Highly effective dietary inclusion of laurel (Laurus nobilis) leaves on productive traits of broiler chickens

ABSTRACT.

Laurel leaves characterized with interesting antioxidant effects, which have often used to improve the immunity with positive consequences on growth and performance This study was conducted to assess the effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet on the productive traits of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments, with a rate of 45 birds per treatment; each treatment consisted of three replicates. The first treatment, or control, was generated without adding laurel leaves to the diet, second, third, and fourth treatments were generated by adding laurel leaves with amounts of 1, 2, and 3 g kg-1 feed, respectively. Nine productive traits were evaluated in this study, including the average of live body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, percentage of mortality, productive index, length of the villus, depth of crypts, and villus length/crypts length ratio. Results indicated that the addition of laurel leaves led to a significant improvement in all productive traits, signifying highly essential participation of laurel leaves to enhance growth and performance. In conclusion, it can be stated that adding 3 g kg-1 of crushed laurel leaves to the diet can improve the productive traits of broiler chickens.

Keywords:
broiler chickens; consumption; diet; crushed laurel leaves; productive traits

Introduction

The poultry industry is one of the most crucial sectors that hold great importance in improving the livings standards for human beings. These commercial applications are being increasingly involved in the production of the daily needs of foods, such as white meat, eggs, and other mandatory by-products (Karaalp & Genc, 2013Karaalp, M., & Genc, N. (2013). Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) in Japanese quails feeding. 2. Fatty acid content and oxidative stability of breast meat. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 19(3), 606-610. ; Hashim, Al-Shuhaib, & Ewadh, 2019Hashim, H. O., Al-Shuhaib, M. B. S., & Ewadh, M. J. (2019). Heterogeneity of proteins in birds’ egg-whites. Biotropia, 26(2), 65-81. doi: 10.11598/btb.2019.26.2.812
https://doi.org/10.11598/btb.2019.26.2.8...
). Poultry has excellent food conversion efficiency compared to other farm animals as it has a remarkable impact on the amount of feed consumed and the average weight gain of the body (Rezaei, Yngvesson, Gunnarsson, Jönsson, & Wallenbeck, 2017Rezaei, M., Yngvesson, J., Gunnarsson, S., Jönsson, L., & Wallenbeck, A. (2017). Feed efficiency, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of a fast- and a slower-growing broiler hybrid fed low- or high-protein organic diets. Organic Agriculture, 8(2), 121-128. doi: 10.1007/s13165-017- 0178-6
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-017- 0178...
). Accumulated data of recent innovations have suggested several natural alternatives to classical feeding strategy for broilers chickens (Mahanta, Borgohain, Sarma, Sapcota, & Hussain, 2017Mahanta, J. D., Borgohain, B., Sarma, M., Sapcota, D., & Hussain, J. (2017). Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal growth promoter on performance of commercial broiler chicken. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 51(6), 1097-1100. doi: 10.18805/ijar.11420
https://doi.org/10.18805/ijar.11420...
; Wang et al., 2017Wang, S., Zhang, L., Li, J., Cong, J., Gao, F., & Zhou, G. (2017). Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 30(1), 71-77. doi: 10.5713/ajas.16.0075
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0075...
; Movahhedkhah et al., 2019Movahhedkhah, S., Rasouli, B., Seidavi, A., Mazzei, D., Laudadio, V., & Tufarelli, V. (2019). Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) extract as natural feed additive in broilers: Effects on growth, plasma constituents, immune response, and ileal microflora. Animals (Basel), 9(3), 87. doi: 10.3390/ani9030087
https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9030087...
). The introduction of many medicinal plants in the feeding of broiler chickens and laying hens has increasingly been witnessed. The involvement of a large spectrum of known medicinal plants in the diet of poultry is attributed to the presence of a high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and antidiarrheal effects of many compounds included within these powders (Zeng, Zhang, Wang, & Piao, 2015Zeng, Z., Zhang, S., Wang, H., & Piao, X. (2015). Essential oil and aromatic plants as feed additives in non-ruminant nutrition: a review. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 6(1), 7. doi: 10.1186/s40104-015-0004-5
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-015-0004-...
