Performance and egg qualities of laying japanese quails fed yam peel meal based diets with enzymes complex + yeast supplementation

Paschal Chukwudi Aguihe Abiodun Solomon Kehinde Shafiu Kilishi Halidu Deji Abiodun Joshua Kufre Ukom Samuel Priscilla Lolade Komolafe Ibinabo Imuetinyan Ilaboya About the authors

ABSTRACT.

A 10-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of enzyme complex + yeast (Maxigrain®, MXG®) supplementation of sun-dried yam peel meal (YPM) based diet of laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on performance and egg quality. A total of 240, seven-weeks old quails were distributed in a completely randomize design with four dietary treatments and five replicates of 12 quails each. Diet 1 served as the control diet without YPM while diet 2, 3, and 4 contained 25, 50, and 75% YPM with MXG® supplementation (1g per kg), respectively. MXG® supplementation in YPM diets improved (p < 0.05) egg mass and feed conversion per egg. Increasing levels of YPM with MXG® supplementation did not show any effect (p > 0.05) on internal and external egg quality attributes except for eggshell weight and thickness which was higher (p < 0.05) in quails fed 75% YPM diet. It was concluded, therefore, that the utilization of YPM as an alternative dietary ingredient with MXG® supplementation can be tolerated in the diets of laying Japanese quails up to 75% inclusion level without any negative effect on productive and egg quality performance.

Keywords:
yam peel meal; egg atributes; feed aditives; laying performance; poultry

Introduction

The inadequate supply of traditional feed ingredients is considered a major challenge facing the growth of the poultry industry, especially in many developing countries, triggering the search for other viable alternative feed resources to provide the bird's required nutrients (Anaeto & Adighibe, 2011Anaeto, M., & Adighibe, L. C. (2011). Cassava root meal as substitute for maize in layers’ ration. Revista Brasileira Ciência Avicola, 13(2), 153-156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-635X2011000200010
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; Apata & Babalola, 2012Apata, D. F., & Babalola, T. O. (2012). The use of cassava, sweet potato and cocoyam, and their by- products by non- ruminants. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 2(4), 54-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5923/j.food.20120204.02
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; Thirumalaisamy et al., 2016Thirumalaisamy, G., Muralidharan, J., Senthilkumar, S., Sayee, R. H., & Priyadharsini, M. (2016). Cost effective feeding of poultry. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 5(6), 3997- 4005.; Abdel-Hafeez, Saleh, Tawfeek, Yousef, & Abdel-Daim, 2018Abdel-Hafeez, H. M., Saleh, E. S. E., Tawfeek, S. S., Yousef, I. M. I., & Abdel-Daim, A. S. A. (2018). Utilisation of potato peels and sugar beet pulp with and without enzyme supplementation in broiler chicken diets: Effects on performance, serum biochemical indices and carcass traits. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 102(1), 56-66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12656
https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12656...
). The incorporation of these alternative feedstuffs in poultry rations would help to mitigate the problem of feed shortages and extortionate prices resulting from seasonal production and high demand for traditional feedstuffs such as maize and soybean due to strong rivalry between humans, livestock and industries for their use (Agbabiaka, Madubuike, Ekenyem, & Esonu, 2013Agbabiaka, L. A., Madubuike, F. N., Ekenyem, B. U., & Esonu, B. O. (2013). Effect of tiger nut based diets on haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler finisher. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 4(3), 186-191. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2013.4.3.186.191
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; Abd El-Hack, Alagawany, Farag, & Dhama, 2015Abd El-Hack, M. E., Alagawany, M., Farag, M. R., & Dhama, K. (2015). Use of maize distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets: trends and advances. Asian Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances, 10(11), 690-707. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2015.690.707
https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2015.690.7...
). Thus, research interest in optimizing the use of fairly inexpensive and readily accessible agro by-products, such as yam peel to formulate poultry feeds, has been intensified in an attempt to minimize feed production costs (Edache, Yisa, & Okpala, 2012Edache, J. A., Yisa, A. G., & Okpala, E. J. (2012). Effects of replacing maize with yam peel meal on short term laying performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11(7), 516-519. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2012.614.617
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; Olajide, 2014Olajide, R. (2014). Growth indices and cost implications of Hybro broilers chickens fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) schott corm meal as a replacement for maize. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 17(5), 703-708. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2014.707.708
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; Aguihe, Kehinde, Ilaboya, Abidoye, & Iyayi, 2015Aguihe, P. C., Kehinde, A. S, Ilaboya, I. I., Abidoye, R. K., & Iyayi, E. A. (2015). Performance and economics of broiler chickens fed varying levels of yam peel meal with Roxazyme-G supplementation. Tropical Animal Production Investigations, 18(2), 9-17. ; Diarra, 2018Diarra, S. S. (2018). Peel meals as feed ingredients in poultry diets: Chemical composition, dietary recommendations and prospects. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition , 102(5),1284-1295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12954
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).

