Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Triploid fish are usually sterile. Thus, the energy and nutrients intended for sexual maturation may be available to enhance flesh quality and physical growth. The present study aimed to investigate differences in the metabolic substrates, lipids and proteins, between storage tissues from diploid and triploid female rainbow trout. Monthly, metabolic substrates were quantified in liver, muscle, and ovaries, which were collected during the first reproductive cycle. In general, it was possible to identify a seasonal and similar deposition of metabolites in different tissues of 2n and 3n females, mainly at early stages of gonadal maturation. However, from the stages 5-6, the ovaries showed great differences between ploidies, with higher concentration of lipids and protein in 2n females. This result reflects the incorporation of vitellogenin in oocytes, which is a process that does not occur in 3n females. It was possible to observe seasonal hepato-somatic index changes in 2n females, with higher values observed in the post-ovulatory stage, and the triploid animals showed lower values compared to 2n, with no seasonal difference. Viscero-somatic index can reflect the mobilization of substrates, with higher values found for 2n females in stage 5-6, which is the period of active mobilization of tissue substrates.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This work examines the economic advantages of probiotic use in the diet of Nile tilapia broodstock during the reproductive period. For this purpose, Bacillus subtilis was applied as a feed additive. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatment groups: the T0 control (without probiotic), the T1 continuous probiotic intake, and the T2 alternate probiotic intake at a dose of 0.50 g kg-1 of feed (1010 CFU g-1) with four replicates. For the reproduction assay, 118 females and 48 males of Nile tilapia (proportion 4 males:9 females. hapa-1) (weight 527.65 g ± 185.98 g and length 30.16 cm ± 3.57 cm) were distributed into 12 hapas (3.5 × 2.0 × 1.5 m). Reproductive variables (spawning female percentage, egg production, and fry production) were used to calculate the economic feasibility indexes (total cost of nutrition [TcN], gross revenue [GR], and total operational profit [ToP]). The results show increasing values for spawning female number, collected eggs, and surviving fry in the probiotic groups. We recommend continuous intake of probiotic (feed with addition of probiotic) at a dose of 0.5 g kg-1 of feed (1010 CFU g-1) during the breeding season of Nile tilapia, due to the suitable reproductive indexes and profitability.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of sorghum silage, Buffel grass hay and forage palm fodder in the diet of dairy goats by means of performance tests and economic viability of different roughage sources. Eight Anglo-Nubian goats, multiparous, weighing around 40.13 ± 2.76 kg of live weight were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, consisting of four periods of 21 days, distributed in two Latin squares (4x4). The treatments represented by diets with different volumetric sources: SSCF: (sorghum silage+ forage palm+ concentrate); BHCF: (Buffel grass hay + cactus forage+ concentrate); SS: (sorghum silage+ concentrate) and BH: (Buffel grass hay + concentrate). Nutritional intake, digestibility, feed behavior, milk production and chemical composition and economic analysis were evaluated. Animals fed the BHCF diet had higher nutrient intakes and consequently were more productive in fat, protein, lactose, fat free solids and total solids. The BHCF diet led to a higher gross income in Brazilian currency. The safety margin of the SSCF diet presented the highest percentage, with 43.06%, and the BHCF diet, the lowest percentage, of 14.89. The association of forage palm with sorghum silage and Buffel grass hay can be used as a bulky source in lactating goat diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Poincianella pyramidalis (catingueira) is a endemic plant of the Caatinga, selected by animals grazing on native pasture. With the aim of evaluating characteristics indicative of its nutritional quality, 10 plants were selected and identified, sampled at five different ages, were used to determine dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), mineral matter (MM), DM degradability (Deg DM), NDF degradability (Deg NDF) and in situ and in vitro leaf-tissue degradability. Phytochemical prospection was performed, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance applied to detect the presence of secondary compounds. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey’s test at 5%, and correlation analysis was carried out on the variables for leaf maturity in days. The levels of CP, NDF and Deg NDF showed a negative correlation with the increases in leaf age. Leaf-tissue degradation was restricted due to a physical barrier developed in the leaf fragments, which can be attributed to plant defence mechanisms. The in situ degradability of the cell wall components decreased with the increase in leaf age. The high levels of tannins and lignin, and the strong presence of flavonoids, should be considered for their anti-nutritional and pharmacological potential.