; Ahmad et al., 2017Ahmad, H., Khalique, A., Naveed, S., Zia, M. W., Rasool, Z., Zahid, U., & Moeed, A. (2017). Efficacy of a synthetic antioxidant treatment in stabilizing poultry byproduct meal and subsequent impact of the treated meal on selected growth parameters of broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 19(3), 471-480. doi: 10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0447
https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0...
). Thus, a series of variable medicinal plant resources have recently been utilized in poultry diet to improve the feeding strategy and its consequent growth performance, such as ginkgo biloba leaves (Zhang et al., 2013Zhang, X., Zhao, L., Cao, F., Ahmad, H., Wang, G., & Wang, T. (2013). Effects of feeding fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves on small intestinal morphology, absorption, and immunomodulation of early lipopolysaccharide-challenged chicks. Poultry Science, 92(1), 119-130. doi: 10.3382/ps.2012-02645
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02645...
), moringa leaves (Mahfuz & Piao, 2019Mahfuz, S., & Piao, X. S. (2019). Application of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) as natural feed supplement in poultry diets. Animals (Basel), 9(7), 431. doi: 10.3390/ani9070431
https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070431...
), white tea leaves (Ali, Fadhil, Imad, & Al-Nassry, 2019Ali, N. A., Fadhil, R. A., Imad, A., & Al-Nassry, A. S. (2019). Effect of adding white tea powder (Camellia sinensis) to the ration in the qualitative traits of Japanese quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Bioscience Research, 16(1), 459-464. ), morinda (Diarra, Amosa, & Lameta, 2019Diarra, S. S., Amosa, F., & Lameta, S. (2019). Potential of Morinda (Morinda citrifolia L.) products as alternative to chemicaladditives in poultry diets. The Egyptian Journal of Veterinary Science, 50(1), 37-45. doi: 10.21608/ejvs.2019.7469.1062
https://doi.org/10.21608/ejvs.2019.7469....
), or mixed proportions of these medicinal supplements (Aroche et al., 2018Aroche, R., Martínez, Y., Ruan, Z., Guan, G., Waititu, S., Nyachoti, C. M., … Lan, S. (2018). Dietary inclusion of a mixed powder of medicinal plant leaves enhances the feed efficiency and immune function in broiler chickens. Journal of Chemistry, 2018(394), 1-6. doi: 10.1155/2018/4073068
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4073068...
). One of these highly important medicinal plants is Laurus nobilis or bay laurel. Leaves growing on the Bay tree, which is also called sweet bay tree or Grecian tree, which has been characterized by olive-like fruits that can be distinguished with its unique dark brown color with clusters forms. It is classified as an evergreen herbal medicinal plant belonging to the Lauraceae family, where it is used in treating gastrointestinal diseases and stomach ulcers (Kivcak & Mert, 2002Kivcak, B., & Mert, T. (2002). Preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic properties of Laurus nobilis leaf extracts. Fitoterapia, 73(3), 242-243. doi: 10.1016/s0367-326x(02)00060-6
https://doi.org/10.1016/s0367-326x(02)00...
). It is found in Asia Minor and growing in North Africa. Leaves are extracted from the fruits of laurel volatile oil (Eugenol). The percentage of eugenol has been estimated at 1 to 3% in addition to possessing many active substances such as monoterpenes, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol (new reference is required). Likewise, it has antioxidant characteristics due to the presence of several phenolic and antibacterial compounds (Erturk, Ozbucak, & Bayrak, 2006Erturk, O., Ozbucak, T. B., & Bayrak, A. (2006). Antimicrobial activities of some medicinal essential oils. Herba Polonica, 52(1-2), 58-66. ). The laurel leaves are used as fresh or dried aromatic plants, and it’s being utilized as a spice in cooking to take advantage of its distinctive aroma and flavor (Chaudhry & Tariq, 2006Chaudhry, N. M. A., & Tariq, P. (2006). Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 19(3), 214-218. ). Lowering the concentrations of malondialdehyde in the serum of the quails treated with laurel leaves were reported in comparison with the control treatment. Meanwhile, quails treated with laurel leaves have been exhibited noticeable improvements in several productive traits, such as egg production, egg weight, and concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride (Karaalp & Genc, 2013). However, no attention has yet been paid to the possible utilization of this plant in poultry diets. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of leaves of laurel plant added to the diet on the productive traits of broilers chickens (Ross 308) and to know the best percentages that can be used in the diet.

