h after feeding).

Table 5
Effect of Dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on carcass in Sanjabi lambs.
Table 6
Effect of Dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on meat chemical composition of Sanjabi lambs.
Table 7
Effect of Dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on meat color in Sanjabi lambs.
Table 8
Effect of Dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on meat fatty acid profile in Sanjabi lambs.

Discussion

Performance and digestibility

Based on the results, increased feed intake can be attributed to physical shape of coriander seed, implemented to digestibility process and passage rate of nutrients. On the other hands, linalool content of coriander seed made increased feed intake, changing rumen microbial content being as secondary importance. These results were in accordance with those reported by Yang, Ametaj, Benchaar and Beauchemin (2007) but not in agreement with the results of Mohammed et al. (2018Mohammed, S. F., Saeed, A. A., & Al-Jubori, O. S. (2018). Effect of daily supplement of coriander seeds powder on weight gain, rumen fermentation, digestion and some blood characteristics of Awassi ewes. Journal of Research in Ecology, 6(2), 1762-1770. Recovered from http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC0570.pdf
http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC...
). The effect of the use of the essential oil on the conversion ratio was not in agreement with the results of this study,due to differences in the variety of the medicinal plant, the concentration of active ingredients and the climatic conditions of the growing area of the medicinal plant. As pointed out by Seifzadeh, Farzad, Hossein, Jamal and Bahman (2016Seifzadeh, S., Farzad, M. A., Hossein, A., Jamal, S., & Bahman, N. (2016). The effects of a medical plant mix and probiotic on performance and health status of suck-ling Holstein calves. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 16(1), 44-51. doi: 10.1080/1828051x.2016.1249421
https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051x.2016.12...
), increasing feed intake may elevate digestion coefficient. Seifzadeh et al. (2016) showed that herbal additive in calves ration had significant effect on ADF and NDF digestibility in which NDF and ADF were increased.

White blood cells

In the current study, dietary coriander seeds made a significant effect on neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil’s, in 7 and 14 days after slaughtering. It may due to the sterol and tocopherol compounds that coriander seeds contain. The sterol and tocopherol compounds have anti-oxidant ability which suppress the free radicals (Burdock & Carabin, 2009Burdock, G. A., & Carabin, I. G. (2009). Safety assessment of coriander [Coriandrum sativum l.] essential oil as a food ingredient. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(1), 22-34. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.006
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.00...
). The immune system could also amplified by the presence of volatile fatty acids in Coriander seeds (Moriguchi & Muraga, 1999Moriguchi, S., & Muraga, M. (1999). Vitamin E and immunity. Vitamins and Hormones, 59, 305-336. doi: 10.1016/s0083-6729(00)59011-6
https://doi.org/10.1016/s0083-6729(00)59...
). Our results were in accordance with those reported by Al-Zwein (2011Al-Zwein, D. H. Y. (2011). Effect of coriander seeds [Coriandrum sativum] on some haematological and immunological parameters of awassi ewes. Al-Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 4(1), 92-102. Recovered from https://www.iasj.net/iasj/article/37816
https://www.iasj.net/iasj/article/37816...
), Ibrahim (2013Ibrahim, M. (2013). Effect using of fenugreek seeds on some physiological and biochemical characters of blood in Damascus goat. Journal of Tikrit Agriculture Sciences, 13(3), 218-225. Recovered from https://www.iasj.net/iasj/download/c3728ddf5d12c2ab
https://www.iasj.net/iasj/download/c3728...
), and Mohammed et al. (2018Mohammed, S. F., Saeed, A. A., & Al-Jubori, O. S. (2018). Effect of daily supplement of coriander seeds powder on weight gain, rumen fermentation, digestion and some blood characteristics of Awassi ewes. Journal of Research in Ecology, 6(2), 1762-1770. Recovered from http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC0570.pdf
http://ecologyresearch.info/documents/EC...
). Yang et al. (2010Yang, W. Z., Ametaj, B. N., Benchaar, C., & Beauchemin, K. A. (2010). Dose response to cinnamaldehyde supplementation in growing beef heifers: ruminal and intestinal digestion. Journal of Animal Science, 88(2), 680-688. doi: 10.2527/jas.2008-1652
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1652...
) showed that adding cinnamaldehyde, garlic and mulberry essential oil to dairy cattle diet had no significant effect on total white blood cell count and overall immune system of dairy cows which did not match our results. Moriguchi and Muraga (1999) showed that dietary coriander seeds affect the immune system, improving white blood cells count. The findings were observed on Awassi sheep fed by three levels of coriander feed (0, 2.5 and 5%) in which white blood cells increased. Our results were consistent to what has been found by Moriguchi and Muraga (1999) and Mansour, Adnan, & Nader (2013Mansour, R. S., Adnan, K. N., & Nader, Y. A. (2013). The effect of different Nigella sativa L. seed [cake] concentrations on leukocytes counts and some serum immunological parameters in calves. Tikrit Journal of Pure Science, 18(3), 1813-1662. ).