Yam peel (Dioscorea rotundata) is a basic by-product obtained from yam processing and production activities especially during cooking for human consumption. The peels have been reported to be integrated into poultry diets as a cheap untraditional and alternative feedstuff as a source of energy for partial replacement of corn, when properly processed to minimize inherent anti-nutritional factors (Akinmutimi & Onen, 2008Akinmutimi, A. H., & Onen, G. E. (2008). The response of broiler finisher birds fed graded levels of yam peel meal in place of maize- based diets. International Journal of Poultry Science , 7(5), 474-479. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2008.474.479
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2008.474.47...
; Ezieshi & Olomu, 2011Ezieshi, E. U., & Olomu, J. M. (2011). Biochemical evaluation of yam peel meal for broiler chicken. Journal of Agricultural and Social Research, 11(1), 36-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/JASR.V11I1
https://doi.org/10.4314/JASR.V11I1...
; Edache et al., 2012Edache, J. A., Yisa, A. G., & Okpala, E. J. (2012). Effects of replacing maize with yam peel meal on short term laying performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11(7), 516-519. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2012.614.617
https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2012.614.617...
). Nevertheless, higher amounts of crude fiber in form of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) have been deemed a limiting factor for the use of yam peels by poultry birds (Abdel-Hafeez et al., 2018Abdel-Hafeez, H. M., Saleh, E. S. E., Tawfeek, S. S., Yousef, I. M. I., & Abdel-Daim, A. S. A. (2018). Utilisation of potato peels and sugar beet pulp with and without enzyme supplementation in broiler chicken diets: Effects on performance, serum biochemical indices and carcass traits. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 102(1), 56-66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12656
https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12656...
; Diarra, 2018Diarra, S. S. (2018). Peel meals as feed ingredients in poultry diets: Chemical composition, dietary recommendations and prospects. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition , 102(5),1284-1295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12954
https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12954...
). Accumulative data suggests that NSP has anti-nutritional activity in most monogastric species, such as poultry, because it is not readily degraded by digestive enzymes in poultry birds that disrupt gastrointestinal tract functions (Ravindran, 2013Ravindran, V. (2013). Feed enzymes: The science, practice, and metabolic realities. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 22(3), 628-636. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2013-00739
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; Amerah, 2015Amerah, A. M. (2015). Interactions between wheat characteristics and feed enzyme supplementation in broiler diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 199, 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.09.012
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, Aftab & Bedford, 2018Aftab, U., & Bedford, M. R. (2018). The use of NSP enzymes in poultry nutrition: Myths and realities. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 74(2), 277-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0043933918000272
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). Luckily, based on the current biotechnology advances in feed additive, extensive studies have been conducted to increase the utilization of untraditional feed ingredients as a tool for lowering the economics of production in feed industry (Blake & Hess, 2013Blake, J. P., & Hess, J. B. (2013). Performance of bobwhite quail fed different levels of protein and feed additive supplementation. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 22(2), 314-318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00685
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; Al-Harthi, 2017Al-Harthi, M. A. (2017). The effect of olive oil cake with or without enzymes supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, lymphoid organs and lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Avicola., 19:83-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0311.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0...
; Aguihe, Kehinde, Abdulmumini, Ospina-Rojas, & Murakami, 2017Aguihe, P. C., Kehinde, A. S., Abdulmumini, S., Ospina-Rojas, I. C., & Murakami, A. E. (2017). Effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on carcass traits and haematological responses of broiler chickens fed shea butter cake based diets. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Science, 39(3), 265-271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4025/Actascianimsci.V39i3.34813
https://doi.org/10.4025/Actascianimsci.V...
; Aftab & Bedford, 2018Aftab, U., & Bedford, M. R. (2018). The use of NSP enzymes in poultry nutrition: Myths and realities. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 74(2), 277-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0043933918000272
https://doi.org/10.1017/s004393391800027...
).

