Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Current study evaluates the macrophyte biomass of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in diet food to improve the growth and survival of angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare. The liquid (extract) and ground modes are employed. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed intake and final body weight in basal diet and macrophyte extract biomass diets were similar (p > 0.05). Fish survival was high in all dietary treatments (> 90%), while survival percentage of 100% was reported in ground macrophyte biomass treatment. Ground macrophyte biomass may be included in the diet of P. scalare up to 5%. The inclusion of E. crassipes in the diet of P. scalare proved similar or better results than basal diet. The macrophyte proved to be a food strategy in angelfish diets that may be implemented in the species’s diet at 32% levels of crude protein. The latter, easily found in tropical regions, affects directly the species’s growth and survival rates.
Abstract in English:ASTRACT. This study evaluated the effect of increasing levels of leucaena forage in sorghum: forage. In addition to pure sorghum, it was evaluated different levels of inclusion of leucaena (15, 30 and 50%) at the time of ensiling. Forage was ensiled in PVC tubes (100 mm diameter, 500 mm length) under the density of 500 - 600 kg m-3, a total of 20 silos were prepared, which were opened 35 days after ensiling. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of leucaena inclusion levels for pH, water activity (Aw) and total ammonia nitrogen (total NH3-N). There was an increasing linear effect (p < 0.05) for the content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and lignin that increased from 33.47 to 34.75%, 7.82 to 16.05% and from 7.29 to 9.93%, at the levels from 0 to 50% inclusion of leucaena, respectively. There was a decreasing linear effect (p < 0.05) for neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFcp) and hemicellulose, which reduced from 56.65 to 48.37% and from 24.07 to 17.67% at the levels of 0 and 50% inclusion, respectively. For the ash content, there was a quadratic effect (p < 0.05), with a maximum at 8.3% with 8.9% inclusion of leucaena. The inclusion of up to 50% leucaena into sorghum silage is recommended, because, in addition to maintaining the fermentation quality, it also improved nutritional quality of sorghum silage.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen fertilization on the morphogenic, structural, productive and chemical composition of Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R. D. Webster cv. Basilisk in a silvopastoral system with eucalyptus. The experimental treatments consisted of pastures of Basilisk cultivar, fertilized with 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 year-1 of N, and intercropped with eucalyptus, clone GG 100 (Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla). The experimental arrangement followed a randomized block design with four replicates. The evaluated characteristics were: foliar appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf length, leaf elongation rate, leaf life span, foliar senescence rate, number of green leaves per tiller, number of senescent leaves per tiller, daily dry matter accumulation, dry matter production, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber. In the conditions of the established silvopastoral system, nitrogen fertilization did not influence (p > 0.05) the morphogenic and structural characteristics of Basilisk cultivar, except for height (p < 0.01) and leaf: stem ratio (p = 0.02). The nitrogen fertilization of the Brachiaria grass with eucalyptus in the proposed structural arrangement does not modify (p > 0.05) the morphogenic characteristics. However, in ration to dry matter production, doses of up to 400 kg of N ha-1 are recommended.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The effect of ammonization was evaluated with urea at doses of 1, 2, 3 and 4%, on the basis of dry matter (DM) on Tifton 85 hay harvested at an advanced stage of development in the periods of 30 and 45 days, through analysis of dry matter, ash, ether extract (EE), neutral (NDF) and acid (ADF) detergent fiber, NDF corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), cellulose, lignin, crude protein (CP), acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN), fractionation of carbohydrates and in vitro gas production (Parameters: Vf1 , k1 , Vf2 , k2 and L). The variables DM, EE, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose, NDFap, fraction A + B1, fraction B2 and C of carbohydrates, and the Vf1 and Vf2 parameters were influenced by treatments (p < 0.05). While DM, NDF, NDFap, fraction A + B1, C, CP and Vf2 showed linear effects according to the dose, NIDA and hemicellulose presented quadratic effects. Vf1 and Vf2 were also influenced by the treatment period. The ammonization with 2.7% urea on the basis of DM promotes improvement of Tifton 85 hay treated for 45 days, observed after derivation of the regression equation and evaluation of the nutritional and kinetic degradation in vitro.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement of Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon spp.) by maniçoba hay or silage (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg) on sheep intake and performance. Twenty-four male Santa Ines animals were used, with initial body weight of 19.77 ± 1.95 kg and average age of 160 days. The animals were distributed in three treatments (Tifton 85 hay-TH, Maniçoba hay-MH and Maniçoba silage-MS), arranged in a randomized blocks design, with 8 replicates per treatment. The feedlot period lasted for 71 days. The means of the variables were tested by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. Sheep fed MH presented higher dry matter intake (p > 0.05) than those fed TH (1.17 kg day-1 vs 1.06 kg day-1). Neutral detergent fiber intake was higher (p > 0.05) for MH-fed sheep (0.394 kg day-1) when compared to MS (0.340 kg day-1). The digestibility of total carbohydrates was higher (p > 0.05) for MH diet (0.71 g kg-1) than TH (0.67 g kg-1). The average daily gain and body weight at slaughter did not differ (p > 0.05) among treatments. Maniçoba hay or silage can replace Tifton 85 hay in sheep diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Paiaguas palisadegrass was released in order to meet the requirements of the different production systems. However, little is known about the quality of the forage. The goal of this study was to evaluate the protein and carbohydrate fractionation of the Paiaguas palisadegrass after intercropping with grain sorghum in the pasture recovery, through the integration of crop and livestock production. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Rio Verde, State of Goias. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments were composed of the following forage systems: Paiaguas palisadegrass in monocropped, sorghum intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass in the row, sorghum intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass in the interrow, and sorghum intercropped with oversown Paiaguas palisadegrass. The evaluations were carried out in the four climatic seasons of the year (winter, spring, summer, and fall) in the same plots, over a period of one year, in 16 paddocks under continuous stocking system. The results showed that forage systems did not influence protein and carbohydrate fractionation. The winter season presented higher values of protein and carbohydrate fractionation, negatively affecting the animal performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Leaf area measurements are of the main parameters used in agronomic studies to evaluate plant growth. The current study used a non-destructive method based on linear leaf dimensions (length and width) to select the regression model to estimate millet (Pennisetum glaucum) leaf area. For two millet genotype (IPA BULK 1 BF and ADR 300) 128 randomly-chosen leaves were measured at different vegetative growth stages. Measures of length and width of each leaf were made using digital calipers. Leaf area was measured using a gravimetric method. The best-fit leaf area estimation model was selected via linear, potential and gamma regression models. Leaf area values varied from 3.02 to 209.21 cm2. The average value was 95.31 cm2. The potential regression model exhibited lower residual sum of squares and Akaike's information criterion and similar determination coefficient and Willmott index. Thus, potential regression was more efficient in explaining the leaf area of millet, independent of the genotype, when compared to other models evaluated in this research. Length (L) and width (W) could be used in the following potential regression model Ŷ= 0.879LW0.971to estimate millet leaf blade.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Adding legumes to sugarcane silage is a strategy used to improve silage quality and reduce losses. This study’s objective was to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation profile of silages sugarcane and pigeon pea. A completely randomized design was used, with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of sugarcane silage with increasing pigeon pea proportions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%). The forages were ensiled in experimental microsilos that remained closed for 60 days. Their chemical compositions were evaluated by determining the pH value and dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content. Fermentation profiles were evaluated by determining the effluent, gas, and total dry matter losses and dry matter recovery of the silage. Including pigeon pea in sugarcane silage decreases the hemicellulose content and increases the crude protein, acid detergent fiber and lignin content. Fermentation losses are reduced by adding pigeon pea to sugarcane silage with reduced effluent and gas losses and increased dry matter.