Inclusion of vegetable oils in diets of broiler chicken raised in hot weather and effects on antioxidant capacity, lipid components in the blood and immune responses

Ali Rafiei-Tari Ali Asghar Sadeghi Seyed Naser Mousavi About the authors

ABSTRACT.

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vegetable oils on the antioxidant capacity, blood lipid components and immune responses in chickens raised in hot climate. In a completely randomized design, 300 chicks were assigned to four treatments and five replicates with 15 chicks per each. The highest concentration of malondialdehyde was found in broilers fed palm oil (p < 0.05). Chickens fed corn oil had the lowest and those fed flaxseed oil had the highest antioxidant enzymes activities (p < 0.05). The highest hepatic Alanine-transferase and Aspartate-transferase was found in chickens fed corn oil and the lowest levels in those received flaxseed and olive oils (p < 0.05). The highest hypersensitivity was in chickens fed palm oil and the lowest was for olive oil. The highest antibody titer against sheep red blood cells was found in chickens fed flaxseed oil and the lowest titer was for those received palm oil (p < 0.05). The highest triglyceride, cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein and the lowest high density lipoprotein was found in chickens fed palm oil and vice versa for flaxseed and olive oils. Olive and flaxseed oils had beneficial effects on antioxidant activity and lipid attributes and palm oil had detrimental effects on these parameters that related to the poultry health.

Keywords:
animal health; antibody titer; heat stress; hepatic enzymes; lipid attributes

Introduction

Major poultry production industry has been located in the zones with hot and humid climate (Daghir, 2008Daghir, N. J. (2008). Poultry production in hot climates (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: CAB International.). In these areas, producers have to utilize systems or nutritional management for control of housing or body temperature, to ameliorate the harmful effects of heat stress on the performance and health of chickens (Lara & Rostagno, 2013Lara, L. J., & Rostagno, M. H. (2013). Impact of heat stress on poultry production. Animals (Basel), 3(2), 356-369. doi: 10.3390/ani3020356
https://doi.org/10.3390/ani3020356...
). In many tropical regions, the cost for cooling broiler houses is very high and hence focuses are on the nutritional management (Konca, Kirkpinar, & Çabuk, 2009Konca, Y., Kirkpinar, F., & Çabuk, M. (2009). Effects of dietary ascorbic acid on blood haematological profile, serum biochemical components and tonic immobility reaction of male turkeys under summer condition. The Journal of Poultry Science, 46(2), 105-111. doi: 10.2141/jpsa.46.105
https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.46.105...
). The management mainly includes: dietary supplementation of antioxidant (Tawfeek, Hassanin, & Youssef, 2014Tawfeek, S. S., Hassanin, K. M. A., & Youssef, I. M. I. (2014). The effect of dietary supplementation of some antioxidants on performance, oxidative stress, and blood parameters in broilers under natural summer conditions. Journal of World's Poultry Research, 4(1), 10-19. ; Delles, Xiong, True, Ao, & Dawson, 2014Delles, R. M., Xiong, Y. L., True, A. D., Ao, T., & Dawson, K. A. (2014). Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity. Poultry Science, 93(6), 1561-1570. doi: 10.3382/ps.2013-03682
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03682...
), electrolyte (Ahmad et al., 2008Ahmad, T., Khalil, T., Mushtag, T., Mirza, M. A., Nadeem, A., Babar, M. E., & Ahmad, G. (2008). Effect of potassium chloride supplementation in drinking water on broiler performance under heat stress conditions. Poultry Science, 87(7), 1276-1280. doi: 0.3382/ps.2007-00299
https://doi.org/0.3382/ps.2007-00299...
), mineral (Ebrahimzadeh, Farhoomand, & Noori, 2012Ebrahimzadeh, S. K., Farhoomand, P., & Noori, K. (2012). Immune response of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with different level of chromium methionine under heat stress conditions. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 25(2), 256-260. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2011.11217
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11217...
) or vitamins (Ipek, Canbolat, & Karabulut, 2007Ipek, A., Canbolat, O., & Karabulut, A. (2007). The effect of vitamin e and vitamin c on the performance of japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) reared under heat stress during growth and egg production period. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 20(2), 252-256. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2007.252
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.252...
) and lipids (Sadeghi, Mirmohseni, Shawrang, & Aminafshar, 2013Sadeghi, A. A., Mirmohseni, M., Shawrang, P., & Aminafshar, M. (2013). The effect of soy oil addition to the diet of broiler chicks on the immune response. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 37, 264-270. doi: 10.3906/vet-1109-24
https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1109-24...
; Taleb, Sadeghi, Shawrang, Chamani, & Aminafshar, 2017Taleb, Z., Sadeghi, A. A., Shawrang, P., Chamani, M., & Aminafshar, M. (2017). Effect of energy levels and sources on the blood attributes and immune response in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. Journal of Livestock Science, 8, 52-58.; Tari, Sadeghi, & Mousavi, 2019Tari, A. R., Sadeghi, A. A., & Mousavi, S. N. (2019). Dietary vegetable oils inclusion on the performance, hormonal levels and hsp 70 gene expression in broilers under heat stress. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 42, e45517. doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v42i1.45517
https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v...
). In some countries, the inclusion of vegetable oils or animal fat in diet of broiler chickens is common. The fatty acids content of oils are very differ, especially the type of poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The type of Pufa can affect some immune parameters in animals. In this regard, researchers (Sadeghi et al., 2013Sadeghi, A. A., Mirmohseni, M., Shawrang, P., & Aminafshar, M. (2013). The effect of soy oil addition to the diet of broiler chicks on the immune response. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 37, 264-270. doi: 10.3906/vet-1109-24
https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1109-24...
; Alagawany et al., 2019Alagawany, M., Elnesr, S. S., Farag, M. R., El-Hack, M. E. A., Khafaga, A. F., Taha, A. E., … Dhama, K. (2019). Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in poultry nutrition: effect on production performance and health. Animals (Basel), 9(8), 573. doi: 10.3390/ani9080573
https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9080573...
) reported that high levels of oils containing n-6 PUFA resulted in a decrease antibody response against antigens or immunoglobulin production.