Supplementation of enzyme complex and yeast has been shown to improve the efficiency of utilization of poor quality or highly fibrous feed stuffs in poultry production (Al-Mansour, Al-Khalf, Al-Homidan, & Fathi, 2011Al-Mansour, S., Al-Khalf, A., Al-Homidan, I., & Fathi, M. M. (2011). Feed efficiency and blood haematology of broiler chicks given a diet supplemented with yeast culture. International Journal of Poultry Science , 10(8), 603-607. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.603.607
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.603.60...
; Zamani, Loh, Foo, Samsudin, & Alshelmani, 2017Zamani, H.U., Loh, T.C., Foo, H.L., Samsudin, A., & Alshelmani, M.I. (2017). Effects of feeding palm kernel cake with crude enzyme supplementation on growth performance and meat quality of broiler chicken. International Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2(1), 22-28. DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmb.20170201.15
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; Ludke et al., 2018Ludke, M. C. M., Pimentel, A. C. S., Ludke, J. V., Silva, J. C. N., Rabello, C. B. V., & Santos, J. S. (2018). Laying performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed diets containing castor meal and enzyme complex. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science , 20(4), 781-788. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2018-0732
https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2018-0...
, Woyengo, Bogota, Noll, & Wilson, 2018Woyengo, T. A., Bogota, K. J., Noll, S. L., & Wilson, J. (2018). Enhancing nutrient utilization of broiler chickens through supplemental enzymes. Poultry Science , 98(3), 1302-1309. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey452
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey452...
). Supplementation of multi-enzymes is believed to promote the dissolution of starch, cell walls and endogenous proteins, thus enhancing energy use; and thus reducing the detrimental impact of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in poultry (Adeola & Cowieson, 2011Adeola, O., & Cowieson, A. J. (2011). Opportunities and challenges in using exogenous enzymes to improve non-ruminant animal production. Journal of Animal Science, 89(10), 3189-3218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3715
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3715...
; Suresh et al., 2019Suresh, G., Santos, D. U., Rouissi, T., Brar, S. K., Mehdi, Y., & Godbout, S. (2019). Production and in-vitro evaluation of an enzyme formulation as a potential alternative to feed antibiotics in poultry. Process Biochemistry, 80, 9-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2019.01.023
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2019.0...
; Attia, Al-Khalaifah, Abd El-Hamid, Al-Harthi, & El-Shafey, 2020Attia, Y. A., Al-Khalaifah, H., Abd El-Hamid, H. S., Al-Harthi, M. A, & El-Shafey, A. A. (2020). Effect of different levels of multi-enzymes on immune response, blood hematology and biochemistry, antioxidants status and organs histology of broiler chicks fed standard and low-density diets. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6, 510-525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00510
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00510...
). In addition, multiple experiments have shown that yeast has a positive effect on poultry efficiency by enhancing the microbial composition of the intestines, synthesizing vitamins, activating the digestive enzyme, utilizing indigestible carbohydrates, encouraging nutrient digestion and absorption, and increasing defense against pathogenic microbial toxins (Salianeha, Shirzadb, & Seifi, 2011Salianeha, N., Shirzadb, M. R., & Seifi, S. (2011). Performance and antibody response of broiler chickens fed diets containing probiotic and prebiotic. Journal of Applied Animal Research , 39(1), 65-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2011.565222
https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2011.56...
; Yalçın et al., 2015Yalçin, S., Yalçin, S., Şahin, A., Duyum, H. D., Çalik, A., & Gümüş, D. (2015). Effects of dietary inactive yeast and live yeast on performance, egg quality traits, some blood parameters and antibody production of laying hens. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 21(3), 345-350. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.12493
https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.12493...
; Wang, Ren, Li, Yue, & Guo, 2017Wang, W., Ren, W., Li, Z., Yue, Y., & Guo, Y. (2017). Effects of live yeast on immune responses and intestinal morphological structure in lipopolysaccharide-challenged broilers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science , 97(1), 136-144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2015-0148
https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2015-0148...
; Kumar et al., 2019Kumar, S., Yadav, S. P., Chandra, G., Sahu, D. S., Kumar, R., Maurya, P. S., Yadav, D. K., JaiswaL, V., & Ranjan, K. (2019). Effect of dietary supplementation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance and hemato-biochemical status of broilers. Indian Journal of Poultry Science , 54(1), 15-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-8180.2019.00002.3
https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-8180.2019.0...
).

Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) are small-sized, sturdy; simple to handle, fast growing, and high-rate egg productive poultry animals (Moraes et al., 2016Moraes, C. A., Fernandes, E. A., Silveira, M. M., Martins, J. M. S., Litz, F. H., Saar, A. G. L., & Carvalho, C. M. C. (2016). Performance and meat chemical composition of quails fed with different sorghum levels instead of corn. Ciencia Rural, 46(5), 933-936. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20150396
https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20150...
; Weslane et al., 2017Weslane, J. S., Alison, B. V. S. G., Fabrício, E. S., Fabiana, R. S., Cíntia, S. M. R., Júlia, M. S. S., & Cibele, S. M. (2018). Turmeric and sorghum for egg-laying quails. Italian Journal of Animal Science , 17:2, 368-376. DOI: 10.1080/1828051X.2017.1360160
https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.13...
). They lay their first eggs between the 6th and 7th week of age and their eggs are low in cholesterol (Musa, Haruna, & Lombin, 2008Musa, U., Haruna, E. S., & Lombin, L. H. (2008). Quail production in the tropics. Jos, NI: National Veterinary Research Institute (VOM) Press.; Kaankuka, Alu, Carew, & Tuleun, 2012Kaankuka, F. G., Alu, S. E., Carew, S. N., & Tuleun, C. D. (2012). Internal and external qualities of quail (Cortunix cortunix japonica) eggs due to enzyme supplemented high or low fiber diets. Production Agriculture and Technology, 8(2), 150-158. ), which is of public health benefit. In addition, improving the egg production and quality traits through cost-effective nutritional strategies are utmost vital in creating significant savings to the industry and poultry farmers in an increasingly competitive environment. Therefore, based on these statements, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of multienzymes complexes and yeast supplement in Japanese quails fed diets containing graded levels of yam peel meal on performance and egg quality traits.

Material and methods

Study area

The study was carried out at the Poultry Unit of Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria.

