Effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on carcass traits and haematological responses of broiler chickens fed shea butter cake based diets

Efeito da suplementação dietética de probiótico sobre as características de carcaça e respostas hematológicas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas à base de bolo de manteiga de carité

Paschal Chukwudi Aguihe Abiodun Solomon Kehinde Sufiyan Abdulmumini Iván Camilo Ospina-Rojas Alice Eiko Murakami About the authors

ABSTRACT.

A 42-day study was conducted to investigate probiotic supplementation on shea butter cake (SBC) based diets of broilers on the carcass traits and haematological indices. A total of 280, 1-day old Arbor acres strain broiler chicks were divided into 7 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 (control diet) has no SBC and probiotic supplementation while remaining 6 diets contained 5, 10, and 15% levels of SBC each with (+) or without (-) probiotic supplementation. The results showed that carcass parameters and prime cuts weights increased (p < 0.05) in birds fed probiotic-SBC diets compared to control diets. Abdominal fat content was lower (p < 0.05) in birds fed probiotic-SBC diets than those on control and non-probiotic SBC diets. Differences in relative organ weights among all treatments were non-significant (p > 0.05) except for liver and bursa weight. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin contents were higher (p < 0.05) in birds fed probiotic-SBC diets than the group without probiotic supplementation compared to those on control diet. In conclusion, supplementation of multi-strain probiotic improved carcass traits, prime cut-parts and relative organ weights without any adverse effect on the blood parameters up to 15% inclusion level.

Keywords:
agro by-product; feed additive; carcass characteristics; blood; chicken

RESUMO.

Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a suplementação de probiótico em dietas à base de bolo de manteiga de carité - sheabuttercake (SBC) sobre as características de carcaça e índices hematológicos de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 280 frangos de corte da linhagem Arbor acres, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos, quatro repetições e dez aves por repetição. Foi formulada uma dieta sem SBC nem probiótico e utilizada como dieta controle. As demais dietas experimentais continham 5, 10 e 15% de SBC e com (+) ou sem (-) a suplementação de probiótico. Os parâmetros de carcaça e o peso dos cortes nobres aumentaram (p < 0.05) nas aves que receberam as dietas com (+) SBC probiótico quando comparadas com o controle. O teor de gordura abdominal foi menor (p < 0.05) nas aves que receberam as dietas com (+) SBC-probiótico do que nas aves alimentas com a dieta controle ou com (-) SBC sem probiótico. Não foram observadas diferenças (p < 0.05) para o peso relativo dos órgãos, exceto para o peso do fígado e da bolsa cloacal. A quantidade de eritrócitos e hemoglobina foram maiores (p < 0.05) nas aves que receberam as dietas com (+) SBC-probiótico quando comparadas com o tratamento controle. A suplementação com probiótico em até 15% melhorou as características de carcaça e o peso relativo dos cortes nobres e órgãos sem nenhum efeito adverso nos parâmetros sanguíneos.

Palavras-chave:
aditivo alimentar; características de carcaça; frango de corte; sangue; subproduto

Introduction

The rapid growth of human population has intensified the competition between humans and livestock for grains such as maize which is the major source of energy in poultry feeds (Annongu,