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study analyzed the behavior of the annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) BRS Ponteio and dual-purpose wheat (Triticum aestivum) BRS Tarumã with different doses of ammonium sulfate as topdressing and evaluated the exponential growth model to explain the physiological development of both species. For each species, a completely randomized design was used with four replications per treatment with 9m2 area, in which the following treatments were distributed: 0, 150, 250, 350 and 450 kg nitrogen per hectare applied as ammonium sulfate. The cumulative and adjusted productions to the exponential growth model at the end of the cycle were, respectively: BRS Ponteio 150 = 5,620; 250 = 5,920; 350 = 7,585 and 450 = 8,491 and BRS Tarumã 150 = 3,922; 250 = 5,060; 350 = 7,024 and 450 = 7,491 kg dry matter per hectare. The cultivars analyzed without nitrogen application had limited growth and showed no adjustment even to the first order linear model. The application of nitrogen decreased the interval between cuts and increased dry matter production per hectare following the exponential growth model.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the shading influence on production and qualitative traits of four tropical forage legumes (calopo, puero, archer and perennial soybean). Legumes were cultivated under levels of artificial shading (0; 30; 50 and 70%) from January 2006 to June 2007. Dry matter production (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cellulose (CEL), hemicellulose (HEM) and lignin contents were evaluated. In the summer, increases in legumes DM yield were observed when grown under increasing shading levels. Calopo, puero, and archer production showed quadratic effect. Regression analysis derivation for dry matter yield showed levels of maximum values at 35.0; 33.78 and 45.45% in the summer and 34.94; 34.83 and 33.29% in the fall. Significant effect of species for CP, NDF, CEL, HEM and L/S (leaf/stem) ratio and shading level effect for NDF, CEL, HEM and L/S ratio were observed in the summer, however, no interaction was reported. In addition, significant effect of species for CP, NDF, CEL, HEM and L/S ratio was observed in the autumn. Only L/S ratio presented a negative response according to increasing shading levels. The shading promoted an increase in the fiber components and a decrease in the leaf/stem ratio, and the perennial soybean was the most tolerant to the increased shading.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and structural characteristics of deferred Urochloa decumbens Stapf. ‘Basilisk’ grazed by Nellore heifers under two periods of protein and energy supplementation (PES). The experiment was carried out from Jun 21 to Nov 15, 2016, under a completely randomized design and two PES periods (55 [P55] and 147 [P147] days). Forage mass (FM), leaf blade dry mass (LBDM), stem dry mass (SDM), dead material dry mass (DMDM), canopy height (CH), and forage bulk density (FBD) were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the SAS® PROC MIXED procedure and treatment means were compared with the Student's t test (p < 0.05). LBDM was higher for P147 heifers after 21, 84, and 126 days of grazing, similar to those observed after 63 days, and was higher for P55 heifers at 42, 105, and 147 days of grazing. SDM was lower for P147 heifers after 21, 42, 105, and 126 days, and similar in the other grazing periods. Protein and energy supplementation for heifers over 147 days resulted in a lower stem mass of U. decumbens Stapf. ‘Basilisk’ deferred pastures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and rumen disappearance rate of dry matter of corn silages with inoculants combining L. buchneri strain LN40177 in different strata of the silo. The experimental design was a 3x2 randomized complete block design, with three treatments: Control: corn silage without inoculant; 11CFT: corn silage with inoculant which combines L. buchneri strain LN40177 (1.1 x 1011 CFU g-1) with L. casei (1.1 x 1011 CFU g-1); and 11C33: corn silage with inoculant which combines L. buchneri strain LN40177 (1.1 x 1011 CFU g-1) with L. plantarum (1.1 x 1011 CFU g-1) and Enterococcus faecium (1 x 1010 CFU g-1), associated with two strata of the silo (lower and upper). The silage inoculated with 11C33 presented higher contents of crude protein and NDF and lower hemicellulose content in relation to the control treatment and 11CFT. The use of both inoculants resulted in silages with higher concentrations of soluble nutrients. Lower stratum silage had a higher rumen disappearance rate of dry matter compared to the upper stratum. In general, the combinations of L. buchneri promoted nutritional improvements in corn silage, but in presence of L. casei, there were more outstanding improvements.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of commercial and non-commercial cellulase and pectinase on rice husk and Tifton 85 hay hydrolyses. The hydrolysis kinetics of the substrates with commercial cellulase and pectinase were evaluated and the hydrolysis at different temperature and agitation conditions was maximized using experimental design. The combined use of commercial and non-commercial enzymes under optimized conditions was evaluated. The pre-treatment of the residues was also investigated by milling and different concentrations of NaOH. Finally, the effect of the hydrolysis on the bromatological composition of the residues was evaluated. The best hydrolysis times of rice husk and Tifton 85 hay were 10 and 12h for commercial cellulase, 12 and 14h for non-commercial cellulase, 10 and 14h for commercial pectinase and 16 and 20h for non-commercial pectinase, respectively. The highest hydrolysis values were obtained using commercial cellulase with 1:50 (w:v enzyme:water) dilution rate, at 45ºC and 300 rpm agitation for both substrates, reaching 20.6% maximum percentage for Tifton 85 hay and 11.6% for rice husk. The combined use of commercial enzymes did not increase hydrolysis percentage. The pre-treatment using 7.5% NaOH and 0.5 mm grain size significantly increased the rice husk and Tifton 85 hay hydrolyses (60-80%), either using commercial cellulase or pectinase enzymes. The use of non-commercial enzymes provided 18-30% hydrolysis obtained from commercial ones. Bromatological analyzes indicated a reduction in neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content for rice husk and Tifton 85 hay when using pectinases and commercial cellulases.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The study was carried out to evaluate defoliation patterns and to quantify leaf tissue flows in Alexandergrass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link.) Hitch) grazed by beef heifers receiving whole rice bran in three levels of supplementation (0, 0.5 and 1 % of body weight). A rotational stocking grazing method and two area replications were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement. The supply of rice bran to heifers grazing Alexandergrass increased the stocking rate by 13%. Regardless of the feeding system, the heifers grazed the expanding leaf blades in the top stratum of the canopy more frequently compared to other types of leaf. Leaf tissue flows, leaf blade intake and grazing intensity have not been changed by supplement fed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Sugar cane is highly productive (dry matter.hectare-1), but after ensiling process nutritional quality is affected, thus additives are needed to control or minimize losses. This study aimed to evaluate if Lactobacillus plantarum LPBR01 strain used as silage inoculant for sugar cane can control fermentation losses. Sugar cane samples (72) were divided in two treatments with three replicates, control (no Lactobacillus) and treatment silage with Lactobacillus (106 CFU g-1 of silage). Nutritional composition of samples in different periods of fermentation (0, 7, 15, 30 and 45 days) was estimated by determining levels of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose (HEM), mineral matter (MM) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). Fermentative profile of the silage was characterized by determining sugars, ammoniacal nitrogen, acidity and pH at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours. Inoculation of sugar cane silage with Lactobacillus plantarum LPBR01 strain presented no significant results (p ≤ 0, 5) however, interaction between treatment and day (p ≤ 0, 5) could be observed for the levels of ADF. The Lactobacillus plantarum LPBR01 strain was not efficient to control the fermentation losses that occur in the silages of sugar cane at the concentration used in this study.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The effect of 1α-OH-D3 in calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) deficient diets on Japanese quail growth performance and tibia parameters was investigated. Eight-day-old (n = 160) newly hatched quails were weighed and randomly allocated to 20 groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 8 birds. Treatments were as follows: T1, Ca-P-adequate; T2, Ca-P-deficient; T3, Ca-P-deficient + 500 FTU kg-1 of phytase (Ph); T4, Ca-P-deficient diet + 5 µg kg-1 of 1α-OH-D3; T5, Ca-P-deficient + Ph + 5 µg kg-1 of 1α-OH-D3. Results showed that quails fed Ca-P-adequate had significantly higher body weight compared with quails fed Ca-P-deficient, Ca-P deficient supplemented with 1α-OH-D3 and Ca-P-deficient supplemented with 1α-OH-D3 and phytase, but did not differ from Ca-P-deficient diet supplemented with phytase. Quails fed Ca-P deficient were unable to achieve FCR comparable to quails fed Ca-P-adequate (p < 0.05). The percentage of bone ash data indicated that quails fed Ca-P-adequate had higher tibia ash compared with other groups except for quails fed Ca-P deficient diet supplemented with combination of 1α-OH-D3 and phytase. Quails fed Ca-P-adequate had higher tibia P compared with quails fed Ca-P-deficient. In conclusion, these results indicated that quails fed Ca-P-deficient supplemented with 5 µg kg-1 of 1α-OH-D3 in combination of 500 FTU kg-1 of phytase were able to achieve the same tibia ash and Ca compared with quails fed Ca-P-adequate.