Source and processing of yam peel meal

Fresh yam peels were collected from several commercial processing centers in New Bussa, Nigeria. The fresh peels were processed by soaking for 72 hours and thereafter sun-dried for 48 hours to reduce activity of inherent anti-nutritional factors (Akinmutimi & Onen, 2008Akinmutimi, A. H., & Onen, G. E. (2008). The response of broiler finisher birds fed graded levels of yam peel meal in place of maize- based diets. International Journal of Poultry Science , 7(5), 474-479. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2008.474.479
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2008.474.47...
; Ezieshi & Olomu, 2011Ezieshi, E. U., & Olomu, J. M. (2011). Biochemical evaluation of yam peel meal for broiler chicken. Journal of Agricultural and Social Research, 11(1), 36-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/JASR.V11I1
https://doi.org/10.4314/JASR.V11I1...
). The sun-dried peels were milled in a heavy-duty high rotation hammer mill to pass through 1 mm mesh sieve, producing fine particles into meals to obtain the yam peel meal (YPM). The sample of YPM was subjected to proximate analysis according to AOAC (2011Association of Official Analytical Chemists [AOAC]. (2011). Official methods of analysis of AOAC International (18th edition). Gaithersburg, US: AOAC.) procedure (Table 1).

Table 1
Proximate composition of sun-dried yam peel meal.

Experimental birds and management

The experimental procedures of this current study complied with the provisions of the Ethical Committee on the use of animals of the Federal College of Wildlife Management for biometric research. A total of two hundred and forty (240), seven-weeks old Japanese quails were used in the experiment. They were randomly allocated to four treatment groups and each group was further divided into five replicates of 12 quails each in completely randomize design. The birds were raised and managed under a deep litter system with wood shavings serving as litter material and housed in a typical tropical open-sided and well-ventilated poultry facility.

The trial period lasted 70 days and quails received 18 hours per day lighting programme using 100 watts fluorescent bulbs and natural light. The pens were equipped with cone-shaped drinkers and trough feeders. Feed and clean water were provided ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Standard procedures for vaccination and medication were strictly observed throughout the experimental period (Musa et al., 2008Musa, U., Haruna, E. S., & Lombin, L. H. (2008). Quail production in the tropics. Jos, NI: National Veterinary Research Institute (VOM) Press.). The average temperatures and relative humidity of the environment were determined with the aid of a digital thermo-hygrometer during experimental period. The maximum temperature was 31.07oC and the minimum temperature was 23.89oC. The maximum humidity was 76.50% and the minimum humidity was 68.93%.

Experimental diets and treatment

Four isocaloric (2,900 kcal kg-1 ME) and isonitrogenous (20% CP) diets were formulated to meet or exceed all nutrient requirements according to National Research Council [NRC] (1994National Research Council [NRC]. (1994). Nutrient requirements of poultry (9th Ed. Revised). Washington DC, US: National Academy Press.) management guide of laying quails. Diet 1 contained no yam peel meal (0% YPM) and supplemental MXG®, while diet 2, 3, and 4 contained 25, 50, and 75% graded levels of YPM substituted at the expense of corn meal with Maxigrain® supplementation (1g per kg diet). The multienzymes complexes + yeast supplement (Maxigrain®, MXG®) used in this study is a microbial preparation originated from the bacteria Asperigillus oryzae and each gram of MXG® contained mixture of phytase (2,500 FTU), cellulase (10,000 IU), β-glucanase (200 IU), xylanase (10,000 IU), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 1 x 109 cfu). The inclusion rate of the MXG® in the feed, were performed according to the recommendation of the manufacturer of the supplement product (Table 2).

Table 2
Ingredient composition of yam peel meal based diets with supplemental MXG® for laying quais.

Production performance evaluation

Birds were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and then at each 7-day intervals. Egg production (known as hen-day egg production, HDP %) was recorded daily and calculated on a hen-day basis as: total number of eggs collected divided by total number of live hens per day in each pen. Records of the feed intake (FI, g) were taken on weekly basis by the difference between the amount of feed provided and the leftovers. Birds were checked twice daily for mortality; weight of dead birds was used to adjust for feed consumption. To determine egg mass, 30 eggs from each treatment group were used at 14-days interval of the experiment from a 2-day collection of eggs during the week. Egg mass (EM, g) was calculated as a factor of egg weight and hen-day egg production. Feed conversion per egg mass was calculated as the ratio of grams of feed to grams of egg mass (FCEM, g of egg g of diet−1) while feed conversion per dozen eggs (FCDZ, g of diet 12 eggs−1) was calculated by multiplying the average feed intake by twelve. Viability was calculated as the ratio between the numbers of birds alive at the end of the experiment relative to the initial number of birds per treatment, and expressed as a percentage.