Ogundu, Joseph, & Awopetu, 2006; Mohammed & Agwunobi, 2009Mohammed, A., & Agwunobi, L. N. (2009). Taro Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) meal as feed ingredient in poultry. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(5), 668-673.). Consequently, high cost of feeding poultry has necessitated the need to look for alternative energy feed source for poultry in order to reduce cost and limit dependence on maize (Esonu et al., 2006Esonu, B. O., Ogbonna, U. D., Anyanwu, G. A., Emenalom, O. O., Uchegbu, M. C., Etuk, E. B., & Udedibie, A. B. I. (2006). Evaluation of performance, organ characteristics and economic analysis of broiler finisher fed dried rumen digesta. International Journal Poultry Science , 5(12), 1116-1118.; Wafar, Ademua, Kirfib, & Shehu, 2016Wafar, R. J., Ademua, L. A., Kirfib, Y. A., & Shehu, I. I. (2016). Effect of processing methods on the utilization of Mucuna sloanei (Horse Eye Bean) seed meal by broiler chicken. British Journal of Applied Research, 1(1), 10-14.). Shea butter cake (SBC) is an agroforestry by-product obtained from the processing of the nuts of the shea butter tree (Vitellariaparadoxa, Gaertn.) for fat with no economic value and its increasing output of late has become an environmental issue (Dei, Rose, Mackenzie, & Amarowicz, 2008Dei, H. K., Rose, S. P., Mackenzie, A. M., & Amarowicz, R. (2008). Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing shea nut (Vitellariaparadoxa, Gaertn.) meal fermented with Aspergillusniger. Poultry Science, 87(9), 1773-1778.; Zanu, Adom, & Appiah-Adu, 2012Zanu, H. K., Adom, S. O., & Appiah-Adu, P. (2012). Response of cockerels to diets containing different levels of sheanut cake. Agricultural Sciences Research Journals, 2(7), 420-423.). Abdul-Mumeen, Zakpaa, and Mills-Robertson (2013Abdul-Mumeen, I., Zakpaa, H. D., & Mills-Robertson, F. C. (2013). Biochemical and microbiological analysis of shea nut cake: A waste product from shea butter processing. Journal Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development, 5(4), 61-68.) investigated SBC for its proximate quality and reported its overall nutritional value to be high; containing 13.03, 23.38, 4.25, 8.71, 59.37% and 4485.86 kcal ME kg-1 of crude protein, crude fat, ash, crude fiber, carbohydrates and metabolizable energy respectively. However, the major nutritional setback of SBC utilization for chicken is poor digestibility possibly due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors like saponins and most particularly tannins (Annongu, Termeulen, Atteh, & Apata, 1996Annongu, A. A., Termeulen, U., Atteh, J. O., & Apata, D. F. (1996). Toxicological assessment of native and industrialfermented shea butter cake in nutrition of broilers. ArchivfürGeflügelkunde, 60(5) 221-226.; Agbo & Prah, 2014Agbo, N. W., & Prah, C. D. (2014). Evaluation of fermentation period on the proximate composition and tannin concentration of sheanut (Vitellariaparadoxa) meal. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 4(1), 21-27.).

With the advent of biotechnology, the use of dietary certain feed additives such as probiotics are opportunities for economic and efficient utilization of poor quality feed or agro-industrial residues (Kalavathy, Abdullah, Jalaludin, & Ho, 2003Kalavathy, R., Abdullah, N., Jalaludin, S., & Ho, Y. W. (2003). Effects of Lactobacillus cultures on growth performance, abdominal fat deposition, serum lipids and weight of organs of broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 44(1), 139-144.; Ezema, Ihedioha, Ihedioha, Okorie-kanu, & Kamalu, 2012Ezema, C., Ihedioha, O. C., Ihedioha, J. I., Okorie-kanu, C. O., & Kamalu, T. N. (2012). Probiotic effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on haematological parameters and growth performance of pullets fed palm kernel cake-based diet. Comp Clinical Pathology, 21(6) 1145-1148.; Nawaz, Irshad, Mubarak, & Ahsan-Ul-Haq, 2016Nawaz, H., Irshad, M. A., Mubarak, A., & Ahsan-Ul-Haq, M. (2016). Effect of probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics in broilers. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 26(3), 599-604.). Probiotics are single or mixed cultures of live microbial feed supplements that beneficially affect the host animal by improving its microbial intestinal balance (Fuller, 1989Fuller, R. (1989). Probiotics in man and animals. The Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 66(5), 365-378.). Dietary probiotics are products have shown to create favorable conditions in the animal’s intestine for efficient digestion and absorption of feed as well as improve their health status (Li et al., 2008Li, L. L., Hou, Z. P., Li, T. J., Wu, G. Y., Huang, R. L., Tang, Z. R., … Kong, X. F. (2008). Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and growth performance in 1- to 42-day-old broilers. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 88(1), 35-42., Owosibo, Odetola, Odunsi, Adejinmi, & Lawrence-Azua, 2013Owosibo, A. O., Odetola, O. M., Odunsi, O. O., Adejinmi, O. O., & Lawrence-Azua, O. O. (2013) Growth, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers fed probiotics based diets. Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(41), 5076-5081.). Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the response of broiler chickens to diets containing graded levels of Shea butter cake (SBC) meal with or without multi-strain probiotic supplementation on carcass traits, relative organ weights and haematological indices.