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate different inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from corn in the diet of quails. A total of 210 japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were distributed in a completely randomized design of five treatments and six replicates, with seven quails per experimental unit. The treatments used were: control feed; inclusion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of DDGS. The variables assessed were: feed intake, feed conversion per dozen and egg mass, egg production, egg weight, specific gravity, yolk color and economic analysis. Data were analyzed by regression model and Dunnett’s test at 5% probability. For individual feed intake, laying rate, and feed conversion per egg mass, specific gravity and yolk color by color fan, there was effect caused by inclusion of DDGS (p < 0.05), but the other variables did not show significant difference. By Dunnett’s test, for feed intake, feed conversion per egg mass, specific gravity and digital colorimeter’s L parameter, there was effect (p < 0.05). As for economic analysis, DDGS presented low cost. It can be concluded that DDGS can be used in feed at a 20% level without impairing the performance and quality of quails eggs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The management of poultry feed is an important welfare promoter and the glycemic index a noninvasive evaluation. The aim was to evaluate the glycemic response of broiler breeders in restricted feeding system, and broilers receiving ad libitum feeding. Two experiments were carried out: I) 39-week-oldbroiler breeders, fed with three sources of fiber, in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme (3 fiber diets x 7 collection periods); and II) broilers, 42 days old, housed in different light systems, in a completely randomized design in factorial design (2 sexes x 2 lighting conditions x 13 collection periods). Blood glucose levels were measured at random collecting one blood drop from foot, with three replicates in each condition and treatment. In broiler breeder different fiber sources had no effect on glycemia, but the period affected circulating glucose levels, presenting a minimum of 184.3 mg dL-1 before feed and, a maximum of 242.5 mg dL-1 four hours after feeding. In broilers, there was a significant effect in glycemia for collection period and for sex, and interaction between lighting conditions and collection period. Further studies are needed to establish reference values to compare blood glucose levels in poultry.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Jiggs bermudagrass has presented competitive production potential over other forages. However, there is a lack of information about the nutritional value of this forage with important relevance in ruminant nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the protein and carbohydrate fractionation of Jiggs bermudagrass in different seasons of the year under intermittent grazing by Holstein cows. The experiment was conducted during one year in a completely randomized design with nine replications and treatments consisted of the effect of four seasons: fall, winter, spring and summer. The results showed that there were seasonal variations in the fractions of proteins and carbohydrate, with the exception of the protein fraction B3. The better climatic conditions in spring and summer contributed to an increase in the protein fraction A and carbohydrate A+B1. The winter had a greater fraction C of protein and carbohydrate, reflecting the nutritive value of the forage. The use of irrigation during fall and winter had a positive effect on nitrogen fractions B1 and B2 and on non-fiber carbohydrates.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. We evaluated meat quality and color of breast during storage in ducks fed diet supplemented with different forms of Houttuynia cordata (HC) with fermented red koji (FRK). In total, 240 one-day-old Pekin ducks (160 males and 80 females) were allocated to four diet treatments (control, 1% HC powder mixed with FRK, pelleted 1% HC with FRK, and coated pellets of 1% HC with FRK). At days 3 and 7 of storage, pH values were slightly influenced (p < 0.05) by different forms of HC with FRK, but was no influence at day 0 of storage day. Diet treatments with different forms of HC and FRK had an effect (p < 0.05) on TBARS values at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage and DPPH radical-scavenging activity at 0 days of storage, except for cooking loss. Overall, in breast meat of ducks, L* values at day 3 of storage and a* values at day 0 of storage were significantly influenced (p < 0.05) by treatments with different forms of HC and FRK. In conclusion, using either 1% HC and FRK pellets or pellets coated with HC and FRK at 1% resulted in a decrease in TBARS values and an increase in DPPH radical-scavenging activity during storage.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of marigold flower extract and paprika on egg quality of Black Avifran laying hens in different periods of storage. A completely randomized design study with a 3x3 factorial scheme with three diets (control, paprika, and marigold flower extract) and three storage periods (0, 7, and 14 days) was carried out. The following metrics were evaluated: egg weight, yolk weight, shell weight; yolk color, albumen height, specific gravity, and Haugh unit as well as the yolk, shell, and albumen percentage relative to the total weight of the egg. There was no significant interaction between additives and storage time (p > 0.05) for most of the parameters evaluated. The only exception was observed for yolk color, in which the interaction effect between treatments was significant (p < 0.05). The effect of storage time was significant (p < 0.05) for albumen weight, albumen percentage, yolk color, albumen height, specific gravity, and Haugh unit, with reduction of these parameters over the evaluation period. The use of paprika and marigold flower extract in the diets of Black Avifran laying hens does not influence egg quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. One trial with six analyses of different diets at different ages was carried out to determine the values of apparent (AME), corrected (AMEn), true (TME) and true corrected (TMEn) metabolizable energy of SBM and SBO for broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age. Three Brazilian SBM samples and one SBO were evaluated by replacing part of the basal diet with the test ingredient (300 g kg-1 for SBM and 100 g kg-1 for SBO). A total of 1.368 one-day-old male Ross 308 birds were assigned into 36 metabolic cages according to weight in a completely randomized experimental design with six replicates for each test ingredient and basal diet. Six more replicates of fasted birds were used for the determination of metabolic energy and N losses at each age. Four days of adaptation followed by three days of excreta collection for energy measurement. The birds were reared until each age, in solid floor pens with a corn/soybean basal diet. The total excreta collection method was used. The AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn of SBM and SBO increased (p < 0.05) until 28 days and after this time no difference (p >0.05) was observed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of multi-enzyme in high and low levels of metabolizable energy (13.81 and 11.51 MJ kg-1 diet) on performance and energy utilization of broilers fed wheat-soybean meal diets from 0 to 21 days of age. Result showed that birds fed diets containing 11.51 MJ kg-1 consumed significantly (p < 0.05) more feed than diets containing 13.81 MJ kg-1, whereas daily gain and feed conversion ratio improved (p < 0.05) when enzyme was added to 11.51 MJ kg-1 diet. There was significant improvement in metabolizable energy, net energy for production, organic and dry matter digestibility in 0-21 when diets supplemented with enzyme (p < 0.05). Addition of enzyme to 11.51 MJ kg-1 containing diet significantly (p < 0.05) reduced heat production of birds in 0-10 d, whereas heat production was not changed in 21 days. Supplementation of 11.51 MJ kg-1 diet with enzyme improved the efficiency of ME use for carcass energy and protein retention of broilers (p < 0.05). Generally, the results of current study demonstrated that addition of enzyme to wheat-soybean diets improved NEp of broiler chickens while MEI was not changed and it seems NEp is a more sensitive energy utilization response criterion to use in evaluating broilers response to enzyme supplementation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this research was evaluate the productive performance, egg quality and the endoparasites presence on Carijó laying hens in Cage Free system, fed with two experimental diets, one of them supplemented with fresh banana leaf in natura. It were used 196 laying hens with twenty-four weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with 14 boxes, two experimental diets and seven replicates, by treatment with fourteen birds per experimental unit. The variables analyzed were: feed intake; egg production; egg mass: feed conversion per egg mass; feed conversion per dozen eggs; egg weight; albumen weight; yolk weight; shell weight; yolk percentage; albumen percentage shell percentage; yolk pigmentation and the presence of endoparasites. No influence (p > 0.05) were found, for performance and egg production, in Carijó laying hens fed supplemented with banana leaf in natura. For the treatment with inclusion of banana leaf, yolk pigmentation were superior (p < 0.05) when compared to control diet, producing eggs with more yolks orange color. In respect to endoparasite analysis, there was significant effect (p < 0.05) in the percentage of infections present in excretas. Among the treatments evaluated, the one with banana leaf supplementation reduced in 26.54% the endoparasites presence. The inclusion of banana leaf in the diet of Carijo laying hens does not affect performance and eggs quality and decreases the amount of endoparasites of the genus Strogyloides spp.