Measurement of egg quality attributes

The various indices of both exterior and interior parts of the egg were measured weekly using 4 eggs per replicate pen basis according to the procedure of Abd El-Hack, Alagawany, Laudadio, Demauro, and Tufarelli (2017Abd El-Hack, M.E., Alagawany, M., Laudadio, V.; Demauro, R., & Tufarelli, V. (2017). Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24(2), 276-285. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.05.009
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.05.0...
). In brief, average weights of eggs were measured using a 0.01g precision digital scale. The egg length and width were equally measured before breaking using a digital caliper. Thereafter, the eggs were carefully broken on a clean glass plate to determine internal and external egg quality attributes. The egg yolks were separated from the albumen. Egg shell was cleaned of any adhering albumen. The albumen weight was determined by subtracting the weight of the egg yolk and eggshell from the whole egg weight. The heights of the yolk and albumen, as well as their diameters were measured using the caliper. Egg shape index was calculated as the ratio of average egg width to the average length and the yolk index is the ratio of yolk height to its average diameter (Funk, Froning, Grottes, Forward, & Kinder, 1958Funk, E. M., Froning, G., Grottes, G., Forward, R., & Kinder, J. (1958). Quality of eggs laid by caged layers. World’s Poultry Science Journal , 658, 1-8. ; Awosanya et al., 1998Awosanya, B., Joseph, J.K., & Olaosebikan, O.D. (1998). The effect of age of bird on shell quality and component yield of eggs. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 25: 68-70.). The Haugh unit was calculated using the formula described by Eisen, Bohren, and Mckean (1962Eisen, E. J., Bohren, B. B., & Mckean, H. E. (1962). The Haugh Unit as a measure of egg albumen quality. Poultry Science , 41(5), 1461-1468. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0411461
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0411461...
) as: HU = 100 log (H + 7.57 − 1.7 EW0.37, where H represents the height of the albumen and EW stands for the egg weight). The eggs were examine for shell quality thickness (with shell membrane) of the eggs and measured using a micrometer, which was obtained as a mean value of measurements taken at three points of the egg shell (air cell, equator, and sharp end) (Abd El-Hack et al., 2017).

Statistical analysis

The General Linear Model procedure of the Statistical Analysis Software of SAS Institute (2012Statiscal Analysis System [SAS]. (2012). User’ guide. Cary, NC: Statistical SAS Institute Inc.) was applied using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for a completely randomized design. The differences among means were compared utilizing Tukey test. In all analysis, the significance was declared at 5%.

Results and discussion

The effect of dietary treatments on the laying performance recorded for the 70-day feeding period is shown in Table 3. Addition of MXG® supplementation to the graded levels of YPM did not affect (p > 0.05) AFI, HDP (laying rate), AEW, FCDZ and live ability of the laying quails. Meanwhile, AWG, EM and FCEM differed significantly (p < 0.05) in dietary treatments, due to MXG® supplementation. Values for AFI, HDP, AEW, and FCDZ were similar for the birds in all dietary treatment groups and these results coincided with the findings of Ghazalah, Abd-Elsamee, and Moustafa (2011Ghazalah, A. A., Abd-Elsamee, M. O., & Moustafa, E. S. (2011). Use of distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS) as replacement for soybean meal in laying hens diets. International Journal of Poultry Science , 10(7), 505-513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.505.513
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.505.51...
) and Abd El-Hack et al. (2015Abd El-Hack, M. E., Alagawany, M., Farag, M. R., & Dhama, K. (2015). Use of maize distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets: trends and advances. Asian Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances, 10(11), 690-707. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2015.690.707
https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2015.690.7...
), who did not record significant impact on the measured variables, when an enzyme complex was supplemented in the diet of laying hens. Some researchers also observed that egg weight, feed intake and hen-day egg production of hens were not affected by dietary yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation (Abubakar, Tukur, Sekoni, & Hassan, 2007Abubakar, A., Tukur, H. M., Sekoni, A. A., & Hassan, W. A. (2007). Performance and egg quality characteristics of laying birds fed diets containing rice bran with and without yeast supplementation. Asian Journal of Animal Science, 1(1), 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2007.1.9
https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2007.1.9...
; Hassanein & Soliman, 2010Hassanein, S. M., & Soliman, N. K. (2010). Effect of probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) adding to diets on intestinal microflora and performance of Hy-Line layers hens. Journal of Animal Science , 6(11), 159-169. ; Yalçın et al., 2015Yalçin, S., Yalçin, S., Şahin, A., Duyum, H. D., Çalik, A., & Gümüş, D. (2015). Effects of dietary inactive yeast and live yeast on performance, egg quality traits, some blood parameters and antibody production of laying hens. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 21(3), 345-350. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.12493
https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.12493...
).

Table 3
Laying performance of quails fed sun-dried yam peel based diets with enzyme complex supplementation.