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of macauba palm cake (Acrocomia aculeata) on the chemical composition, fermentation and aerobic stability of elephant grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum). The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The treatments were composed of six levels of macauba palm cake (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30%) as additive to elephant grass silage. Dry matter and ethereal extract content of the silage increased linearly with the inclusion of the additive. Addition levels of 15.54% would provide 35% of dry mass, and the limit of 7.00% of ethereal extract in the silage could be obtained with 10.47%. The neutral detergent fiber content reduced linearly from 68.97 to 52.59%, but lignin increased linearly from 6.56 to 7.70%. There was a reduction of 0.17% in the ammoniacal nitrogen content for each 1% of cake. The minimum value of dry matter losses (1.33%) was estimated to the inclusion level of 23.70%. The aerobic stability increased with inclusions between 18 and 24% of cake. The use of levels between 10 and 15% of macauba palm cake are sufficient to optimize dry matter and ethereal extract contents of the silages and to provide a high aerobic stability with minimum losses.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the requirement of digestible methionine for growing pullets at growth phase (7 to 12 weeks of age). A completely randomized design was distributed in five treatments, six replicates, and 15 pullets per experimental unit. 450 Dekalb White pullets from the 7th weeks of age, with an average initial weight of 313.14 ± 12.49 g were used. Dietary treatments consisted in five diets supplemented with DL-Methionine which resulted in five levels of digestible methionine (0.266, 0.294, 0.322, 0.350, and 0.378 %). Performance, serological blood, histopathology and histomorphometry data were evaluated. Quadratic responses were observed for final live weight (p < 0.0143), weight gain (p < 0.0073), feed conversion ratio (p < 0.0058), glycogen deposition in the liver (p < 0.0001), gamma-glutamyl transferase enzyme activity (p < 0.0008), and villus height (p < 0.0024) with digestible dMet levels. In conclusion, the use of 0.343 % dMet, corresponding to a dMet:dLys ratio 55, is recommended for white-egg pullets from 7 to 12 weeks of age.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate dry mass production, fermentative parameters and chemical and bromatological composition of sunflower silage and Paiaguas palisadegrass silage in monocropped and intercropping in different forage systems. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of silage forage systems: sunflower monocropped; Paiaguas palisadegrass monocropped; sunflower row-intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass; sunflower inter-row intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass; and sunflower oversown and intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass, totalizing 20 experimental silos. Sunflower and Paiaguas palisadegrass were harvested at 110 days after planting at 20 cm from the soil for silage, using brush cutter. The silos were opened after 53 days of fermentation. The rows and inter-row intercropped systems contributed to increase the mass production of the ensiled material. The monocropped sunflower silage had higher values of pH, ethereal extract and acid detergent fiber and lower values of titratable acidity and dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro dry matter digestibility values. The silages of the sunflower intercropped with Paiaguas palisadegrass in forage systems of crop-livestock integration presented better fermentative and bromatological characteristics, guaranteeing an adequate fermentative process and nutritional quality. In this way, the intercropping of these two forages potentiates the production of silage for feeding of ruminants during the period of forage shortage.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Herbicides have been used to control Brachiaria grass in pastures established or in formation given their practicality, however their efficiency is questionable due to the lack of specific graminicides for different forage species. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of glyphosate and fluazifop-p-butyl in the control of Brachiaria decumbens (signalgrass) and the intoxication levels of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania (Tanzania quinea grass) in pasture establishment. The experiments were designed in randomized blocks, in a 2 × 5 × 4 factorial arrangement of two herbicides (fluazifop-p-butyl and glyphosate), five doses equivalent to the commercial dosage of each herbicide (0.25; 0.50; 1.00; 1.50; 200), and four evaluation times after herbicide application (15, 21, 30 and 45 days). There was interaction between doses and evaluation times. The dose 1.5 L ha-1 fluazifop-p-butyl provides efficient control of signalgrass, however, leads to high intoxication in Tanzania guinea grass. Glyphosate is efficient in the control of signalgrass even at the lowest dose (90 g ha-1), however, it causes high intoxication in Tanzania guinea grass, preventing its use in developing pastures. It can be concluded that fluazifop-p-butyl and glyphosate herbicides are not recommended for the control of B. decumbens, cv. Basilisk in developing pastures of Tanzania guinea grass.