Material and methods

Experimental site and preparation of test ingredient

This study was conducted at the Poultry Unit of Teaching and Research Farm, Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria. The SBC used for this study was obtained fresh from the local shea butter processing factories in Karabande, Borgu Local Government Area of Niger state, Nigeria. The fresh SBC was properly sun-dried for 5 days, milled using a hammer mill before incorporation into experimental diets.

Experimental birds and management

Use and care of birds and procedures adopted on this study were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the Federal College of Wildlife Management, New bussa before the commencement of the experiment. A total of 280 unsexed day old Arbor acres broilers were weighed and allocated to 7 dietary treatments with 4 replications of 10 birds each (5 males and 5 females) in a completely randomized design. The birds were raised in a standard tropical deep litter poultry facility using wood shavings as litter material. The birds were fedad libitum and clean water was provided regularly for a period of 42 days.

Experimental diets

Seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated according to the nutritional recommendations of NRC (1994), such that diet 1 (control diet) has no SBC and probiotic supplementation while remaining 6 diets contained 5, 10, and 15% levels of SBC each with (+) or without (-) probiotic supplementation at both starter and grower phase (Table 1 and 2). A multi-strain commercial probiotic preparation (Biovet- YC®) in a powder form consisting of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiaea and Saccharomyces boulardi, was used at an inclusion rate 0.5 g kg-1 according to the manufacturer’s recommendation.

Carcass and organ evaluation

At the conclusion of the experiment, two birds whose weights were close to the mean replicate weight were selected from each replicate, fasted overnight, weighed, slaughtered, scalded in 65ºC water for 15 seconds, manually defeathered, and eviscerated. Thereafter, the carcasses were dissected; the prime cut-up parts were removed and weighed together with the visceral organs and were expressed as percentage live weight.

Haematological evaluation

3 mL of blood for haematological analysis were collected through jugular veins of two birds of similar weights from each replicate into sterilized glass tubes containing EDTA. Haematological indicators such as white blood cell counts (WBC), red blood cell counts (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin were determine using Wintrobe’smicrohaematocrit, improved Neubauer haemocytometer and cynomethaemoglobin method respectively. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentartio (MCHC) were computed according to Jain (1986Jain, N. C. (1986). Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology (4th ed.). Philadelphia, USA: Lea and Febiger.).

Table 1
Ingredients composition of experimental broiler starter diets.
Table 2
Ingredients and nutrient composition of experimental finisher broilers diets.

Statistical analysis

Pen means were used as the experimental unit for all analyses. All data collected were subjected to the analysis of variance as a completely randomized design using General Linear Model of SAS software (2006Statistical Analysis Systems [SAS]. (2006). SAS Proprietary Software, Release 9.2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.). The means of treatments showing significant difference were separated using Tukey test. All statements of significance were based on the 5% level of probability.