In the literature, there was no report concerning the effect of oils on blood lipid components and immune function, especially in the heat stress condition. It was hypothesized that in the heat stress condition, dietary addition of oil sources with poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance the health through increase the immune function by changing immune cell membrane composition and fluidity compare to saturated fatty acids (SFA). Therefore, the main objective was to evaluate and compare the effects of different vegetable oils on the antioxidant capacity, blood lipid components and immune responses in broiler chicken raised in hot climate.

Material and methods

This experiment was carried out under the ethical guidelines of Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University of Tehran Science and Research Branch (93/987-2014).

Animals and dietary treatments

This study was done in a research farm located in Kianmehr (Alborz Province, Iran) during summer 2019. One-day broiler chicks (n = 300, Cobb 500) was purchased from a commercial hatchery and housed equipped with environment control sets. Chicks were assigned to four treatment groups (4 types of vegetable oils) with 5 replicates and 15 chicks per each replicate based on completely randomized design. Cobb 500 requirement recommendations was used for formulation of rations. Dietary treatments were iso-nutritive with the same ingredients, but included one of vegetable oils at the same level (Table 1). Treatments were 1: a saturated oil (palm oil), 2: a source of n-3 fatty acid (flaxseed oil), 3: a source of n-6 fatty acid (corn oil) and a source of n-9 fatty acid (olive oil). Oils were included in the starter, grower and finisher rations as 1.5, 3 and 4%, respectively. Metabolizable energy content of palm oil was lower compared to other oils and the related ration was balanced by higher palm oil (1.6, 3.15, and 4.3%) and little changes in other ingredients. Chicks had free access to fresh water and experimental diet. For inducing heat stress in chickens, house temperature was raised to 34 ± 1°C for 6 hours per day from day 11 to 41 of age. The increase in temperature in each day was done from 10:00 to 16:00 and then house temperature decreased to 22 ± 1°C. The relative humidity of house was maintained in 60-70%.