Blood parameters

We showed that blood parameters including albumin, total globulin, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, β-Hydroxybutyric acid, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were not affected by diets supplemented with coriander seeds. It is necessary to mention aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase tended to be increased by the adding 5% Coriander seed. It may reduce the toxic effects fromsaponins and other antifouling substances. By increasing secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, the liver enzymes did not increase significantly. On the other hands, decreased cholesterol-synthesizing enzyme activity in the liver reduces tissue cholesterol, reducing the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids by aging (Nute et al., 2007Nute, G. R., Richardson, R. I., Wood, J. D., Hughes, S. I., Wilkinson, R. G., Cooper, S. L., & Sinclair, L. A. (2007). Effect of dietary oil source on the flavour and the colour and lipid stability of lamb meat. Meat Science, 77, 547-555. doi 10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.05.003
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.0...
). Also, coriander oil possesses antimicrobial properties against pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms, having positive effect on health and performance (Çabuk, Alçiçek, Bozkurt, & Imre, 2001Çabuk, M. C., Alçiçek, A., Bozkurt, M., & Imre, N. (2003). Antimicrobial properties of the essential oils isolated from aromatic plants and using possibility as alternative feed additives. In Proceedings of the 11th National Animal Nutrition Congress (p. 184-187), Konya, Turkey.). Our results were in accordance with those reported by Khamisabadi, Kafilzadeh and Charaien (2016Khamisabadi, H., Kafilzadeh, F., & Charaien, B. (2016). Effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) or peppermint (Mentha piperita) on performance, digestibility and blood metabolites of fattening Sanjabi lambs. Biharean Biologist, 10(2), 118-122. Recovered from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317029077_Effect_of_thyme_Thymus_vulgaris_or_peppermint_Mentha_piperita_on_performance_digestibility_and_blood_metabolites_of_fattening_Sanjabi_lambs
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
). Who mentioned that concentrations of cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), blood creatinine levels were not influenced by addition of either thyme or peppermint to the diet. While triglyceride, glucose and urea were significantly lower in lambs received these plants in their diets. Also, Hosoda, Kuramoto, Eruden, Nishida, and Shioya (2006Hosoda, K., Kuramoto, K., Eruden, B., Nishida, T., & Shioya, S. (2006). The effects of three herbs as feed supplements on blood metabolites, hormones, antioxidant activity, IgG concentration, and ruminal fermentation in holstein steers. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 19(1), 35-41. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2006.35
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.35...
) has shown that concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, NEFA, total protein, in plasma were unaffected by peppermint treatments (5% of the diet on a dry matter basis) in holestin steers.