Results and discussion

Table 3 shows the result of the carcass traits and prime-cut weights of the broilers fed SBC based diets with or without probiotic supplementation. The final live weight, carcass weight and carcass yield were higher (p < 0.05) in the birds fed control and probiotic SBC diets than those without probiotic addition as the level of SBC increased in the diet. The higher carcass weight and carcass yield observed in the probiotic supplemented groups is attributed to higher body weight in the birds of these groups. These improvements could be as a result of the cumulative effect of the probiotic microbe’s action including increased digestive enzyme activity, maintenance of beneficial microbial population and neutralizing the effect of feed toxins in the gut environment for improved digestion and nutrient utilization (Tellez et al., 2001Tellez, G., Petrone, V. M., Excorcia, M., Morishita, T. Y., Cobb, C. W., & Villasenor, L. (2001). Evaluation of avian-specificprobiotics and Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Salmonella heidelberg specific antibodies on cecal colonization and organ invasion of Salmonella enteritidis in broilers. Journal of Food Production, 64(3), 287-291.; Shim et al., 2010Shim, Y. H., Shinde, P. L., Choi, J. Y., Kim, J. S., Seo, D. K., Pak, J. I., … Kwon, I. K. (2010). Evaluation of multi-microbial probiotics produced by submerged liquid and solid substrate fermentation methods in broilers. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 23(4), 521-529.; Chen, Wang, Yan, & Huang, 2013Chen, W., Wang, J. P., Yan, L., & Huang, Y. Q. (2013). Evaluation of probiotics in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight and breast meat characteristics in broilers. British Poultry Science, 54(5), 635-641.). These findings are compatible with the reports of previous workers (Adejumo, Onifade, & Afonja, 2004Adejumo, D. O., Onifade, A. A., & Afonja, S. A. (2004). Supplemental effects of dried yeast (Yea-sacc 1026 P®) in a low protein diet on growth performance, carcass characteristics and organ weights of broiler chicken. Tropical Veterinarian, 22(2), 72-77.; Nawaz et al., 2016Nawaz, H., Irshad, M. A., Mubarak, A., & Ahsan-Ul-Haq, M. (2016). Effect of probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics in broilers. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 26(3), 599-604.) who observed higher body weight and better carcass yield in birds fed diet containing Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces species. Birds on non-probiotic SBC diet recorded poor carcass yield at higher levels of SBC and this could be attributed to impairment in utilization of nutrients due to the relatively high concentration of residual tannin in SBC as the level increases in the diets (Annongu et al., 1996Annongu, A. A., Termeulen, U., Atteh, J. O., & Apata, D. F. (1996). Toxicological assessment of native and industrialfermented shea butter cake in nutrition of broilers. ArchivfürGeflügelkunde, 60(5) 221-226., Iji, Khumalo, Slippers, & Gous, 2004Iji, P. A., Khumalo, K., Slippers, S., & Gous, R. M. (2004). Intestinal function and body growth of broiler chickens on maize-based diets supplemented with mimosa, tannins and microbial enzyme. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 84(12) 1451-1458.). This is as a result of pronounced negative effect of anti-nutritional factors on protein digestibility (Smulikowska et al., 2001Smulikowska, S., Pastuszewska, B., Swiech, E., Ochtabinska, A., Mieczkowska, A., Nguyen, V. C., & Buraczewska, K. (2001). Tannin content affects negatively nutritive value of pea for monogastrics. Journal of Animal Feed Science, 10(1), 511-523.), thus leading to poor carcass yield formation. Higher (p < 0.05) breast, thigh, drumstick, wing and back meat yield were observed in the birds fed probiotic diets similar to the control group. This is in accordance with findings of Fathi, AL-Mansoor, AL-Homidan, AL-Khalaf, and AL-Damegh (2012Fathi, M. M., AL-Mansoor, S., AL-Homidan, A., AL- Khalaf, A., & AL-Damegh, M. (2012). Effect of yeast culture supplementation on carcass yield and humoral immune response of broiler chicks. Veterinary World, 5(11), 651-657.) and Mutassim (2013Mutassim, M. A. (2013). Effects of feeding dry fat and yeast culture on broiler chicken performance. Turkey Journal of Veterinaryand Animal Science, 37(1), 31-37.) who reported that supplementation of probiotic increased the carcass prime-cuts yield in broilers. The possible mechanism through which probiotic achieved this improvements are demonstrated by its ability to enhance synthesis and bioavailability of nutrients (Koop-Hoolihan, 2001Koop-Hoolihan, L. (2001). Prophylactic and therapeutic uses of probiotics: a review. Journal of American Diet Association, 101(2), 229-241.), accompanying with positive effects on intestine activity and increasing digestive enzymes (Endens, 2003Endens, F. (2003). An alternative for antibiotic use in poultry: probiotics. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 5(2), 75-97.) thereby promoting growth of muscle tissues. Lower (p < 0.05) abdominal fat content was recordedin birds fedprobiotic supplemented-SBC diets than those with probiotic addition. This agrees with the findings of previous researchers (Mehr, Shargh, Dastar, Hassani, & Akbari, 2007Mehr, M. A., Shargh, M. S., Dastar, B., Hassani, S., & Akbari, M. R. (2007). Effect of different levels of protein and Protexin on broiler performance. International Journal Poultry Science , 6(8), 573-577.; Mohammadreza, Alireza, Leila, & Andrés, 2016Mohammadreza, P., Alireza, S., Leila, A., & Andrés, M. (2016). Probiotic level effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, cecalmicrobiota, and immune response of broilers. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 88(2)1-11.), who reported that certain microbiota present in gastro-intestinal tract of a bird impaired the absorption of cholesterol and bile acid. Besides, the probiotic microorganisms are able to hydrolyze bile salts or decrease the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, thus causing a lower absorption and deposition of fat content around the abdomen (Kalavathy et al., 2003Kalavathy, R., Abdullah, N., Jalaludin, S., & Ho, Y. W. (2003). Effects of Lactobacillus cultures on growth performance, abdominal fat deposition, serum lipids and weight of organs of broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 44(1), 139-144.; Mansoub, 2010Mansoub, N. H. (2010). Effect of probiotic bacteria utilization on serum cholesterol and triglycerides contents and performance of broiler chickens. Global Veterinary, 5(n), 184-186.).