Blood sampling

On days 28 of age, 3 mL of blood sample was collected from wing vein of two birds in each replicate (8 birds per each treatment), centrifuged at 1500 × g for 10 min. and the serum was separated, then stored at -20°C until analysis.

Enzyme activity measurement

The glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the serum of broilers was measured by using commercial kits (Randox Laboratories Ltd. Ardmore, Crumlin, UK) according to the manufacturer guideline.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured using photometric analyzer (Pars Azmoon Co., Iran).

Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a product of lipid peroxidation was measured according to the thiobarbituric acid assay. The contents of MDA were expressed as μmol mg-protein-1.

Table 1
Feed ingredients (%, as fed) and composition of the basal diets.

CBH response and SRBC antibody titer

The cell mediated immune response was assessed by a cutaneous basophil hypersensivity test using Phytohemagglutinin P (PHA-P) as described by Boostani, Sadeghi, Mousavi, Chamani, and Kashan (2015Boostani, A., Sadeghi, A. A., Mousavi, S. N., Chamani, M., & Kashan, N. (2015). Effects of organic, inorganic, and nano-Se on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens exposed to oxidative stress. Livestock Science, 178, 330-336. doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2015.05.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2015.05...
). At days 28 and 42 of age, the interdigital skin of the right foot (2 broilers per replicate) was measured by a Caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Immediately after measurement, 100 μg of PHA-P (suspended in 0.1 mL of PBS) was injected intradermally in interdigital skin between the second and third digits of the right foot. The left foot was injected with 0.1 mL of physiological saline as a sham control. The interdigital skin swelling was measured 24 hours after injection. The response was measured by subtracting the skin thickness of the first measurement from the skin thickness 24 hours after dermal injection.

On day 28 of age, two birds were randomly selected from each replicate and were injected intravenously by 0.2 mL of 5% sheep red blood cells (SRBC) diluted in PBS and these broilers identified by color. The broilers were bled from the brachial vein at day6 35 of age (1 week later) and blood samples (2 mL) from 2 birds per each replicate were centrifuged (2500 × g, 10 min., 17°C) and the serum was stored at -20°C. Antibody titers against SRBC were measured as described by Sadeghi, Safaei, and Aminafshar (2014Sadeghi, A. A., Safaei, A., & Aminafshar, M. (2014). The effects of dietary oil sources on performance, serum corticosterone level, antibody titers and ifn-γ gene expression in broiler chickens. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(6), 857-862. doi: 10.9775/kvfd.2014.11163
https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.11163...
) and expressed as the log 2 of the reciprocal of the highest serum dilution giving complete agglutination.

Lipid components analyses

The obtained sera were used also for spectrophotometric analysis of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) measured by routine laboratory techniques (Pars Azmoon Co., Iran). Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) was calculated by division of triacylglycerol by 5 (mg dL-1) while low density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated (mg dL-1) by subtracting the sum of HDL and VLDL from total cholesterol.

Statistical analysis

The Shaapiro-Wilk test of normality was used in order to define normal distribution of data. If data were not normal the BOXCOX transformation used to normalize them. Normal Data was analyzed based on ANOVA appropriate for completely randomized design to determine the effects of treatment groups on traits using SAS software (version 9.1, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Mean comparison was done using the Tukey test. Probability values of less than 0.05 were considered significant.