Rumen parameters

No significant effect was observed for rumen pH and ammonia nitrogen of lambs. By adding coriander seed, rumen pH was reduced but not significant. Reduced pH is from increased fatty acids by adding coriander seeds. As pointed out by Chaves et al. (2008Chaves, A. V., Stanford, K., Dugan, M. E. R., Gibson, L. L., McAllister, T. A., Van Herk, F., & Benchaar, C. (2008). Effects of cinnamaldeheyde, garlic and juniper berry essential oils on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance, and caracass characteristics of growing lambs. Livestock Science, 117, 215-224. doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2007.12.013
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.12...
), using essential oils, cinnamaldehyde, had no effect on rumen pH which is in accordance with our results. Also, Benchaar, McAllister and Chouinard (2008Benchaar, C., McAllister, T. A., & Chouinard, P. Y. (2008). Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(12), 4765-4777. doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-1338
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1338...
) in dairy cow and Yang et al. (2010Yang, W. Z., Ametaj, B. N., Benchaar, C., & Beauchemin, K. A. (2010). Dose response to cinnamaldehyde supplementation in growing beef heifers: ruminal and intestinal digestion. Journal of Animal Science, 88(2), 680-688. doi: 10.2527/jas.2008-1652
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1652...
) in beef cattle reported no change on ruminal pH when the diet was supplemented by cinnamaldehyde. There was no significant difference for diets supplemented by coriander seeds for ammonia nitrogen. Also, there have not seen a difference for times considered. These results are in agreement with those reported by Agle et al. (2010Agle, M., Hristov, A. N., Zaman, S., Schneider, C., Ndegwa, P. M., & Vaddella, V. K. (2010). Effect of dietary concen-trate on rumen fermentation, digestibility, and nitrogen losses in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(9), 4211-4222. doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2977
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2977...
) and Aguerre, Wattiaux, Powell, Broderick and Arndt (2011Aguerre, M. J., Wattiaux, M. A., Powell, J. M., Broderick, G. A., & Arndt, C. (2011). Effect of forage-to-concentrate ratio in dairy cow diets on emission of me-thane, carbon dioxide, and ammonia, lactation perfor-mance and manure excretion. Journal of Dairy Science, 94(6), 3081-3093. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-4011
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-4011...
) who reported that the difference in the ration (with and without essential oils) had no significant effect on ammonia nitrogen. It has been documented that coriander seed have the antimicrobial effect by linalool content, removing harmful microorganisms of (Evans & Martin, 2000Evans, J. D., & Martin, S. A. (2000). Effects of thymol on ruminal microorganisms. Current Microbiology, 41, 336-340. doi: 10.1007/s002840010145
https://doi.org/10.1007/s002840010145...
), reducing ammonia nitrogen in the rumen. Jahani-Azizabadi, Danesh Mesgaran, Vakili, Rezayazdi and Hashemi (2011Jahani-Azizabadi, H., Danesh Mesgaran, M., Vakili, A. R., Rezayazdi, K., & Hashemi, M. (2011). Effect of various medicinal plant essential oils obtained from semi-arid climate on rumen fermentation characteristics of a high forage diet using in vitro batch culture. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5(27), 4812-4819. Recovered from https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-full-text-pdf/6B67D7816122.pdf
https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJM...
) reported a decrease in ammonia nitrogen by using thyme, cinnamon and clove essential oils at dose 1 μL mL-1 of culture fluid in a 24h batch culture study. Also Benchaar et al. (2008) observed ammonia nitrogen of ruminal fluid of dairy cows was not affected by using 0.75 or 2 g d-1 of a mixture of essential oil compounds. The incompatibility between the currentstudy with others in vivo observation may be attributed to different experimental diet, doses of compounds used and ex perimental conditions.