Material and methods

The research project was carried out and approved by the Ethical and Animal Welfare Committee of Al-Qasim Green University. A total of 180 unsexed broiler chickens (Ross 380 strain), with the average weight, amounted to (40 g chick-1), were investigated in the study. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments, each one consisted of 3 replicates. Each replicate contained 15 chicks. Feeds and water were provided ad libitum, where two diets were fed, initiator diet from 1 to 21 days, and final diet from 22 to 35 days (Table 1).

The crushed laurel leaves were manually added to the diet from the first day of rearing. The first treatment and control groups were grown without being treated with crushed laurel leaves to the diet. The second treatment, in which crushed laurel leaves were added with an amount of 1 g kg-1 feed. The third treatment, in which crushed laurel leaves were added with an amount of 2 g kg-1 feed. The fourth treatment, in which crushed laurel leaves were added with an amount of 3 g kg-1 feed. Subsequently, a variety of productive traits were estimated weekly, namely the average of live body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, percentage of mortality, productive index, length of the villus, depth of crypts, and villus length/crypts length ratio. The completely randomized design was used to study the effect of different treatments on the studied traits. Significant differences between the averages were compared using the Statistical Package for social sciences (Statistical Analysis System [SAS], 2012Statistical Analysis System [SAS]. (2012). Statistical Analysis System, user's guide. Statistical. Version 9. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.) was used to analyze the data. All values were expressed in mean standard error (SE) using a significant level of p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively.

Results and discussion

The effect of adding crushed laurel leaves in the diet on the average of weekly live body weight for broiler chickens did not show significant differences between all treatments in the first week of the chicks age (Table 2).

Table 1
Percentage of feed materials and chemical composition included in the formation of the initial and final diets.
Table 2
Effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to diet on the average of weekly live body weight (g bird-1) during 5 weeks of rearing in broiler chicken.

Whereas significant differences were detected in the second week, on which the fourth treatment (3 g laurel leaf kg-1 feed) exhibited the highest values of the weekly live weights. Furthermore, the emergence of significant superiority (p < 0.05) during the last three weeks in favor of the fourth treatment over the rest of the treatments was observed. Considering the effect of adding crushed laurel leaves in broiler chicken diet, the first week showed no significant differences among all treatments. Meanwhile, a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) was observed in favor of the fourth treatment in the second week (Table 3). However, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the first and third treatments and between the second treatment and control for the same age were revealed.

In the last two weeks of the experiment, the fourth treatment was found significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better than the other treatments. The third treatment showed better values than the second and control treatment respectively at the significant level of (p ≤ 0.05). The second treatment was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) surpassed the first treatment at the same age. The effect of adding crushed laurel leaves in the diet on the average of weekly feed consumption for broiler chickens showed no significant differences between all treatments during the first week of the chick’s age. Whereas in the second week, significant superiority in the average of feed consumption was observed (Table 4). The fourth treatment showed significant (p < 0.05) superiority over the second and the first treatments respectively.