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of sunflower cake replacing soybean meal in beef cattle diets on the in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM), organic matter (IVDOM), crude protein (IVDCP) and the ruminal fermentation kinetics and parameters. The experiment was analyzed according to a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four levels of sunflower cake, 0, 200, 400, 600 g kg-1, replacing soybean meal in the concentrate of beef cattle diets. The coefficients of IVDDM, IVDOM and IVDCP presented a quadratic effect with the addition of sunflower cake. The soluble fraction (fraction B) degradation rate and total gas production decreased linearly with the inclusion of sunflower cake. Values of pH in ruminal fluid were higher for levels 0, 200 and 600 g kg-1 sunflower cake. Sunflower cake can replace soybean meal by up to 280 g kg-1 in the concentrate of beef cattle diets, improving the in vitro digestibility of dry matter organic, matter and crude protein. Levels above 400 g kg-1 reduce ruminal digestion rate, digestibility and release of final fermentation products.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient intake and enteric CH4 emission were evaluated in 48 Nellore cattle (392 ± 27 days of age). Equations were generated from intake data and evaluated using root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), and validated by cross-validation. Equations that included DMI and hemicellulose intake (HEMI) [CH4MJ d-1=4.08±1.65+11.6±2.34DMIkg d-1-33.4±7.21HEMI(kg d-1)]; DMI and total carbohydrate intake (TCHI) [CH4MJ d-1=5.26±1.69-6.3±1.47DMIkg d-1+8.8±1.81TCIkg d-1]; metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and cellulose intake (CELI) [CH4MJ d-1=5.16±1.72-0.13±0.048MEIMJ d-1+7.37±1.53CELIkg d-1], and non-fiber carbohydrate intake (NFCI) [CH4MJ d-1=3.14±1.48+3.65±1.05NFCIkg d-1] resulted in the lowest RMSPE (14.3, 14.1, 14.3 and 14.7%, respectively). When literature equations were evaluated using our database, the most accurate predictions were obtained with equations that included DMI and lignin intake (RMSPE = 15.27%) and MEI, acid detergent fiber intake and lignin intake (RMSPE = 15.7%). The mean error of predicting enteric CH4 emission with the equations developed in this study based on DMI and nutrient intake is 17% and the most accurate predictions are obtained with equations including DMI, carbohydrate intake and MEI.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to investigate effects of supplementing different levels (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0% of buffered rumen fluid) of acetonic extract of pomegranate peel on rumen fermentation kinetics of sunflower seed meal (SFM), using in vitro gas production technique. The samples were incubated in syringes containing rumen liquor obtained from three cannulated Iranian Ghezel rams for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 36h. Results indicated that, addition of acetonic extract of pomegranate peel resulted in increase in gas production volume in all of incubation times (p < 0.0001). Amount of gas production, also increased by increasing dose of the extract. Amounts of a (the gas production from the immediately soluble fraction), b (the gas production from the insoluble fraction) and a + b (the potential gas production) for pomegranate peel extract supplemented sunflower seed meal were higher (p < 0.05) than that of control meal. Adding pomegranate peel extract resulted in increase estimated short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production as well as digestible organic matter (DOM), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy for lactation (NEL) content of SFM. Production of SCFA as well as DOM, ME and NEL content of SFM increased (p < 0.05) by enhancing the level of the extract supplementation. In conclusion, it can be suggest that, supplementing acetonic extract of pomegranate peel may be lead to higher ruminal fermentation and better nutritive value of SFM in ruminants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing close-up and fresh dairy cows’ diets with sodium selenite or organic sources of selenium (Se) on the serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant indicators and Se status. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein dairy cows were balanced by body condition score (BCS), previous lactation milk yield and expected calving date and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments. Treatments were: control (basal diet without Se supplementation), sodium selenite supplementation (0.50 mg of Se kg-1 DM; Se-S), selenium yeast supplementation (0.50 mg of Se kg-1 DM; Se-Y) and selenomethionine supplementation (0.50 mg of Se kg-1 DM; Se-M). Serum Se concentrations were higher for cows in Se-Y (72.34 µg dL-1) and Se-Met (72.34 µg dL-1) than control (59.93µg/dl) and Se-S (64.79µg/dl). The Se supplementation and sources did not affect serum metabolites or indices of antioxidant pre and postpartum, except serum total protein and albumin concentrations. Cows in Se-M had greater serum total protein and albumin concentrations than those in control. The results of present study showed that serum Se concentrations increased in Se-Y and Se-M more effectively than Se-S, indicating that selenomethionine could replace Se-S as an effective organic Se source for transition dairy cows.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, ingestive behavior and carcass traits of crossbred Dorper x Santa Inês lambs fed rations containing soybean cake. Twenty-four lambs (4 months of age and 24.3 ± 3.1 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replicates. Treatments were the inclusion of 50, 100 or 150 g kg-1 of soybean cake in the ration, on a DM basis, and a control diet without this ingredient. Rations were offered ad libitum for 75 days and the lambs were slaughtered at 35 to 40 kg BW. Dry matter intake reduced linearly and the average daily gain had a quadratic response to the soybean cake levels, also decreasing with the addition of this ingredient. The time spent feeding increased and the idle time decreased linearly with the soybean cake levels, whereas the time spent in rumination was not affected. Hot and cold carcass weights decreased linearly with the addition of this ingredient. The addition of 50 to 150 g kg DM-1 of soybean cake to the ration for lambs is not recommended due to reduced animal performance, which may compromise the profitability of sheep farmers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing close-up and fresh dairy cows’ diets with sodium selenite or organic sources of selenium (Se) on the dry matter intake (DMI), milk production and composition. Based on their body condition score (BCS), previous lactation milk yield and expected calving date, 24 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were balanced and randomly assigned to 4 experimental treatments. Experimental treatments were: control (basal diet without Se supplementation with 0.10 and 0.15 mg of Se kg-1 DM in close-up and fresh diets, respectively), sodium selenite supplementation (0.50 mg of Se kg-1 DM; Se-S), selenium yeast supplementation (0.50 mg of Se kg-1 DM; Se-Y) and selenomethionine supplementation (0.50 mg of Se kg-1 DM; Se-M). Neither Se supplementation nor Se source affected DMI pre- and postpartum. Milk production and composition were not different across Se sources, but concentrations of Se in milk were 14 and 10% greater for cows fed Se-M and Se-Y than for those fed control, respectively. Cows fed Se-M had lower somatic cell count than control (SCC; 173.11 vs. 318.89 cells × 103 Ml-1). The changes of BW and BCS pre- and postpartum were not affected by treatments over experimental period. The results of present study showed that selenomethionine supplementation compared to other sources decreased SCC in transition cows. In addition, milk Se concentrations increased in Se-Y and Se-M groups more significantly compared to the Se-S group. This indicates that organic Se had better replace inorganic Se for transition dairy cows.