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional value, fermentation losses, and aerobic stability of elephant grass silage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) treated with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replicates (experimental silos) and five levels of fibrolytic enzymes (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0%). For this, the elephant grass was ensiled at 70 days of age in plastic buckets with 20L capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after sealing. Analyses were made for chemical composition, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), effluent losses (EL), gas losses (GL) and dry matter recovery (DMR), as well as the aerobic stability of the silage. Data were analyzed with PROC REG of SAS® University, at 5% probability. There was an increase in IVDMD content (p < 0.0001) and reduction in NDF and ADF contents (p < 0.0001) according to enzyme levels. These results were related to the increase in the degradation of fiber fractions. There were higher EL (p = 0.0062) as a function of enzyme levels and aerobic deterioration after silo opening, at all levels tested. Thus, it can be concluded that the exogenous fibrolytic enzymes change the chemical composition of elephant grass silage, and increase its digestibility and nutritional value. Moreover, when used alone as an additive, fibrolytic enzymes are not able to recover all dry matter of this silage (with effluent and gas losses), and are not able to maintain aerobic stability in the first hours after opening the silos.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cultivating a combination of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) with black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) on the chemical composition of forage and the grazing behavior of heifers. To accomplish this, two paddocks 2500m2 each from a Voisin Rational Grazing management system were divided into three blocks each and then into thirds (278m²) characterizing a randomized block design. Three different forage compositions were distributed into these thirds: oats grown alone, vetch grown alone, and oats grown with vetch. Forage samples were collected after 65 days through the square method. Right after collection, three groups of four heifers each grazed the plots for two hours in a 3x3 double Latin Square design for behavioral observation, grazing simulation through the hand-plucking method, and biting rate determination. Forage samples collected either by hand-plucking or the square method, were analyzed for chemical composition and “in vitro” degradability. Statistical analyses were performed using the R package lme4. Data were evaluated with linear mixed-effects models. The inclusion of common vetch significantly increased forage production and oat protein content, but decreased the fiber content, which promoted better “in vitro” degradability. Grazing frequency was higher in pasture where oats were grown with vetch, but the biting rate was similar in all the three forage compositions evaluated. Forage collected by the square method did not differ from forage consumed by the heifers, probably meaning low herbage selectivity by heifers. Furthermore, no interaction of investigated variables occurred between forage compositions and the method of collection. The inclusion of common vetch with black oats increased forage chemical composition, “in vitro” degradability, and forage production, thus having positive effects on the time cows spent grazing.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the use of inoculant on silage of elephant grass, wet brewery waste and buriti meal at different silo opening times. The experimental silage tested was composed of 50% elephant grass, 30% wet brewery waste, and 20% buriti meal. The experimental design was randomized block in a factorial arrangement (2 x 4), where the treatments consisted of the use or not of inoculant during silage processing, and four silo opening times (7, 14, 21, and 28 days). Data collected were firstly subjected to ANOVA and subsequent Tukey’s test. Results were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. The use of inoculant in silage production provided more acidic pH (p < 0.05) and higher (p < 0.05) effluent losses. Longer silo opening times resulted in more alkaline pH (p < 0.05) and higher (p < 0.05) effluent losses. The use of inoculant in silage production and longer silo opening times provided higher (p < 0.05) content of ash, crude protein, and fats, and lower (p < 0.05) content of dry matter and fiber (neutral and acid detergent). However, there was no interaction between the factors evaluated in this study. It was concluded that the inoculant may be used in the production of elephant grass silages, wet brewery waste, and buriti meal, providing a more acidic pH, higher effluent losses, lower contents of dry matter and fiber, and higher nutritional content. As the opening time was extended up to 28 days, there was more alkaline pH, higher effluent losses, lower dry matter and fiber content, and higher nutritional content.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unsaturated and saturated oils on the performance, hormonal levels and hsp gene expression in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. 300 one-day male broiler chicks were assigned to 4 treatments (Diets containing palm, corn, linseed or olive oils) with 5 replicates. At day 28 of age, 2 chickens were removed from each replicate, then blood samples and liver tissue samples were collected for analyses. Feeding linseed and olive oil reduced feed conversion ratio compared to corn and palm oils. The lowest level of insulin was for chickens fed linseed oil and corn oil. The highest level of corticosterone was found in chickens fed palm oil and the lowest level was for those received linseed oil. Chickens received linseed and corn oils had the highest levels of T3 and T4 and those fed palm and olive oils had the lowest levels. The highest HSP 70 gene expression was for chickens fed diet containing olive and linseed oils and the lowest one was for those fed corn and palm oils. It was concluded that olive oil and linseed oil could improve performance and heat tolerance of chickens under heat stress.