Meanwhile, no significant differences were observed between the third and fourth treatments and between the second and third treatments. In the third week of the experiment, a significant increase in the average of feed consumption for the fourth, third, and second treatments over the first treatment was observed. However, a significant superiority for the last two weeks was detected in favor of the fourth treatment, which showed significant advantage (p ≤ 0.05) over the other treatments. Whereas no significant differences between the second and third treatments were detected over the control treatment in the same analyzed period. With regard to the average feed conversion ratio, no significant differences were observed among all treatments of crushed laurel leaves in the first week of the experiment (Table 5).

In the second week of the experiments, the treatment of diet with the crushed laurel leaf showed a significant effect on feed conversion (p ≤ 0.05). In the third, fourth, and fifth weeks, a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in favor of the fourth treatment was observed. The effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet on the percentage of mortality and the productive index for broiler chickens was presented in Table 6.

Table 3
Effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to diet on average weight gain (g bird-1) during 5 weeks of rearing in broiler chicken.
Table 4
Effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to diet on the average of weekly feed consumption (g bird-1) during 5 weeks of rearing in broiler chicken.
Table 5
Effect of adding crushed laurel leaves on the average of feed conversion ratio (g bird-1) during 5 weeks of rearing in broiler chicken.
Table 6
Effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to diet on the percentage of mortality and productive index during 5 weeks of rearing in broiler chicken.

Second - fourth treatments of the diet with laurel leaves showed a significant effect in reducing the percentage of mortality. With regard to the effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet on the length of the villus, depth of crypts, and villus length/crypts length ratio in the jejunum for broiler chickens, a significant superiority of the fourth treatment was observed in the length of villus, depth of crypts, and villus length/crypts length ratio over the rest of treatments (Table 7). Furthermore, a significant superiority of the second and third treatments over the first treatment on the same analyzed traits was revealed.