The effects of SBC based diet supplementation with or without multi-strain probiotics on relative organ weights are presented in Table 4. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed in the weights of the liver and bursa while all other parameters were not affected (p > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. The higher (p < 0.05) liver weight observed in birds fed diets containing SBC without probiotic was anticipated due the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors especially tannin. This result is similar with the findings of previous researchers (Akinmutimi & Essien, 2011Akinmutimi, A. H., & Essien, U. N. (2011). Performance of broiler chickens fed graded levels of dehulled mucuna sloanei meal in place of soy bean meal. International Journal of Current Research, 33(4), 127-132.; Donlaporn & Worapot, 2011Donlaporn, S., & Worapot, S. (2011). Toxic compound, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of protein isolated from detoxified Jatrophacurcas seed cake. International Journal Molecular Science, 12(1), 66-77.) who reported that presence of a toxic factor causes abnormalities on weight of liver and this could be as a result of increase in metabolic rate of the organ in an attempt to reduce the effect of the toxic elements. Moreover, the supplementation of multi-strain probiotic increased (p < 0.05) relative weight of bursa of the birds compared to treatments without probiotic. This is in agreement with the findings of Hossain, Begum, and Kim (2015Hossain, M. M., Begum, M., & Kim, I. H. (2015). Effect of Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium butyricum and Lactobacillus acidophilus endospores on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, relative organ weight, microbial shedding and excreta noxious gas emission in broilers. Veterinarni Medicina, 60(2), 77-86.) who reported anincrease in the bursa weight of broilers fed tri-strain probiotics compared to the control group. Besides, Willis, Isikhuemhen, and Ibrahim (2007Willis, W. L., Isikhuemhen, O. S., & Ibrahim, S. A. (2007). Performance assessment of broiler chickens given mushroom extract alone or in combination with probiotics. Poultry Science, 86(9), 1856-1860.) also suggested that the bursa was the primary lymphoid organ in broilers and concluded that probiotics could increase the relative weight of bursa to body weight. In contrast, previous authors have reported a non-significant effect of probiotic supplementation on the relative organ weights including liver and bursa of Fabricious, as a proportion of body weight (Naseem, Rahman, Shafee, Sheikh, & Khan, 2012Naseem, S., Rahman, S. U., Shafee, M., Sheikh, A. A., & Khan, A. (2012). Immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effect of a probiotic supplemented in the feed of broiler chicks vaccinated against infectious bursal disease. Brazilian Journal Poultry Science , 14(2) 109-113.; Nawaz et al., 2016Nawaz, H., Irshad, M. A., Mubarak, A., & Ahsan-Ul-Haq, M. (2016). Effect of probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics in broilers. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 26(3), 599-604.). The observed inconsistency might be attributed to the strains of probiotic, technique of preparation, administration dosage, diet composition and hygienic status (Zhang, Zhou, Ao, & Kim, 2012Zhang, Z. F., Zhou, T. X., Ao, X., & Kim, I. H. (2012). Effects of β-glucan and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, blood profiles, relative organ weight and meat quality in broilers fed maize-soybean meal based diets. Livestock Science, 150(1), 419-424.).