Overall, MXG® supplementation to YPM diets at 50 and 75% inclusion numerically recorded maximum HDP over that of the control and 25% YPM diet. Increasing YPM inclusion level with MXG® supplementation resulted in an increase (p < 0.05) for AEM and a subsequent decrease (p < 0.05) for FCEM. Thus, quails fed 50% and 75% MXG® supplemented YPM diets showed improved AEM and FCEM as compared to the control group. This improvement appears to be as a result of action of multi-enzymes and yeast on decreasing endogenous nutrient loss, and concurrently boosting the involvement of potentially metabolizable nutrients in poultry birds fed fibrous based diets (Woyengo et al., 2018Woyengo, T. A., Bogota, K. J., Noll, S. L., & Wilson, J. (2018). Enhancing nutrient utilization of broiler chickens through supplemental enzymes. Poultry Science , 98(3), 1302-1309. DOI: 10.3382/ps/pey452
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey452...
; He et al., 2019He, T., Long, S., Mahfuz, S., Wu, D., Wang, X., Wei, X., & Piao, X. (2019). Effects of probiotics as antibiotics substitutes on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, intestinal morphology, and barrier function of broilers. Animals, 9(11), 985-995. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110985
https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110985...
; Attia et al., 2020Attia, Y. A., Al-Khalaifah, H., Abd El-Hamid, H. S., Al-Harthi, M. A, & El-Shafey, A. A. (2020). Effect of different levels of multi-enzymes on immune response, blood hematology and biochemistry, antioxidants status and organs histology of broiler chicks fed standard and low-density diets. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6, 510-525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00510
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00510...
). The incorporation of multi-enzymes may have facilitated reduced viscosity in the digestive tract, thereby promoting the effective digestibility and utilization of nutrients (Sateri et al., 2017Sateri, S., Seidavi, A., Bouyeh, M., Neumann, P., Kutzler, M., & Laudadio, V. (2017). Effect of olive meal and supplemental enzymes on performance traits, blood biochemistry, humoral immunity response and caecal microbiota of broilers. South African Journal of Animal Science , 47(6), 804-812. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i6.8
https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i6.8...
; Aftab & Bedford, 2018Aftab, U., & Bedford, M. R. (2018). The use of NSP enzymes in poultry nutrition: Myths and realities. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 74(2), 277-86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0043933918000272
https://doi.org/10.1017/s004393391800027...
; Hussein et al., 2019Hussein, E. O. S., Suliman, G. M., Abudabos, A. M., Alowaimer, A. N., Ahmed, S. H., & Abd El-Hack, M. E. (2019). Effect of a low-energy and enzyme-supplemented diet on broiler chicken growth, carcass traits and meat quality. Archives Animal Breeding, 62(1), 297-304. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-62-297-2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-62-297-2019...
). In the present study, AEM increased (p < 0.05) in quails fed MXG® supplemented YPM based diet, which is in accordance with the findings of Khan et al. (2011Khan, S. H., Atif, M., Mukhtar, N., Rehman, A., & Fareed, G. (2011). Effects of supplementation of multi-enzyme and multi-species probiotic on production performance, egg quality, cholesterol level and immune system in laying hens, Journal of Applied Animal Research, 39 (4), 386-398. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2011.621538.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2011.62...
) and Lee et al. (2014Lee, K. W., Choi, Y. I., Moon, E. J., Oh, S. T., Lee, H. H., Kang, C. W., & An, B. K. (2014). Evaluation of dietary multiple enzyme preparation (Natuzyme) in laying hens. Asian Austral Asian Journal of Animal Science , 27(12), 1749-1754. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2014.14294
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2014.14294...
), who reported that egg mass was improved by enzyme complex supplementation. It appears that the improvement (p < 0.05) in weight gain, egg mass and feed conversion efficiency by enzyme complex + yeast supplementation could be related to its promoting effects on metabolic processes of digestion and utilization of nutrients as well as stimulation of intestinal mucosa immunity and increasing protection against toxins generated by pathogenic microbes (Al-Mansour et al., 2011Al-Mansour, S., Al-Khalf, A., Al-Homidan, I., & Fathi, M. M. (2011). Feed efficiency and blood haematology of broiler chicks given a diet supplemented with yeast culture. International Journal of Poultry Science , 10(8), 603-607. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.603.607
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.603.60...
; Wen, Wang, Zhou, Jiang, & Wang, 2012Wen, C., Wang, L. C., Zhou, Y. M., Jiang, Z. Y., & Wang, T. (2012). Effect of enzyme preparation on egg production, nutrient retention, digestive enzymes activities and pancreatic enzyme messenger RNA expression of late-phase laying hens. Animal Feed Science and Technology , 172(3-4), 180-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.11.012
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.201...
; El-Kelawy, El-Shafey, & Ali, 2017El-Kelawy, M. I., El-Shafey, A. S., & Ali, R. M. (2017). Impact of dietary supplementation with multi-enzyme and/or probiotics on productive performance and nutrients digestibility of broiler chickens. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 20(3), 535-543. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/EJNF.2017.75331
https://doi.org/10.21608/EJNF.2017.75331...
; Al-Khalaifah, 2018Al-Khalaifah, H. S. (2018). Benefits of probiotics and/or prebiotics for antibiotic reduced poultry. Poultry Science, 97(11), 3807-3815. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey160
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey160...
).