Results and discussion

The effects of vegetable oil inclusion in diet on MDA level, antioxidant capacity and hepatic enzymes (ALT and AST) released in blood in Table 2. The highest concentration of MDA was found in broilers fed palm and flaxseed oils (p < 0.05). This result is consistent with finding of Bobadoye, Onibi, and Fajemisin (2009Bobadoye, A. O., Onibi, G. E., & Fajemisin, A. N. (2009). Performance characteristics and muscle fat contents of broiler chicken finishers fed diets containing palm oil sludge in partial replacement for maize. Journal of Agriculture Forestry and the Social Sciences, 4(2), 162-169. doi: 10.4314/joafss.v4i2.33785
https://doi.org/10.4314/joafss.v4i2.3378...
) who found malondialdehyde concentration was the lowest for birds on the control and increased significantly with increasing levels of palm oil sludge. There was no differences for MDA level among chickens fed oils containing Pufa (p > 0.05). All broilers in this study was in heat stress and serum MDA concentration is relatively high. Malonaldehyde is formed as an end product of lipid peroxidation. Palm oil was solid in environment temperature and preserved in cold condition, but flaxseed, corn and olive oils used in this study was prepared freshly and protected by antioxidants, hence, there was no difference for serum MDA level among them. There is an evidence that showed n-3 PUFA can scavenge H2O2 and lipid peroxides and thus can enhance the activities of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes and decreased MDA concentration (Bhattacharya et al., 2003Bhattacharya, A., Lawrence, R. A., Krishnan, A., Zaman, K., Sun, D., & Fernandes, G. (2003). Effect of dietary n-3 and n-6 oils with and without food restriction on activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in livers of cyclophosphamide treated autoimmune-prone NZB/W female mice. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 22(5), 388-399. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2003.10719322
https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2003.10...
). A report showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation results in a lower MDA concentration by activation the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems (Delles et al., 2014Delles, R. M., Xiong, Y. L., True, A. D., Ao, T., & Dawson, K. A. (2014). Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity. Poultry Science, 93(6), 1561-1570. doi: 10.3382/ps.2013-03682
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03682...
). Swanson, Block, and Mousa (2012Swanson, D., Block, R., & Mousa, S. A. (2012). Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: health benefits throughout life. Advances in Nutrition, 3(1), 1-7. doi: 10.3945/an.111.000893
https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.000893...
) stated that flaxseed oil supplementation had a low but significant reducing effect on the malondialdehyde concentration in broilers.

Chickens fed diet containing corn oil had the lowest SOD and GPX activities and those fed flaxseed had the highest antioxidant enzymes activities in serum (p < 0.05). There was no difference between olive oil and palm oil for antioxidant enzyme activities. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in these oils were lower than flaxseed oil and higher than corn oil (p < 0.05). An interesting study exist concerning fresh or oxidized oil sources and antioxidant activities in broiler, which indicate oil sources had effect on SOD and GPX activities (Lindblom, Gabler, Bobeck, & Kerr, 2019Lindblom, S. C., Gabler, N. K., Bobeck, E. A., & Kerr, B. J. (2019). Oil source and peroxidation status interactively affect growth performance and oxidative status in broilers from 4 to 25 d of age. Poultry Science, 98(4), 1749-1761. doi: 10.3382/ps/pey547
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey547...
). Available data concerning the oil source on these enzymes activity is limited.

Table 2
The effects of oils inclusion in diet on antioxidant and liver enzymes.

The highest ALT and AST was seen in chickens fed corn oil and the lowest levels in those received flaxseed and olive oils (p < 0.05). This impact of corn oil may be related to n-6 fatty acids that induce inflammation processes. Inflammation could increase the tissue sensitivity to damages and elevation of hepatic enzymes in the serum (Aminoroaya, Sadeghi, Ansari-Pirsaraei, & Kashan, 2016Aminoroaya, K., Sadeghi, A. A., Ansari-Pirsaraei, Z., & Kashan, N. (2016). Effect of cyclical cold stress during embryonic development on aspects of physiological responses and HSP70 gene expression of chicks. Journal of Thermal Biology, 61, 50-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2016.08.008
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2016....
). The finding of this study is in agreement with El-Bahra and Ahmed (2012El-Bahra, S. M., & Ahmed, A. S. (2012). Effect of vegetable oils on growth, lipid profile, and immunologic response in broiler chicken fed isoenergetic diet. Revista Cientifica UDO Agricola, 12(1), 202-207.) who reported olive oil supplement resulted in the lower enzymatic activity of ALT compared to control.

Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity reaction to phytohemagglutinin P injection and antibody titers presented in Table 3. Cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity elicited in broilers by an intradermal injection of Phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) is a thymus dependent response mediated by thymic cells (Boostani et al., 2015Boostani, A., Sadeghi, A. A., Mousavi, S. N., Chamani, M., & Kashan, N. (2015). Effects of organic, inorganic, and nano-Se on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens exposed to oxidative stress. Livestock Science, 178, 330-336. doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2015.05.004
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2015.05...
). The highest hypersensitivity at days 28 and 42 of age was seen in chickens fed palm oil and the lowest was for olive oil. Corn and flaxseed oils showed moderate hypersensitivity. In the literature, report not found concerning effects of lipids on this parameter in poultry.

The highest SRBC titer was found in chickens fed flaxseed and olive oils and the lowest titer was for those received palm oil (p < 0.05). This result was inconsistent with the findings of Das et al. (2014Das, G. B., Ahad, A., Hossain, M. E., Akbar, M. A., Akther, S., & Mahmood, A. (2014). Effect of different oil supplements on humoral response and lipid profile in commercial broiler. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 34(2), 229-233.), who reported that chicken received palm oil had higher antibody production than those fed n-3 or n-6 fatty acids sources. It seems that, these discrepant resulting might be associated with the types and dose of oil used.

The result of this study was consistent with studies that reported that n-3 fatty acids was shown to enhance the antibody response of chicks to sheep red blood cells than the birds that were not treated with them (Sadeghi et al., 2014Sadeghi, A. A., Safaei, A., & Aminafshar, M. (2014). The effects of dietary oil sources on performance, serum corticosterone level, antibody titers and ifn-γ gene expression in broiler chickens. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(6), 857-862. doi: 10.9775/kvfd.2014.11163
https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.11163...
). Inclusion of flaxseed oil in diet improved immune response, probably because of the effects on long chain n-3 PUFA on eicosanoid levels (Swanson et al., 2012Swanson, D., Block, R., & Mousa, S. A. (2012). Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: health benefits throughout life. Advances in Nutrition, 3(1), 1-7. doi: 10.3945/an.111.000893
https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.000893...
). Also, n-3 PUFAs have shown beneficial immune responses in infectious bursal disease challenged broilers (Yang, Zhang, Guo, Jiao, & Long, 2010Yang, X., Zhang, B., Guo, Y., Jiao, P., & Long, F. (2010). Effects of dietary lipids and Clostridium butyricum on fat deposition and meat quality of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 89(2), 254-260. doi: 10.3382/ps.2009-00234
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00234...
).

Serum lipid profile of broilers at day 28 of age reported in Table 4. The highest triglyceride level was found in chickens fed palm oil. Our finding agreed with previous report that showed palm oil produced a significant rise in serum triglyceride, cholesterol and VLDL (Adeyemi et al., 2016Adeyemi, K. D., Sabow, A. B., Aghwan, Z. A., Ebrahimi, M., Samsudin, A. A., Alimon, A. R., & Sazili, A. Q. (2016). Serum fatty acids, biochemical indices and antioxidant status in goats fed canola oil and palm oil blend. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 58(6), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/s40781-016-0088-2
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-016-0088-...
). High saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and low PUFAs contents in palm may be the reason of these results.