The heamatological evaluation revealed that significant (p < 0.05) changes were only observed in packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin concentration of the birds among the treatments (Table 5). The lower (p < 0.05) haemoglobin concentration associated with the birds fed non-probiotic diets may be due to the higher concentration of tannin as the inclusion level of SBC increased in the diets. This is in agreement with the reports of Oddoye, Alemawor, Agyente-Badu, and Dzogbefia (2012Oddoye, E. O. K., Alemawor, F., Agyente-Badu, K., & Dzogbefia, V. P. (2012). Proximate analysis of shea nut kernel cake/meal samples from industry and cottage industry and some methods of removal of anti-nutritional factors. International Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 1(9), 239-242.) and Orogun, Oniye, and Olugbemi 2015Orogun, A. J., Oniye, S. J., & Olugbemi, T. S. (2015): Growth and haematological response of broiler starter chickens fed diets containing shea butter cake. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(1), 304-310.). However, multi-strain probiotic supplementation to SBC based dietshowed an increased (p < 0.05) PCV and haemoglobin concentration of the birds and this was comparable to those on control diet. These findings is in accordance with the result of Cetin, Güçlü, and Cetin (2005Cetin, N., Güçlü, B. K., & Cetin, E. (2005). The effect of probiotics and mannanoligosaccharide on some haematological and immunological parameters in turkeys. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine, 52(6), 263-267.) and Mokhtar (2013Mokhtar, F. (2013). Effects of lactobacillus culture as probiotic on blood performance, plasma enzyme activities and mortality in broiler chickens. Research Journal of Animal Science, 7(4), 77-81.), who reported an increase in haemoglobin and PCV values of turkeysand broilers respectivelydue to probiotic supplementation. According to Jin, Ho, Abdullah, and Jalaludin (1997Jin, L. Z., Ho, Y. W., Abdullah, N., & Jalaludin, S. (1997). Probiotics in poultry: Modes of action. World Poultry Science Journal, 53(4), 351-368), probiotic tends to increase the haematological profile of poultry either due to its direct effects on haemopoetic organs or the indirect effects on the intestinal micro flora. In contrary, thisresultis not in agreement with the findings of Djouvinov, Boicheva, Simeonova, and Vlaikova (2005Djouvinov, D., Boicheva, S., Simeonova, T., & Vlaikova, T. (2005). Effect of feeding Lactina-probiotic on performance, some blood parameters and caecalmicroflora of mule ducklings. Trakia Journal of Science, 3(2), 22-28.), who reported that the probiotic supplementation had no influence on blood constituents comprising haemoglobin concentrations. The differences may be attributed to type and number of species of bacteria present in probiotics (Al-Saad, Abbod, & Abo Yones, 2014). Above all, the haematological values in this present studyare within normal ranges (Mitruka & Rawsley, 1977Mitruka, B. M., & Rawnsley, H. M. (1977). Clinical biochemical and hematological reference values in normal experimental animals. USA: Masson Publishing Inc.; Fasuyi & Nonyerem, 2007Fasuyi, A. O., & Nonyerem, A. D. (2007). Biochemical, nutritional and haematological implications of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal as protein supplement in broiler starter diets. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(8), 1055-1063) and this indicated that the health of the birds was not compromised throughout the study period.

Table 3
Carcass traits and prime-cut parts of broilers fed graded levels of shea butter cake meal based diets with or without multi-strain probiotic supplementation.
Table 4
Relative organ weights (% live weight) of broilers fed graded levels of Sheabuttercake meal based diets with or without multi-strain probiotic supplementation.
Table 5
Haematological response of broilers (42-d) fed graded levels of shea butter cake (SBC) meal based diets with or without multi-strain probiotic supplementation.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, higher levels of SBC without probiotic supplementation, acceptability of the diet showed negative influence on carcass parameters as well as PCV and haemoglobinvalues of the birds. Therefore, multi-strain probiotic supplementation of SBC up to 15% level exhibited an improved carcass traits and relative prime cuts equal to the control dietswithout any apparent deleterious health implications.

References

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Sept 2017

History

  • Received
    11 Jan 2017
  • Accepted
    23 Feb 2017
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