The increase in the release of nutrients due to supplemental MXG® resulted in higher nutrient available for absorption, as demonstrated by the increase in HDP and egg mass of quails fed diets containing higher levels of YPM. Moreover, the improvement in feed conversion (feed consumption/egg mass) of the quails fed MXG® supplemented YPM diets in the presence of the yeast may be a consequence of decreasing microbial colonization in the gut, thereby improving the availability of nutrients for production purposes (Haldar, Ghosh, Toshiwati, & Bedford, 2011Haldar, S., Ghosh, T. K., Toshiwati, & Bedford, M. R. (2011). Effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast protein concentrate on production performance of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress and challenged with Salmonella enteritis. Animal Feed Science and Technology , 168(1-2), 61-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.03.007
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.201...
; Yalçin, Yalçin, Onbaşilar, Eser, & Şahin, 2014Yalçin, S., Yalçin, S., Onbaşilar, İ., Eser, H., & Şahin, A. (2014). Effects of dietary yeast cell wall on performance, egg quality and humoral immune response in laying hens. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 61(4), 289-294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1501/Vetfak_0000002644
https://doi.org/10.1501/Vetfak_000000264...
; Ahmed, Abbas, Abdlhag, & Mukhtar, 2015Ahmed, M. E., Abbas, T. E., Abdlhag, M. A., & Mukhtar, D. E. (2015). Effect of dietary yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and some metabolic responses of broilers. Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 3(5-1), 5-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.avs.s.2015030501.12.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.avs.s.2015030...
). Also, according to earlier reports (Al-Mansour et al., 2011Al-Mansour, S., Al-Khalf, A., Al-Homidan, I., & Fathi, M. M. (2011). Feed efficiency and blood haematology of broiler chicks given a diet supplemented with yeast culture. International Journal of Poultry Science , 10(8), 603-607. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.603.607
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.603.60...
; Ezema, Ihedioha, Ihedioha, Okorie-Kanu, & Kamalu, 2012Ezema, C., Ihedioha, O. C., Ihedioha, J. I., Okorie-Kanu, C. O., & Kamalu, T. N. (2012). Probiotic effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on haematological parameters and growth performance of pullets fed palm kernel cake-based diet. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 21, 1145-1148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-011-1250-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-011-1250-...
), yeast supplementation to diet layers has the ability to decrease pathogenic bacteria prevalence in the gut ecosystem and may also boost digestive tract enzymatic activity leading to increased nutrient utilization.

Table 4 revealed the effect of MXG® supplementation to laying quails fed different levels of YPM based diets on external and internal egg quality parameters. The results showed that inclusion of supplemental MXG® in the diet of laying quails had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the values of internal and external egg quality characteristics except for weight and thickness of egg shell. The relative similarity (p > 0.05) of egg quality traits recorded between quails fed control diet and MXG® supplemented YPM diets is an indication that there is no variation in the amount of available dietary nutrients provided by diets.

Table 4
Egg qualities of quails fed sun-dried yam peel based diets with enzyme complex supplementation.

This result is in accordance with previous studies (Kaankuka et al., 2012Kaankuka, F. G., Alu, S. E., Carew, S. N., & Tuleun, C. D. (2012). Internal and external qualities of quail (Cortunix cortunix japonica) eggs due to enzyme supplemented high or low fiber diets. Production Agriculture and Technology, 8(2), 150-158. ; Deniz et al., 2013Deniz, G., Gencoglu, H., Gezen, S. S., Turkmen, I. I., Orman, A., & Kara, C. (2013). Effects of feeding corn distiller’s grain with solubles with and without enzyme cocktail supplementation to laying hens on performance, egg quality, selected manure parameters and feed cost. Livestock Science, 152(2-3), 174-181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2012.12.013
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2012.12...
; Yalçin et al., 2015Yalçin, S., Yalçin, S., Şahin, A., Duyum, H. D., Çalik, A., & Gümüş, D. (2015). Effects of dietary inactive yeast and live yeast on performance, egg quality traits, some blood parameters and antibody production of laying hens. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 21(3), 345-350. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.12493
https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.12493...
), which has shown that dietary enzyme complex and yeast supplementation did not affect interior and exterior egg quality characteristics of laying birds. Conversely, Ghazalah et al. (2011Ghazalah, A. A., Abd-Elsamee, M. O., & Moustafa, E. S. (2011). Use of distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS) as replacement for soybean meal in laying hens diets. International Journal of Poultry Science , 10(7), 505-513. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.505.513
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.505.51...
) and Abd El-Hack et al. (2015Abd El-Hack, M. E., Alagawany, M., Farag, M. R., & Dhama, K. (2015). Use of maize distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets: trends and advances. Asian Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances, 10(11), 690-707. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2015.690.707
https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2015.690.7...
) noted that egg quality indices of laying hens were affected by enzyme cocktail supplementation. However, quail birds fed 50 and 75% MXG® supplemented YPM diets were observed to have similar (p > 0.05) egg shell weight and thickness with those on control diet but were higher (p < 0.05) than those in the group fed 25% YPM diet. The increase in egg shell weight and thickness resulting from the increased level of YPM with added MXG® in diets can be related to the increased availability and use of nutrients, especially energy, calcium and phosphorus, by improving the digestibility of ingested diets, as indicated by previous workers (Abudabos, 2012Abudabos, M. A. (2012). Phytate phosphorus utilization and intestinal phytase activity in laying hens. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 11(1), 41-46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2012.e8
https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2012.e8...
; Nourmohammadi, Hosseini, Farhangfar, & Bashtani, 2012Nourmohammadi, R., Hosseini, S. M., Farhangfar, H., & Bashtani, M. (2012). Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase enzyme on ileal digestibility of some nutrients in broiler chicks fed corn-soybean meal diets. Italian Journal of Animal Science , 11(7), 36-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2012.e7
https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2012.e7...
; Sun & Kim, 2019Sun, H. Y., & Kim, I. H. (2019). Effects of multi-enzyme on production performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility, and excreta noxious gas emission of early phase Hy-line brown hens. Poultry Science , 98(10), 4889-4895. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez237
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez237...
).