Carcass performance

Carcass performance was significantly improved by using coriander seed. Özdogan, Önenç and Önenç (2011Özdogan, M. O., Önenç, S. S., & Önenç, A. (2011). Fattening performance, blood parameters and slaughter traits of Karya lambs consuming blend of essential oil compounds. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(34), 6663-6669. Recovered from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235798382_ Fattening_performance_blood_parameters_and_slaughter_traits_of_Karya_lambs_consuming_blend_of_essential_oil_compounds
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
) reported that there is no significant effect for carcass performance by using essential oils. In rabbits, Abd El-Hady, El-Ghalid, and El-Raffa (2013Abd El-Hady, A. M., El-Ghalid, O. A. H., & El-Raffa, A. M. (2013). Influnce of a herbal feed additives (digestarom) on productive performance and blood constituents of growing Rabbits. Egyptian Journal of Animal Production, 50(1), 27-37. Recovered from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304461256_Influence_of_a_herbal_feed_additives_DigestaromR_on_productive_performance_and_blood_constituents_of_growing_rabbits_Egyptian
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
) showed a significant effect of using coriander seed on carcass performance which is inconsistent with our results. Shahabi and Chashnidel (2014Shahabi, H., & Chashnidel, Y. (2014). The effects of canola oil and oregano essential oil on performance, blood parameters, and chemical carcass compositions of Dalagh fattening lambs. Journal of Ruminant Research, 2(1), 1-8. ) showed that canola oil made a significant increase for carcass attributes including carcass and feet weights. Coriander seed components can be present the intestinal health which enhances availability of essential nutrients for absorption, therefore, animal growth performance and consequently carcass performance could be improved (Franz, Baser and Windisch, 2010Franz, C., Baser, K. H. C., & Windisch, W. (2010). Essential oils and aromatic plants in animal feeding. A European perspective. A review. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 25(5), 327-340. doi: 10.1002/ffj.1967
https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1967...
). On the other hands, increased enzyme activity following intestinal health resulted in a better nutrient absorption (Franz et al., 2010). Moreover, the effectiveness of essential oil on carcass performance could also depend on the basal diet composition, feed intake level and environmental conditions (Abd El-Hady et al., 2013Abd El-Hady, A. M., El-Ghalid, O. A. H., & El-Raffa, A. M. (2013). Influnce of a herbal feed additives (digestarom) on productive performance and blood constituents of growing Rabbits. Egyptian Journal of Animal Production, 50(1), 27-37. Recovered from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304461256_Influence_of_a_herbal_feed_additives_DigestaromR_on_productive_performance_and_blood_constituents_of_growing_rabbits_Egyptian
https://www.researchgate.net/publication...
). As pointed out by Yusuf, Goh, Samsudin, Alimon, & Sazili (2014Yusuf, L., Goh, Y. M., Samsudin, A. A., Alimon, A. R., & Sazili, A. Q. (2014). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield of boer goats fed diets containing leaves or whole parts of Andrographis paniculata. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 27(4), 503-510. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13533
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13533...
), goats fed Andrographis paniculata produced higher meat yield and relatively lower fat contents. They concluded that higher lean and muscle proportion are achieved by more efficient digestion of nutrients. Decreasing fats contents was occurred by dietary Andrographis paniculata which improved rumen fermentation processes and efficient digestive function. Our results were in accordance with those reported by Hassan, Hassan & Al-Rubeii (2010Hassan, S. A., Hassan, K. M., & Al-Rubeii, A. (2010). Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels of dietary supplement of rumen degradable nitrogen fed with Nigella sativa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(27), 4295-4299. Recovered from file:///C:/Users/Adriana/AppData/Local/Temp/82648-Article%20Text-198914-1-10-20121025.pdf) in Karadi lambs fed by Nigella sativa. Hassan et al. (2010Hassan, S. A., Hassan, K. M., & Al-Rubeii, A. (2010). Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels of dietary supplement of rumen degradable nitrogen fed with Nigella sativa. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(27), 4295-4299. Recovered from file:///C:/Users/Adriana/AppData/Local/Temp/82648-Article%20Text-198914-1-10-20121025.pdf) showed that the heavier slaughter weights, cold carcass and fat tail weights were associated with lambs fed highest level of rumen degradable nitrogen supplemented with Nigella sativa. But they also reported a linear increase in fat-tail weight associated with lambs fed increasing levels of rumen degradable nitrogen supplemented with Nigella sativa.