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. First colostrum is an important source of nutrients and immune factors which are necessary for calves in the first weeks of life. Despite these benefits, colostrum can also represent one of the earliest potential exposures of dairy calves to infectious agents which these patogens can act directly on growth and cause diseases such as scours or septicemia. With recent increased interest in pasteurized milk feeding systems, producers have been curious to learn if there may also be benefits from feeding pasteurized colostrum. This study was realized to determine the effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum or unheated colostrum on passive transfer of immunity, immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration, total plate count, health and performance of neonatal dairy calves. First-milking colostrum was collected from Holstein cows and frozen at -20°C to accumulate a large batch. Pooled batches of colostrum were mixed and divided equally: One half was fed unheated colostrum; whereas the other half was fed after heat treatment at 60°C for 30 min. Forty newborn male Holstein dairy calves were fed either unheated (n = 20) and heat-treated colostrum (n = 20), 10% of their birth weight. Calves received 4 L within 1 to 2h after birth and residuals was fed 6h after birth. Serum samples collected from calves and were assayed for serum total protein (STP) and IgG. Feed intake recorded weekly and body weight and skeletal growth measures recorded at d 3 and d 63 (weaning). Every day, calves clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease and neonatal calf diarrhea. Heat-treated colostrum resulted in lower colostrum bacterial concentration (2.01 vs. 3.96 cfu mL-1). Calves fed heat treated colostrum had greater STP in 24, 72h and 23d, IgG concentrations at 24 and 72h plus unheated colostrum. Also weaning weight and average daily gain were greater in calves feed heated colostrum. There were no differences in starter intake and feed efficiency between two groups. Calves fed heat-treated colostrum had lower fecal scores, diarrhea and pneumonia incidence. There were not differences in skeletal growth measurements except body barrel. These results shows that feeding heated colostrum can provide better growth and health in neonatal calves.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Industrial effluents of alcohol production are problematic for the environment. One of the proposed solutions to the reduction of harmful effects of the wastewater is to convert it into vinasse. The purpose of the present study is to investigate effects of rations with different levels of vinasse as a source of protein in the diet of 28 male Holstein calves, previously health checked, with an average initial weight of 300 ± 22.56 kg and the maximum similarity of weight and age. The calves were divided randomly into four treatments varied in vinasse (substituted for cottonseed meal): 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 % with seven replications and each group was given its own specific diet for 110 days. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and feed intake were examined. Final body weight, average daily weight gain and dry matter intake were significantly higher in calves fed diet with 10% vinasse compared to other treatments (p < 0.05). Rumen pH significantly increased in treatment four (15% vinasse) (p < 0.05). Crude fat, NDF, non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and dry matter digestibility didn’t show any significant difference between treatments (p > 0.05), but treatments with 10 and 15% vinasse significantly increased organic matter andcrude protein digestibility compared with control (p < 0.05). Totally substituting cottonseed meal with 10% vainasse in calves diet improved body weight gain and organic matter digestibility without any significant effects on rumen pH.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interaction between increasing neutral detergent fiber content and particle sizes on ingestive behavior of dairy goats. Forty-eight lactating, multiparous Saanen and Alpine goats, with average milk production of 1.4 ±0.57 kg d-1, around 60th ±12 day of lactation were distributed in a 3 x 4 factorial completely randomized design. The diets consisted: three particles sizes (02, 05 or 15 cm) and four levels of neutral detergent fiber (34, 41, 49 or 57% NDFf) from forage (Tifton 85 hay). The ingestive behavior was monitored during 24 hours. A regression and a multivariate time series cluster analysis were performed. No interaction was found (p > 0.05) between treatments. Feeding time was different according to the particle size, having an increasing linear effect. Rumination and idle times were not affected (p > 0.05). The temporal feeding behavior was clustered into two groups according to the profile of particle size of the diet. Rumination peaks were randomly distributed with more intense activity before morning and afternoon meals. The increase in NDFf content in the diet did not change the ingestive behavior. The multivariate cluster analysis in a time series data is useful to interpret animal feeding behavior.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of multinutritional blocks (BMs) associated with the concentrate content in the diet of lactating goats and their effects on milk production and economic viability. Eight goats Parda Alpina, multiparas were distributed in two Latin squares (4x4). The experiment consisted of four treatments (0.971, 0.746, 0.521 and 0.296 kg concentrate day-1 per goat) and BMs ad libitum. It was evaluated the consumption, milk monitoring and the system was analyzed economically. If there was a significant effect of the concentrate, the control treatment was compared to the others using the Dunnett test and 5% regression analysis. When the concentrate contents were high in the diets, the total dry matter intake decreased linearly. However, there was an inverse behavior for the consumption of BMs. Milk production (PL kg day-1) was linear and positively related to the increase of concentrate levels in the diets. The PL was lower for the decreasing levels of concentrate when compared to the control diet. The economic parameters indicate that the use of low concentrate levels associated with BMs is the best feeding strategy for lactating goats. The multinutritional blocks can be used to feed lactating goats to partially replace the concentrate.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of supplementation on body weight components of Nellore cattle grazing in Urochloa brizantha. Twenty-four steers with initial body weight (BW) of 371 ± 14 kg and average age of 26 months were used. Four animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment as a reference and the others were distributed in 4 treatments [0.0% (mineral salt), 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9% supplement BW]. The slaughter of the experimental group was performed when the animals reached 450 kg and the body weight components were weighed. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The increase in supplementation level reduced (p < 0.05) pasture dry matter intake, but did not influence (p > 0.05) on empty body weight (EBW) (380.3 kg) and cold carcass weight (CCW) (247.5 kg). The weights of skin, liver, rumen and fat were not influenced (p > 0.05) by supplementation level. The animals gained, on average, 75.3 kg EBW and 50.7 kg CCW, but the treatments did not influence (p > 0.05) the gains of body weight components. The increasing of energetic-protein supplement level for Nellore steers in Urochloa brizantha pasture does not affect carcass and non-carcass components.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to analyze technical and economic indicators of family milk production systems, with different technology levels, in the Caiuá sandstone area in Northwestern Paraná, Brazil. The analysis period covers the agricultural years 2002/2003 to 2013/2014. The categorization of the milk production systems was based on information from agricultural farms monitored by the Reference Network for Family Agriculture. The cost-benefit analysis method was used for the economic assessment of milk production. Based on the results, three family milk production systems were identified in the region, characterized by the use of low, medium and high intensification technologies for pasture management. The production costs per unit area were found to be higher in the system with high technology and lower in the system with low technology. However, although the total revenue in the production system with a high technological intensification is greater than in the other systems, the capital needed for a technological transition is higher. In all the systems, when the costs were deducted, including the return on family labor, there was a profit, even with the climate and soil constraints inherent in the region.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This research aims to assess the performances of lactating Bedouin goat under arid conditions, focusing on the relationship of milk yield with body and udder morphology and growth traits. Fourteen goats and their kids were followed during early lactation (90 days post-partum). Mean daily milk yield was 0.56 kg. Milk fat, proteins, lactose, solids non-fat and minerals were respectively 34.9, 38.9, 48.8, 107 and 6.7 g L-1. Mean kids’ birth weight, adjusted body weight at 90 days of age and average daily gain were respectively 2 kg, 6.6 kg and 51.4 g day-1. Daily milk yield was correlated with goats’ body weight, withers height, rump height, udder width and udder circumference but not with linear udder score and growth performances. These results provide important data about the milk production of Bedouin goat emphasizing its correlation with body and udder morphological traits which can help to elaborate a specific breeding program for this breed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. A study was conducted to evaluate the feedlot performance and carcass yield of Hararghe Highland bull using different types of concentrate feeds fed grass hay as a basal diet in eastern Ethiopia. Thirty Hararghe Highland bulls were blocked by weight and randomly allocated to one of the following six treatments. T1 = Hay ad libitum + 4kg dried cafeteria leftover; T2 = Hay ad libitum + 4kg wheat bran; T3 = Hay ad libitum + 4 kg d-1 maize grain; T4 = Hay ad libitum + 4kg d-1 mix (1:1, wheat bran to maize grain, respectively); T5 = Hay ad libitum + 4kg scrambled whole groundnut; T6 = Hay ad libitum + 4kg d-1 mix (equal proportion of maize grain, wheat bran, dried cafeteria leftover and scrambled whole groundnut. Bulls were fed for 90 days and slaughtered for carcass yield studies. Bulls fed on T6 and T3 had highest (p < 0.05) finished weight and ADG than did in T2, T5 and T1. Similarly, better (p < 0.05) gain to feed ratio was noted on bulls fed T6 and T3 than rest of treatments. Carcass yield on slaughter weight was also improved in T6 and T3 consistent to feedlot performance traits. Bulls supplemented with T6 and T3 had highest carcass yield than T2, T5, T1 and T4. Therefore, this study suggested that Hararghe Highland bull has potent for feedlot industry using strategic supplementation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was realized to evaluate the monthly production, composition and quality of milk (total and defatted dry extract, lactose, fat and protein) and their relation to somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) using multivariate statistical analyses. The data are from a dairy farm for the period of two years (from January 2015 to December 2016). The SCC and TBC variables were transformed to somatic cell score (SCS) and log10 (LogTBC). Factor analysis, discriminant analysis and cluster analysis were used. Through factor analysis, it was found two factors that together explained 69.5% of the total data variation. The first factor represented the inverse relationship between lactose versus fat and protein content, while the second factor represented the inverse relationship among monthly milk yield versus SCS and LogTBC. The discriminant analysis identified that lactose and protein contents and SCS were the variables that had the greatest participation in the separation of the groups formed by the cluster analysis. The groups differed mainly by the monthly production of milk, composition and SCS. Finally, there are important multivariate relations between the variables milk production, composition and quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance, body morphometric measurements and testicular development in lambs fed with different rates of sunflower meal inclusion. The animals (24) were randomly distributed in treatments with 0, 10, 20 and 30% of sunflower meal in the dry matter of the diet, in six replicates, during 56 days of confinement. The addition of the coproduct at increasing dietary rates increased linearly the dry matter intake in the percentage of live weight and neutral detergent fiber. Despite this, there was a linear reduction in ether extract intake and chest width. On the other hand, there was no difference in daily, total and final weight gains. The body condition score; height of withers, croup and thorax; length of body and croup; width of fore croup, hind croup and chest; thoracic and neck diameters also did not change with the addition of the coproduct. The testicular measures 26.76; 6.11; 6.08; 5.22; 5.21; 4.80, and 4.81cm varied quadratically with the inclusion. Therefore, the inclusion of 30% of the coproduct changes nutrient intake and testicular biometry, but does not interfere in the body weight and development, being an economical alternative.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective was to evaluate the performance, egg quality, thermoregulation, body morphology and behavior of different categories of laying poultry. Two treatments with two genetic groups were used, 50 birds of the Hisex Brown strain and 50 birds of the Black Avifran chicken breed with 55 weeks, distributed in a completely randomized design with 10 replicates and 5 birds in each experimental unit. The variables egg weight, weight and percentage of albumen, yolk and shell, marketable eggs, specific gravity, color b *, egg / poultry production day-1 were not different (p > 0.05) between the two groups. Feed conversion by egg mass and dozen eggs, yolk color, L color, diameter, height, shell color presented a difference (p < 0.05), being higher values for the Black Avifran breed. The Black Chicken Avifran had higher body temperature; however, its performance and the quality of its eggs did not change. Black Chicken Avifran presented higher values in relation to body morphology, and better results in relation to the animal performance, therefore, it was more efficient, since it obtained a lower consumption and production equal to the lineage Hisex Brown, when created in the Cage - Free system.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. An experiment with Leghorn laying hens was undertaken to determine the effect of oyster shell particle size and feeding time on different production variables, calcium retention, plasma calcium content and egg internal and external quality. Two hundred Leghorn layers (40 weeks old old) were allocated in five dietary treatments with four replicates during ten weeks. Two particle size combinations (wherein 50% of calcium substituted by medium or coarse particles (1-2 mm and 2-4 mm respectively) and two feeding time (8-pm or 9-am) were compared against a control diet (100% ground, <1 mm which fed with meal). Egg number, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio did not differ among treatments (p > 0.05). Hens fed diets containing coarse Ca had significantly greater feed intake and calcium content of excreta (p > 0.05), whereas medium particle size reduced feed intake compared to control. Coarse particle size and feeding time at 9-pm significantly increased the calcium content of egg shell, egg shell thickness, egg surface area (ESA) and shell weight per unit surface area (SWUSA) (p < 0.05). Plasma calcium concentration, gizzard digesta calcium content and egg specific gravity were not affected by treatments (p > 0.05). Providing of calcium at 9-pm resulted an increase of egg shell (%), shell weight and thickness (p < 0.05). The results have shown that substitution of fine oyster shell with 50% coarse particles (2-4 mm) and feeding time at 9-pm have better effects on egg shell quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of powder cinnamon in the diet of Japanese quails, regarding their performance and egg quality. A total of 360 quails, 18 weeks old, were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 12 animals. The experimental period lasted 84 days. The treatments were the inclusion of 0; 3.0; 6.0; 9.0 and 12.0 g kg-1 of cinnamon powder in the diet. The performance and quality of eggs produced were evaluated. A sensorial analysis of the eggs was carried out to evaluate the color of the egg yolk, the taste of the egg and the purchase intention. There was no significant effect on the performance and egg quality variables, except for the specific gravity and color of the yolk, which increased linearly. The evaluators presented a higher intention to purchase eggs from the treatment with 6g kg-1 of cinnamon addition in the diet. We concluded that the inclusion of 12.0 g kg-1 of cinnamon powder in the diet for laying quail does not affect the performance and the taste of the eggs, nevertheless, this level of inclusion provides an improvement in the specific gravity and color of the yolk.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this research was to evaluate the behavior of twenty buffalo heifers reared during the dry season on Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil. The animals were distributed into two groups, those with shade (WS) and those without shade (WOS). The experimental day was divided into six shifts: morning (6:00 to 9:55 a.m.), intermediate (10:00 a.m. to 1:55 p.m.), afternoon (2:00 to 5:55 p.m.), evening (6:00 to 9:55 p.m.), night (10:00 p.m. to 1:55 a.m.), and early morning (2:00 to 5:55 a.m.). The WS group was kept in silvipastoral system paddocks, while the WOS group was kept in unshaded paddocks. Climatic data were registered and temperature and humidity index (THI) were calculated. Behavior data such as grazing, rumination, idle time, and other activities (walking, defecating, mounting, drinking water, urinating, eating salt) were evaluated. The results showed that the THI was higher in the WOS group. Grazing time was higher in the WOS group than in the WS group in the intermediate shift (p < 0.05), while in the afternoon, evening, and early morning shifts, the WS group spent more time grazing than the WOS group. In the intermediate and early morning shifts, the WS group spent more time ruminating (p < 0.05); the WS group ruminated more than the WOS group. The WOS group had more idle time, especially in the evening and early morning shifts (p < 0.05), while the WS group had more idle time in the intermediate shift (p < 0.05). We conclude that buffaloes graze and ruminate more intensely when they are reared in a shaded system on the island of Marajó.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to develop a bio-economic model for the estimation of economic values of economically important traits in a full-cycle beef cattle production system. The bio-economic model calculated economic values by simulating the impact of changes in the profit of the system consisting of a 1% increase in each trait of the breeding objective, while the other traits were kept constant. The bio-economic model was effective in estimating the sources of revenues and expenses of the production system. The estimated economic values were, in the order of importance for the full-cycle system, R$ 3.69 for male slaughter weight, R$ 3.63 for male weaning weight, R$ 3.58 for weaning rate, R$ 3.40 for female slaughter weight, R$ 2.30 for female weaning weight, and R$ 0.13 for mature cow weight. The results showed that all traits evaluated in the full-cycle system had positive economic impact, indicating that selection would increase profitability maximizing the expected response for the traits of the breeding goal.