Lower concentration of serum triacylglycerol was found in broilers fed diets containing flaxseed oil, corn oil and olive oil as dietary n -3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acid sources. Consistence with our result, Moslehi, Sadeghi, Shawrang, and Aminafshar (2016Moslehi, A., Sadeghi, A. A., Shawrang, P., & Aminafshar, M. (2016). Blood lipid components and srebp-1 gene expression in broiler chickens fed different dietary lipid sources. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 44(1), 1-9. doi: 10.22456/1679-9216.81168
https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.81168...
) showed that dietary Pufa may reduce hepatic fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis. Moreover, an inhibition of the activity of Δ9-desaturase, which leads to a limited triacylglycerol secretion from the liver to the blood reported, also, PUFAs may show a higher rate of β-oxidation and as a result a higher rate of uptake of triacylglycerol from blood stream to tissue compared with saturated fatty acids such as those found in palm oil.

Concerning dietary inclusion of olive oil, our finding are similar to previous reports showing that chicks or rats fed an olive oil-rich diet had lower values of serum triglyceride and significantly higher level of serum HDL (Namayandeh, Kaseb, & Lesan, 2013Namayandeh, S. M., Kaseb, F., & Lesan, S. (2013). Olive and sesame oil effect on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic patients, which better? International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4(9), 1059-1062. ). Also, feeding rats on diet containing olive oil significantly improved lipid profile as it reduced serum triglyceride, cholesterol and lipoproteins.

Cholesterol level was the highest in chickens fed palm oil and the lowest in those received olive oil. In contrast to our finding, researchers who found that diets containing different lipid sources did not affect blood cholesterol values (Sadeghi et al., 2014Sadeghi, A. A., Safaei, A., & Aminafshar, M. (2014). The effects of dietary oil sources on performance, serum corticosterone level, antibody titers and ifn-γ gene expression in broiler chickens. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(6), 857-862. doi: 10.9775/kvfd.2014.11163
https://doi.org/10.9775/kvfd.2014.11163...
; Moslehi et al., 2016Moslehi, A., Sadeghi, A. A., Shawrang, P., & Aminafshar, M. (2016). Blood lipid components and srebp-1 gene expression in broiler chickens fed different dietary lipid sources. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 44(1), 1-9. doi: 10.22456/1679-9216.81168
https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.81168...
). In general, these results agree with the findings of other authors who reported changes in the concentration of serum lipids of chickens with the dietary lipid sources differing in their degree of saturation (Adeyemi et al., 2016Adeyemi, K. D., Sabow, A. B., Aghwan, Z. A., Ebrahimi, M., Samsudin, A. A., Alimon, A. R., & Sazili, A. Q. (2016). Serum fatty acids, biochemical indices and antioxidant status in goats fed canola oil and palm oil blend. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 58(6), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/s40781-016-0088-2
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-016-0088-...
; Tari et al., 2020). The discrepancies between studies on the lipid content of serum maybe attributed to the genetic, sex and dietary factors.

The highest HDL was for olive oil and the lowest was for palm oil and vice versa for LDL. Chickens received palm oil had the highest VLDL. There was no differ for VLDL among other oils. In experiments on rats and humans, the researchers concluded that diets containing different amounts of PUFAs reduce triglycerides, serum cholesterol and LDL, while they increased blood HDL (Ortiz-Munoz et al., 2009Ortiz-Munoz, G., Houard, X., Martin-Ventura, J. L., Ishida, B. Y., Loyau, S., Rossignol, P., ... Burlingame, A. L. (2009). HDL antielastase activity prevents smooth muscle cell anoikis, a potential new antiatherogenic property. FASEB Journal, 23(9), 3129-3139. doi: 10.1096/fj.08-127928
https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.08-127928...
).

Table 3
The effects of oils inclusion in diet on hypersensitivity reaction and antibody titer.
Table 4
The effect of different lipid sources in diets on serum lipid profile of broilers at day 28 of age.

Conclusion

It was concluded that olive and flaxseed oils had beneficial effects on antioxidant activity and lipid attributes and palm oil had detrimental effects on these parameters that related to the animal health.

References

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    14 June 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    29 Oct 2019
  • Accepted
    20 Mar 2020
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