This study was designed to evaluate the potential effects of laurel leaves on the productive traits in broilers chickens. The significant increase in the body weight and the weight gain in the treatment of laurel leaves at different levels compared to the control treatment were potentially attributed to the role of active substances in leaves such as flavonoids, linalool, and phenols, which were known to stimulate and improve digestion (Cabuk, Bozkurt, Alçiçek, Akbaş, & Küçükyılmaz, 2006Cabuk, M., Bozkurt, M., Alçiçek, A., Akbaş, Y., & Küçükyılmaz, K. (2006). Effect of a herbal essential oil mixture on growth and internal organ weight of broilers from young and old breeder flocks. South African Journal of Animal Science, 36(2), 135-141. doi: 10.4314/sajas.v36i2.3996
https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v36i2.3996...
). These highly active compounds may function in concert with each other to provide a remarkable antioxidant defense mechanism (Giannenas et al., 2010Giannenas, I., Pappas, I. S., Mavridis, S., Kontopidis, G., Skoufos, J., & Kyriazakis, I. (2010). Performance and antioxidant status of broiler chickens supplemented with dried mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) in their diet. Poultry Science, 89(2), 303-311. doi: 10.3382/ps.2009-00207
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00207...
). The collaboration of these compounds in laurel leaves may lead to increased production of digestive enzymes such as chymotrypsin lipase, amylase, and trypsin (Milan, Dholakia, Kaultiku, & Vishveshwaraiah, 2008Milan, K. S. M., Dholakia, H., Kaultiku, P., & Vishveshwaraiah, P. (2008). Enhancement of digestive enzymatic activity by cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and role of spent cumin as a bionutrient. Food Chemistry, 110(3), 678-683. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.062
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008....
). Thus, the digestion process increases the benefit of a bird from a fed diet. This finding is reflected in better growth of birds and the final return is positive on the average weight gain and the final weight too (Lee, Everts, & Beynen, 2004Lee, K.-W., Everts, H., & Beynen, A. C. (2004). Essential oils in broiler nutrition. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3(12), 738-752. doi: 10.3923/ijps.2004.738.752
https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2004.738.75...
). The significant superiority of feed consumption in favor of laurel leaves treatments was attributed to the role of a variety of substances in leaves, which can be considered as natural antibiotics, as their utilization would act against the survival of pathogenic bacteria and other harmful microorganisms (Botsoglou, Fletouris, Florou-Paneri, Christaki, & Spais, 2003Botsoglou, N. A., Fletouris, D. J., Florou-Paneri, P., Christaki, E., & Spais, A. B. (2003). Inhibition of lipid oxidation in long-term frozen stored chicken meat by dietary oregano essential oil and α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Food Research International, 36(3), 207-213. doi: 10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00095-9
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00...
). The significant improvement in the feed conversion ratio in laurel leaf treatments belongs to the exceptional role of laurel leaves in improving digestion and absorption capacity of digested feed. This is due to the increase in the depth of crypts and the length of villi, which increases the utilization of nutrients with a comparable reduction in the amount of undigested feed within the digestive system. The reduction in the percentage of mortality for the laurel leaf treatments could be explained by the fact that the active substances such as tannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, act as natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents with noticeable action against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (M’hiri, Ioannou, Ghoul, & Boudhrioua, 2014M’hiri, N., Ioannou, I., Ghoul, M., & Boudhrioua, N. M. (2014). Extraction methods of citrus peel phenolic compounds. Food Reviews International, 30(4), 265-290. doi: 10.1080/87559129.2014.924139
https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2014.92...
). These agents inhibit or even kill pathogenic organisms by inhibiting their internal enzymatic system (Wang, Chen, & Hou, 2019Wang, C.-Y., Chen, Y.-W., & Hou, C.-Y. (2019). Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of seven predominant terpenoids. International Journal of Food Properties, 22(1), 230-238. doi: 10.1080/10942912.2019.1582541
https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2019.15...
). This mechanism has positively reflected on the birds' vitality and health, which leads to lower mortality rates. The improvement in productivity is easily notified of the values of the productive index being one of the most crucial indicators in assessing the performance of productive broiler chickens (Martins et al., 2016Martins, J. M. S., Carvalho, C. M. C., Litz, F. H., Silveira, M. M., Moraes, C. A., Silva, M. C. A., ... Fernandes, E. A. (2016). Productive and economic performance of broiler chickens subjected to different nutritional plans. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 18(2), 209-216. doi: 10.1590/1806-9061-2015-0037
https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2015-0...
). The emergence of significant superiority in the diet on the length of the villus, depth of crypts, and villus length/crypts length ratio for the treatments of laurel leaf belongs to the role laurel leaves in stimulating the digestive system (Cross, McDevitt, Hillman, & Acamovic, 2007Cross, D. E., McDevitt, R. M., Hillman, K., & Acamovic, T. (2007). The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age. British Poultry Science, 48(4), 496-506. doi: 10.1080/00071660701463221
https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166070146322...
) on growth and division, thus improving the morphological traits of the intestine, such as increasing the length of villi and increasing the depth of the crypts in small intestine parts (García, Catalá-Gregori, Hernández, Megías, & Madrid, 2007García, V., Catalá-Gregori, P., Hernández, F., Megías, M. D., & Madrid, J. (2007). Effect of formic acid and plant extracts on growth, nutrient digestibility, intestine mucosa morphology, and meat yield of broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 16(4), 555-562. doi: 10.3382/japr.2006-00116
https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2006-00116...
). It is also attributed to the contribution of active substances to increasing the beneficial bacteria, which are a source of energy for the intestinal cells and increase the activity of cells and its divisions, thus increasing the length of villi (Ghazanfari, Moradi, & Bardzardi, 2014Ghazanfari, S., Moradi, M. A., & Bardzardi, M. M. (2014). Intestinal morphology and microbiology of broiler chicken fed diets containing myrtle (Myrtus communis) essential oil supplementation. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 4(3), 549-554. ). However, more studies are mandatory to explore the specified molecules that lie behind such observed activity in laurel leaves.

Table 7
Effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to diet on the length of the villus, depth of crypts, and villus length/crypts length ratio in the jejunum during 5 weeks of rearing in broiler chicken.