In our study, the observed increase in egg shell quality was expected and this might be attributed to the presence of exogenous phytase (a major enzyme component of MXG®), which was shown to have a direct influence on the strength and thickness of egg shells in laying birds through increased utilization of calcium and phosphorus (Lima et al., 2011Lima, H. J. A., Barreto, S. L. T., Donzele, J. L., Valeriano, M. H., Vieira, P. A. F., & Costa, C. H. R. (2011). Dietary phytase levels on performance and egg quality of Japanese quails. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40(1), 129-134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011000100018
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-3598201100...
; Rossetto et al., 2019Rossetto, R., Barreta, M., Migliorini, M. J., Pecher, F., Roza, L. F., Boiago, M. M., & Petrolli, T. G. (2019). The effect of dietary phytase and various available phosphorus levels on performance and egg quality in Japanese quail. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 20, 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/s1519-9940200922019
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1519-9940200922...
). In addition, Shet, Ghosh, Ajith, Awachat, and Elangovan (2018Shet, D., Ghosh, J., Ajith, S., Awachat, V. B., & Elangovan, A. V. (2018). Efficacy of dietary phytase supplementation on laying performance and expression of osteopontin and calbindin genes in eggshell gland. Animal Nutrition, 4(1), 52-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2017.10.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2017.10....
) suggested the increased phosphorus bioavailability triggered by phytate-phosphorus release as a consequence of phytase activity in the gastrointestinal tract, resulted to greater phosphorus and calcium availability needed to maintain egg weight, shell weight and shell thickness of egg producing birds.

In agreement with the present study, some researchers had observed that egg shell weight and thickness of laying hens were improved due to feeding various enzyme complex (Attia et al., 2012Attia, Y. A., El-Tahawy, W. S., Abd El-Hamid, A. E., Hassan, S. S., Nizza, A., & El-Kelaway, M. I. (2012). Effect of phytase with or without multi-enzyme supplementation on performance and nutrient digestibility of young broiler chicks fed mash or crumble diets. Italian Journal of Animal Science , 11(3), 303-308. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2012.e56
https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2012.e56...
) and also yeast supplementation (Chumpawadee, Chantiratikul, & Sataweesuk, 2009Chumpawadee, S., Chantiratikul, A., & Sataweesuk, S. (2009). Effect of dietary inclusion of cassava yeast as probiotic source on egg production and egg quality of laying hens. International Journal of Poultry Science , 8(2), 195-199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2009.195.199
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2009.195.19...
; Hassanein & Soliman, 2010Hassanein, S. M., & Soliman, N. K. (2010). Effect of probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) adding to diets on intestinal microflora and performance of Hy-Line layers hens. Journal of Animal Science , 6(11), 159-169. ; Yalçın et al., 2014Yalçin, S., Yalçin, S., Onbaşilar, İ., Eser, H., & Şahin, A. (2014). Effects of dietary yeast cell wall on performance, egg quality and humoral immune response in laying hens. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, 61(4), 289-294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1501/Vetfak_0000002644
https://doi.org/10.1501/Vetfak_000000264...
); and these authors linked this improvement to the enhancement of calcium and phosphorus absorption and retention associated with the addition of these feed additives. Moreover, MXG® has been identified to optimize the use of unconventional feed ingredients by improving weight gain, feed conversion ratio, litter quality and egg production as well as shell quality (Duru & Dafwang, 2010Duru, S., & Dafwang, I. I. (2010). Effect of Maxigrain supplementation of diets with or without rice offal on the performance of broiler chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science , 9(8), 761-764. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2010.761.768.
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2010.761.76...
; Ademola, Egbewande, Lawal, Isah, & Kuranga, 2012Ademola, S. G., Egbewande, O. O., Lawal, T. E., Isah, A. T., & Kuranga, S. M. (2012). Effects of Roxazyme G® and Maxigrain® on performance, egg quality, cost-benefit and haematological parameters of laying hens fed wheat Offal, corn bran and brewery dry grain diets. International Journal of Poultry Science, 11(1), 33-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2012.33.38
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2012.33.38...
).

Conclusion

From the results of this study, the utilization of yam peel meal as a potential untraditional feed ingredient in replacing maize up to 75% inclusion level with MXG® fortification has a positive effect on major parts of egg production and quality characteristics considering egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, egg shell weight and thickness. Generally, the use of untraditional feed ingredients at higher inclusion levels with combined supplementation of multi-enzymes and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in laying Japanese quail diets could attract higher production efficiency without any detrimental impact on productive and egg quality performance.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledged the support of the Academic Staff Union of Research and Allied Institutions (ASURI) of the Federal College of Wildlife Management, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria under the ARPS grant initiative

References

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    28 Feb 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    24 Apr 2020
  • Accepted
    30 Sept 2020
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