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Brazil is currently undergoing a process to establish new patterns of consumption habits and the implementation of a new concepts of meat quality. The process emphasizes the quality of information delivered to consumers, which is part of the new approach to meat quality and food safety. The objective of this article is to investigate the attributes considered important when buying beef, knowledge about the production process, labelling, cuts and characteristics of the animals. The study included 276 consumers in three Brazilian cities and their responses were examined in relation to the semi-structured form with fifteen spontaneous and stimulated questions. It was verified that the presentation of the product is regarded as the most important attribute at the time of purchase, they prefer to purchase meat in the butchers, and do not value the labelling of the product, which makes it difficult to identify and offer differentiated products or certificates. The frequency of consumption of beef increases with family income and the vast majority of consumers prefer low marbling meat regardless of the type of preparation. The consumer has little knowledge of more specialized cuts, since the product sold in the butchers has different cuts terminology.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of sheep fed sugarcane silage enriched with increasing levels of detoxified castor bean meal. Twenty-four non-castrated male Santa Inês sheep with an average body weight of 25.34 kg and four months of age, were distributed in four treatments - 0, 7, 14 and 21% of the natural matter of detoxified castor bean meal in sugarcane silage. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05) in time spent eating and feeding and rumination efficiency (g MS and NDF/h) with the inclusion of castor bean meal in silage. However, there was a linear decreasing response for time spent resting (p < 0.05). Time spent ruminating, number of boluses per day and numbers of chews per day per bolus were not affected (p > 0.05) by the inclusion of castor bean meal. The addition of detoxified castor bean meal to sugarcane silage reduces time spent eating and increases feed and rumination efficiency in sheep.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This research was carried out to evaluate the royal jelly production in two trials. In Trial I, three genotypes of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were submitted to royal jelly production with two types of cups of different size and volume (conventional and Chinese model) and two types of supplements (commercial and formulated). A total of 24 colonies were used, two bars with different cups each, alternating between the upper or lower position of the frame. While in Trial II, 18 colonies, two genotypes, two types of cups and two types of supplement were tested. The evaluated parameters were: percentage of larvae accepted in upper and lower bars, royal jelly per cup (mg), and royal jelly per colony/collection (g). Chinese cups were not well accepted, fact that influenced in a negative way the production of general form, selected colonies were more sensible to the change of cups. Colonies of Africanized honeybees are not prepared to produce in cups of greater volume.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence seasons of the year and somatic cell counts (SCC) on physical-chemical and sensory parameters of cow’s milk from individual and collective refrigeration tanks with different milking systems. In addition to analyzing the sensory acceptance of pasteurized milk and coalho cheese developed with high (> 800,000 cells mL-1) and low SCC levels (<200,000 cells mL-1). Seasonality did not affect fat content, casein, lactose, total solids, defatted dry extract and SCC, but lower protein levels than May and June were observed from July to September. Based on the SCC results, milk from refrigeration tanks was classified as low SCC and high SCC. The samples were used to obtain pasteurized milk and coalho cheese which were sensorially evaluated for general appearance, odor and flavor by a panel of untrained tasters using a hedonic scale of 9 points. Pasteurized milk with high and low SCC presented pleasant sensory characteristics to the consumer up until two days of storage. The same behavior was observed for coalho cheese at 20 and 40 days of shelf life, respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to assess the influence of lamb finishing systems on zootechnical performance, as well as on carcass and meat quality. The experiment was conducted at the APTA’s experimental farm. Thirty-three lambs were used - both sexes, initial age of 90 ± 3 days, Texel with Santa Inês, each animal being one experimental unit, with 6 males and 5 females per treatment. Treatments consisted of: lambs finished on pasture, in semi-feedlot or in feedlot. The lambs were slaughtered with average live weight of 35 kg. Weight gain and carcass measures were taken by ultrasound. After slaughter, carcass conformation and yield, pH, temperature, color, water retention capacity and tenderness were measured. Animals finished on pasture had lower weight gain, were slaughtered at an older age, with lighter carcass weight, smaller loin area, lower shank compactness index, besides lighter shoulder and shank weights, compared to the other production systems (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the semi-feedlot and the feedlot systems for the assessed characteristics. In conclusion, production systems affect animal performance, as well as carcass and meat quality, especially when it comes to important production aspects, such as slaughter age and yield of premium cuts.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Carcass and meat characteristics of 48 Nellore heifers at 24 to 30 months of age, with an initial weight of 263.4 ± 13.9 kg, were evaluated. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design with four treatments, which consisted of four slaughter-weight classes, namely <340, 340-370, 370-400, or >400 kg. Back fat thickness was not influenced (p > 0.05) by slaughter weight in any of the forms it was expressed (mm or %), averaging 5.3 mm. Loin eye area in cm2 increased (p < 0.05) with the increase in slaughter weight. Animals slaughtered at a live weight (LW) of more than 400 kg showed better (p < 0.05) carcass conformation than the other experimental groups (9.8 points). Heifers slaughtered at over 400 kg LW had a more compact (p < 0.05) carcass (1.65 cm kg-1 cold carcass). The marbling degree of meat was lower (p < 0.05) in the animals slaughtered at less than 340 kg LW. In conclusion, cull heifers must not be slaughtered at a LW of less than 340 kg and slaughter weights greater than 400 kg have positive implications on important carcass characteristics, notably conformation and marbling.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to apply artificial neural networks to predict the breeding values of body weight in 6-month age of Kermani sheep. For this purpose, records of 867 lambs including lamb sex, dam age, birth weight, weaning weight, age at 3-month (3 months old), age at 6-month (6 months old) and body weight at 3 months of age were used. Firstly, genetic parameters of the animals were estimated using ASReml software. The data was then pre-processed for using in MATLAB software. After initial experiments on the appropriate neural network architecture for body weight at 6-month age, two networks were examined. A feed-forward back propagation multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm was used and 70% of all data used as training data, 15% as testing data and 15% as validating data, to prevent over-fitting of the artificial neural network. Results showed that the both networks capable to predict breeding values for body weight at 6 month-age in Kermani sheep. It can be concluded that artificial neural network has a good ability to predict growth traits in Kermani sheep with an acceptable speed and accuracy. Therefore, this network, instead of commonly-used procedures can be used to estimate the breeding values for productive and reproductive traits in domestic animals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this research was to evaluate royal jelly production from Africanized honeybee queens of different lineages (lineage selected for honey production, lineage selected for royal jelly production and unselected) produced by single and double grafting and to compare royal jelly production among their offspring. Data were tested by double factorial analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5%. The parameters evaluated were: queen weight at emergence, percentage of larvae acceptance in the upper and lower bars, royal jelly per cup (mg) and royal jelly per colony/collection (g). Queens selected for honey presented greater weight at emergence, while the unselected queens were the lightest. Double grafting was better than simple grafting, since the queens were born 2.38% heavier. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in relation to royal jelly production according to neither the lineage nor even comparing the method by which the queens were produced. The cost of labor to produce queens by double grafting was much higher, as by the simple grafting about 170% more queens were born. The potential of Africanized honeybees with adequate production management and favorable environmental conditions favors the production of royal jelly.