Conclusion

The results indicate that leaves of Laurus nobilis contain highly effective compounds that can accelerate growth traits upon being added to the diet. The significant improvements in the production characteristics of broiler chickens were achieved. Therefore, it is recommended to isolate its active compounds of this medicinal plant and perform other tests to provide much more details concerning each ingredient in the final chemical composition of these analyzed leaves.

Acknowledgements

Funds to carry out this research work were partially covered by the department of animal production, college of agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University (12-21-2018, 111)

References

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    » https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2016-0447
  • Ali, N. A., Fadhil, R. A., Imad, A., & Al-Nassry, A. S. (2019). Effect of adding white tea powder (Camellia sinensis) to the ration in the qualitative traits of Japanese quail eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Bioscience Research, 16(1), 459-464.
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    » https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4073068
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  • Cross, D. E., McDevitt, R. M., Hillman, K., & Acamovic, T. (2007). The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age. British Poultry Science, 48(4), 496-506. doi: 10.1080/00071660701463221
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660701463221
  • Diarra, S. S., Amosa, F., & Lameta, S. (2019). Potential of Morinda (Morinda citrifolia L.) products as alternative to chemicaladditives in poultry diets. The Egyptian Journal of Veterinary Science, 50(1), 37-45. doi: 10.21608/ejvs.2019.7469.1062
    » https://doi.org/10.21608/ejvs.2019.7469.1062
  • Erturk, O., Ozbucak, T. B., & Bayrak, A. (2006). Antimicrobial activities of some medicinal essential oils. Herba Polonica, 52(1-2), 58-66.
  • García, V., Catalá-Gregori, P., Hernández, F., Megías, M. D., & Madrid, J. (2007). Effect of formic acid and plant extracts on growth, nutrient digestibility, intestine mucosa morphology, and meat yield of broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 16(4), 555-562. doi: 10.3382/japr.2006-00116
    » https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2006-00116
  • Ghazanfari, S., Moradi, M. A., & Bardzardi, M. M. (2014). Intestinal morphology and microbiology of broiler chicken fed diets containing myrtle (Myrtus communis) essential oil supplementation. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 4(3), 549-554.
  • Giannenas, I., Pappas, I. S., Mavridis, S., Kontopidis, G., Skoufos, J., & Kyriazakis, I. (2010). Performance and antioxidant status of broiler chickens supplemented with dried mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) in their diet. Poultry Science, 89(2), 303-311. doi: 10.3382/ps.2009-00207
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    » https://doi.org/10.11598/btb.2019.26.2.812
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    » https://doi.org/10.1016/s0367-326x(02)00060-6
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    » https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2004.738.752
  • M’hiri, N., Ioannou, I., Ghoul, M., & Boudhrioua, N. M. (2014). Extraction methods of citrus peel phenolic compounds. Food Reviews International, 30(4), 265-290. doi: 10.1080/87559129.2014.924139
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2014.924139
  • Mahanta, J. D., Borgohain, B., Sarma, M., Sapcota, D., & Hussain, J. (2017). Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal growth promoter on performance of commercial broiler chicken. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 51(6), 1097-1100. doi: 10.18805/ijar.11420
    » https://doi.org/10.18805/ijar.11420
  • Mahfuz, S., & Piao, X. S. (2019). Application of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) as natural feed supplement in poultry diets. Animals (Basel), 9(7), 431. doi: 10.3390/ani9070431
    » https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9070431
  • Martins, J. M. S., Carvalho, C. M. C., Litz, F. H., Silveira, M. M., Moraes, C. A., Silva, M. C. A., ... Fernandes, E. A. (2016). Productive and economic performance of broiler chickens subjected to different nutritional plans. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 18(2), 209-216. doi: 10.1590/1806-9061-2015-0037
    » https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9061-2015-0037
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    14 June 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    14 Feb 2020
  • Accepted
    04 Aug 2020
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