Meat quality

A well source of animal protein is ruminant meat which is valued in many cultural culinary traditions. In recent years, consumers’ choice is to reduce the composition and quality of fat and high quality of meat. Therefore, improve the safety, nutritional and sensory quality of ruminant meat is of ongoing interest and it have been the subject of research in recent times. Meat chemical composition of Sanjabi lambs was not affected by dietary coriander seed. These results were in agreement with those obtained by Smeti, Atti, Mahouachi, and Munoz (2013Smeti, S., Atti, N., Mahouachi, M., & Munoz, F. (2013). Use of dietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils to increase the shelf life of Barbarine light lamb meat. Small Ruminant Research, 113(s 2-3), 340-345. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2013.04.001
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.20...
), who reported that Rosemary essential oils had no significant effect on the meat chemical composition of lambs. This is also confirmed by Zhang, Yan, Keen and Waldroup (2005Zhang, K. Y., Yan, F., Keen, C. A., & Waldroup, P. W. (2005). Evaluation of microencapsulated essential oils and organic acids in diets for broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4(9), 612-619. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2005.612.619
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2005.612.61...
) in broilers, who had used essential oil mixture in the ration. Similarity in meat chemical composition of lambs may be from feeding system and animal’s slaughter weight of (Smeti, Hajji, Mekki, Mahouachi, & Atti, 2017Smeti, S., Hajji, H., Mekki, I., Mahouachi, M., & Atti, N. (2017). Effects of dose and administration form of rosemary essential oils on meat quality and fatty acid profile of lamb. Small Ruminant Research, 158, 62-68. doi: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2017.10.007
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.20...
). Lightness and yellowness parameters of meat were affected by dietary coriander seeds. The difference between lightness values could be explained by the fat composition of meat. Our results was disagree with the results of O’Grady, Maher, Troy, Moloney and Kerry (2006O’Grady, M. N., Maher, M., Troy, D. J., Moloney, A. P., & Kerry, J. P. (2006). An assessment of dietary supplementation with tea catechins and rosemary extract on the quality of fresh beef. Meat Science, 73(1), 132-143. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.11.008
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.1...
), who concluded that rosemary extract dietary supplementation to cattle did not significantly improve the meat color. Our results showed that fatty acid profile were not affected by the coriander seed presence in the diet despite the fact that they tended to be increased in compare to the control. Chaves et al. (2008Chaves, A. V., Stanford, K., Dugan, M. E. R., Gibson, L. L., McAllister, T. A., Van Herk, F., & Benchaar, C. (2008). Effects of cinnamaldeheyde, garlic and juniper berry essential oils on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, growth performance, and caracass characteristics of growing lambs. Livestock Science, 117, 215-224. doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2007.12.013
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.12...
), reported that fatty acid profile of liver and back fat was not modified by essential oil supplementation which is in accordance of the results. On the other hands, Vasta et al. (2013Vasta, V., Aouadi, D., Brogna, D. M. R., Scerra, M., Luciano, G., Priolo, A., & Ben Salem, H. (2013). Effect of the dietary supplementation of essential oils from rosemary and artemisia on muscle fatty acids and volatile compound profiles in Barbarine lambs. Meat Science, 95(2), 235-241. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.12.021
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.1...
), reported that the supplementation of artemisia essential oil affected lamb meat fatty acid profile. The ability of ruminal microorganisms to adapt to essential oil intake and/or modified the chemical structure of some terpenoids is the reason of the lack of essential oil supply effects on fatty acid profile (Malecky & Broudiscou, 2009Malecky, M., & Broudiscou, L. P. (2009). Disappearance of nine monoterpenes exposed in vitro to the rumen microflora of dairy goats: effects of inoculum source, redox potential, and vancomycin. Journal of Animal Science, 87(4), 1366-1373. doi: doi: 10.2527/jas.2008-1419
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1419...
). Odhaib, Adeyeme and Sazili (2018Odhaib, K. J., Adeyeme, K. D., & Sazili, A. Q. (2018). Carcass traits, fatty acid composition, gene expression, oxidative stability and quality attributes of different muscles in Dorper lambs fed Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 31(8), 1345-1357. doi: 10.5713/ajas.17.0468
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0468...
) showed that dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves had beneficial effects on meat quality in Dorper lambs in which dietary supplementation of medicinal plants reduced lipid oxidation. The reason could be attributed to the presence of polyphenols in the medicinal plants.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that supplementation of coriander seeds up to 5% in the diet did not change apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fat, neutral and acidic detergent fiber, crude ash, rumen fluid pH and ammonia nitrogen at 0, 2 and 4h after feeding, Meat dry matter, ash, crude protein and fat, and the meat’s fatty acid profile. On the other hands, we showed a significant effect of dietary coriander seeds for feed intake, blood cells of 7 and 14 days after slaughtering, blood metabolites concentration at the middle of trial, and L and b parameters of meat. Based on the results, future studies can be focused on the investigation of higher percentage of coriander seeds or powder.

Acknowledgements

We want to thank Department of Animal Science Research, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran for research services

References

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    30 Nov 2020
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    01 Feb 2020
  • Accepted
    25 June 2020
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