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The experiment was carried out to evaluate the productive performance of European quails (Coturnix coturnix) in the production phase, fed with diets containing different levels of digestible lysine. A total of 175 female quails, aged 65 days, were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates per treatment. The animals were housed in 25 metal cages, and each cage represented an experimental parcel, with seven birds per parcel. The birds were fed the experimental rations containing 1.177, 1.217, 1.317, 1.417, and 1.517% digestible lysine. The parameters evaluated were: laying rate, mass of eggs produced, feed intake in the period, lysine intake, feed conversion per dozen and per mass. Significant differences were observed for posture rate with quadratic behavior, which indicated higher production for the level of 1.23% of digestible lysine. There was an increasing linear behavior for the feed and lysine intake, and for conversion feed per dozen and by mass, we observed quadratic behaviors. This indicates better feed conversion index when the optimal inclusion level was 1.33% and 1.404% of digestible lysine in the diet, respectively. The requirement of digestible lysine in diets for European quails is 1.404%, which corresponds to a daily intake of 421.20 milligrams of digestible lysine.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. An experiment was conducted to determine effects of different levels and sources of fats in diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response of turkeys during four periods (0-21, 22 to 42, 43 to 63 and 64 to 70 days of age). A completely randomized design with five treatments, six replicates and eight B.U.T.6 turkey chickens per replicate was used. Treatments included: Control diet, diet containing 2.5% of soybean oil, diet containing 2.5% fat supplement, diet containing 5% soybean oil, diet containing 5% fat supplement. The results showed that using 5% of soybean oil increased average daily gain of turkeys (89.04 g) throughout the experimental period (0-70 days) compared with the control group (81.11 g; p < 0.05). Treatments containing 2.5 and 5% soybean oil improved feed conversion ratio compared to control group (p < 0.05). Soybean oil at the levels of 2.5 and 5% was led to higher spleen and bursa percentages compared to other treatments, respectively (p < 0.05). The level and source of dietary fat had not significant effect on antibody titer against Newcastle virus vaccine on 42 and 70 days of age (p > 0.05). It can be concluded that supplementing diet with 5% soybean oil improved the performance of turkeys.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The use of antibiotics in feed for growth promotion has been restricted in many countries, thus it is of interest to investigate potential alternatives for enhancing growth performance in birds. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the concurrent use of prebiotic and probiotic on gut histology and some blood chemicals of broiler chickens during heat stress. A total of 144 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 treatments. The first treatment was a diluted diet including rice bran without probiotic or prebiotic. The other treatments were fed the diluted diets with a prebiotic (treatment 2) and concurrent use of that prebiotic along with a probiotic (treatment 3). Results showed that villus height was not influenced by feed additives. However, crypt depth significantly increased by feed additives in particular with combination of prebiotic and probiotic. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth significantly decreased in treatments fed prebiotic alone or prebiotic and probiotic together. This finding is indicating the fact that non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) in high inclusion rate of rice bran caused to villus height erosion. It could be concluded that prebiotic and probiotic caused an increasing of enterocyte proliferation in the crypt of Liberkhun.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alpha-amylase supplementation on performance and carcass and cuts yield in broilers during finishing phase (21 to 42 days). A completely randomized experimental design with six treatments and eight replications was used: Positive Control (PC): no enzyme; Negative control (NC): without enzyme formulated with 6.34% less energy (- 6.34% ME); NC1: with 250 g ton-1 of alpha-amylase; NC2: with 500 g ton-1 of alpha-amylase; NC3: with 750 g ton-1 of alpha-amylase; NC4: with 1000 g ton-1 of alpha-amylase. Significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were reported with the inclusion of alpha-amylase. The NC treatment with inclusion of amylase provided improvement values of weight gain, feed conversion and feed intake, but do not was similarly in comparison to those obtained in broilers fed a diet that completely met the requirements during this phase. There was no dietary influence on carcass parameters. The use of alpha-amylase was effective in improving performance in broilers fed a diet of 200 kcal kg-1 of reduced metabolizable energy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of in ovo injection of nano-selenium (Nano-Se) and nano-zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO) and high eggshell temperature (EST) during late incubation on blood parameters of broiler hatchlings. A total of 750 fertile eggs, were weighed and randomly distributed among 5 treatment groups on each of 5 replicate tray levels. The injection was performed on 17 d of incubation. Treatments included of: 1) Eggs not injected and incubated at normal EST (control); 2) Eggs not injected and incubated at high EST; 3) Eggs injected NaCl solution and incubated at high EST (sham); 4) Eggs injected NaCl solution containing 40 µg Nano-Se and incubated at high EST; 5) Eggs injected NaCl solution containing 500 µg Nano-ZnO and incubated at high EST. EST of 37.8ºC (normal) or 38.9ºC (high) was applied from d 19 to 21 of incubation. In ovo injection of Nano-Se and Nano-ZnO significantly increased activity of GSH-Px and SOD and total protein, but decreased the levels of corticosterone, cortisol, T4 and T3 at high EST. Injection of Nano-Se and Nano-ZnO had a significant role in alleviating the negative effects of high temperature incubation and heat stress by increased antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative stress.