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to evaluate changes in hematological biomarkers of Nellore cows at different reproductive stages. Fifteen multiparous cows with 4 ± 1 years of age and live weight of 400 ± 50 kg were used at different stages (non-pregnant, in the initial, middle and late pregnancy, at birth, one day postpartum, 30 and 60 days postpartum). Blood collections were performed every 30 days and assayed for the following hematological biomarkers: hemogram (red blood cells, globular volume, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)) and leukogram (total and differential counts). The erythrogram was influenced (p < 0.001) by the reproductive stages, with variation in the results obtained for the total red cell count, hemoglobin content, globular volume, MCV, MCHC and total plasma proteins. The reproductive stages influenced the leukocyte profile with variation in the total leukocyte count and in the absolute values of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Hematological biomarkers of Nellore cows showed significant changes due to the physiological adjustments required in response to the metabolic requirements imposed in the final stage of pregnancy and in the beginning of lactation, ensuring the nutritional contribution in energy and oxygen transported through the blood.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Because of the relatively long growing cycle and the high cost of research into turkey production and nutrition, the potential benefits from modelling growth in this avian species are considerable. Though there are many studies aimed at evaluating animal growth models, the number of studies targeting growth models in turkeys is quite limited. In this paper we present a sinusoidal function to describe the evolution of growth in turkeys as a function of time based on data published by Aviagen. The new function was evaluated with regard to its ability to describe the relationship between body weight and age in turkeys and was compared to four standard growth functions: the Gompertz, logistic, Lopez, and Richards. The results of this study show that the new sinusoidal function precisely describes the growth dynamics of turkeys. Fitting the functions to different data profiles nearly always led to the same or less maximized log-likelihood values for the sinusoidal equation, indicating its suitability in describing growth data from turkeys.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. To compare the integrated crop-livestock-forest (ICLF) and crop-livestock (ICL) systems in relation to thermal comfort and grazing behavior of Girolando heifers, a 2 × 2 crossover trial (two system and two periods) was carried out with eight – Holstein × ¼ Gyr heifers in Xaraés-palisade grass pasture under intermittent stocking with 10 days of occupation period and 20 days of resting. In ICLF, crown cover of eucalyptus planted in rows was 65% at the beginning of the experiment. Animal behavior was assessed through bioacoustics by recording heifers’ sounds for 48 hours. Concomitantly, heifers’ internal temperature (IT, °C) was recorded every 10 min using data logger thermometers adapted to hormone-free intravaginal devices. Air temperature and humidity data were collected by thermohygrometers located in the center of ICLF and ICL for calculating Temperature-Humidity Index (THI). According to THI values, ICLF and ICL did not vary in terms of thermal comfort. However, THI indicated moderate stress (82.26±4.40) during day (06:00 to 17:59h) and mild stress (75.76±4.38) at night (18:00 to 05:59h) in both systems. During day, heifers from ICL had significantly (p < 0.05) higher IT (39.51±0.56oC) than those from ICLF (39.41±0.56oC); the former spent more time grazing and less time drinking water in ICLF (581.35±30.1 and 4.87±1.09 min, respectively) when compared with those from ICL (436.88±28.1 and 10.25±1.09 min, respectively). Therefore, although thermal comfort index did not vary between the systems, under moderate stress, crossbred heifers have lower internal temperatures, resulting in longer diurnal grazing and shorter water drinking time in Eucalyptus-shaded pastures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. In order to evaluate how beef buyers in the State of Paraná, Brazil south value meat quality indicators, and attributes of credibility, 519 interviews were conducted in three cities with different sizes (Big - Curitiba, Medium - Campo Mourão and Small - Palotina). The interviews were applied after the meat was placed in the shopping cart and were composed of five questions, including question of spontaneous response: (i) factors that the buyer considers at the purchasing time; (ii) information which the buyer considers important to appear on the meat label; and three questions of stimulated response: (i) preference for meat preparation and exposure for sale, (ii) factors that the buyer considers when purchasing the meat, and (iii) preference for marbling (by photograph) according to the beef preparation. The results showed that beef buyers are more concerned with extrinsic meat quality indicators than the intrinsic ones, especially the meat presentation and hygiene of the sale point; have little knowledge about the factors that positively influence the eating experience of beef and do not cares about attributes of credibility, except for the meat expiration date. Beef buyers from medium (Campo Mourão) and small (Palotina) cities have a similar behavior, and differ from the buyers of a big (Curitiba) city among the attributes surveyed, in relation to the greater appreciation of inspection, tenderness and marbling, and less importance given to the expiration date. Beef buyers prefer meat cut by the butcher; however, this preference is higher in the small city.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the intake and milk yield of crossbred cows (Holstein x Zebu), under two management strategies, based on 95% light interception and fixed days. Eight lactating cows with body weight of 466 kg (± 35 kg) and lactation stage of 137 days (± 107 days) were used, four animals were assigned to each treatment. Dry matter intake was estimated indirectly, using neutral detergent insoluble fiber as internal indicator and chromium oxide as external indicator. This was a completely randomized design, with four replications, two grazing strategies and three days of occupation. The animals under light management showed dry matter intake on the first day (11.42 kg) similar to the second day (9.57 kg), and this was similar to the third day (7.06 kg), but the intake on the first day was greater than on the third day. On the fixed days, intake did not differ between the first and second day (12.05 and 11.47 kg, respectively), and intake of the third day (6.70 kg) was lower than in the first two days. The dry matter intake in relation to the body weight of the animals presented similar results to the dry matter intake of forage in kilos, which can be explained by the small difference in weight between the mean of the groups. The individual milk yield showed a similar behavior among the grazing strategies for the days of occupation, which increased from the first to the second day (12.49 to 13.88 kg) and decreased from the second to the third day (12.20 kg). Grazing management strategies did not promote differences in the performance traits of lactating cows. The day of grazing during the period of occupation can be decisive for intake and production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Heritability and direct and maternal genetic changes were estimated in Nellore cattle for the following traits: birth to weaning weight gain (BWG), weaning to yearling weight gain (YWG), weaning conformation (WC), weaning precocity (WP), weaning muscling (WM), yearling conformation (YC), yearling precocity (YP), yearling muscling (YM) and yearling scrotal circumference (SC). Direct and maternal heritability for weaning traits were 0.21±0.03 and 0.13±0.01 (BWG); 0.19±0.03 and 0.07±0.01 (WC); 0.22±0.03 and 0.07±0.01 (WP); 0.20±0.03 and 0.07±0.01 (WM), respectively. For yearling traits, direct heritability were 0.19±0.04 (YWG); 0.32±0.05 (YC); 0.37±0.05 (YP); 0.38±0.05 (YM) and 0.41±0.04 (SC). Positive and significant direct genetic changes (p < 0.05) were found for all traits, except for WC (p = 0.09), equal to 0.138 kg year-1 (BWG), 0.003 units year-1 (WC), 0.011 units year-1 (WP), 0.009 units year-1 (WM), 0.132 kg year-1 (YWG), 0.003 units year-1 (YC), 0.011 units year-1 (YP), 0.011 units year-1 (YM) and 0.020 cm year-1 (SC), indicating favorable genetic gains in the period. For weaning traits, we obtained negative and non-significant (p > 0.05) maternal genetic trends, with values of -0.084 kg year-1 (BWG), -0.004 units year-1 (WC), -0.004 units year-1 (WP) and -0.004 units year-1 (WM). Thus, greater emphasis should be given for maternal genetic merit of weaning traits in this population, if improvements in maternal ability were desirable.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study adjusted different regression models to describe the growth pattern of meat quails from birth to 42 days of age. Data of 300 male quails were used. Weight and height information of all quails were collected weekly from the 1st to the 42nd day of age. Body weight of poultry was subjected to the polynomial, logistic, Gompertz, Weibull, and log-normal regression models. The criteria used to choose the best model to explain the growth curve of quails were the coefficient of determination of the model, Akaike’s information criterion, sum of squared residuals and Willmott’s index. For all the models used, the variables age and height were significant to explain the weight of quails. The polynomial (R² = 99.99%, AIC = 24.68, SSR = 27.5, d = 0.9999) and log-normal (R² = 99.60%, AIC = -17.5, SSR = 107.15, d = 0.9989) models presented the best fit criteria and were recommended to explain the growth of quails.