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The experiment was conducted with 644 Ross fertilized egg by 7 treatments 4 replicates and 23 eggs in each. Seven treatments included two control with and without injection, iron sulfate, iron sulfate nanoparticles, Alimet, Alimet + iron sulfate, Alimet + iron sulfate nanoparticles. After hatching 2 mg iron nanoparticles were applied as new treatment. The highest increased in the intestinal relative weight (p < 0.05) was observed by iron+Alimet in late feeding at day old of age. Also similar trend was found in cecum and duodenum length by iron control 2 and late feeding (18 hours’ after hatching). The highest cecum length was found among all treatments by in ovo injection of iron nanoparticles in early feeding at 21 days of age (p < 0.05). Significantly increased the duodenum length was found by iron sulfate in early feeding at 42 days of age (p < 0.05). In ovo injection of Alimet in late feeding was resulted in decrease jejunum crypt depth at 21 days of age (p < 0.05). The results of this study have shown that the highest jejunum villi width and surface area were recorded in dietary iron sulfate nanoparticles in late feeding at 21 and 42 days of age (p < 0.05).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of either powdered or encapsulated probiotic on relative carcass, giblet weight and intestinal morphometry of local duck. One hundred twenty male day old duck (DOD) were distributed to 6 different dietary groups, included 2 probiotic forms of either powdered (T1) or encapsulated (T2) and 3 levels: 0% (L0), 0.2% (L1), 0.4% (L2). They were reared using pen cages for 42 days (6 weeks). Observed variables were relative carcass, giblet weight (gizzard, heart, liver) and intestinal morphometry (villus height, villus width, crypt depth). Data were analyzed by Nested of Completely Randomized Design ANOVA and if there was significant effect followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed that there was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of the form of either powdered or encapsulated probiotic on relative carcass, giblet weight, and intestinal morphometry. However, increasing level of probiotic have significant effect (p < 0.05) on relative carcass, villus height, and villus width, but did not significantly affect giblet weight and crypt depth. In conclusion, supplementation of either powdered or encapsulated probiotic has similar result, but it is suggested to use 0.4% of encapsulated probiotic (4 kg ton-1 of feed) in local duck diet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate productive performance and egg quality of Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica) fed with synthetic and natural pigments. The treatments used were: 0.8% paprika extract (Capsicum annuum), 0.8% marigold flower extract, 4% paprika extract and 4% marigold flower extract and 0.045% synthetic pigment (Canthaxanthin) in feed. A total of 240 Japanese quails at 20 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and six replicates, with eight quails per experimental unit (30 experimental units). There was no difference (p > 0.05) for the evaluated parameters, except for yolk color which showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between the treatments used. The inclusion of 0.8% natural pigments in diet of Japanese quails can be used to substitute canthaxathin because it is effective on improving yolk color without affect performance and the quails egg quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The current study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with probiotics and Yucca schidigera extract on physicochemical parameters, proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acid profile of broiler breast and thigh muscles. In total, 240 one-day old broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatments groups: 1) Control (basal diet), 2) experimental (basal diet with two probiotics Pediococcus acidilactici and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yucca schidigera extract). The results showed that the pH value was higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05). However, drip, cook and thaw losses were not influenced by dietary treatment (p > 0.05). A significant increase in protein, Fe, Zn, Na, P and a significant decrease in lipid, Cu and Cr contents was exhibited in experimental group relative to control group (p < 0.05). The proportion of stearic acid and saturated fatty acids was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced, whereas linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in breast and thigh muscles of fed the experimental diet. We concluded that additive supplementation of the diet with probiotics and Yucca schidigera extract could improve meat quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate açaí meal in diets for commercial laying hens on apparent nutrient digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy. A total of 72 Hissex White laying hens (52-wks-old) were distributed in a completely randomized design, where treatments consisted of a control diet and an experimental diet (25% açaí meal) with six replicates of six birds each. Data collected were subjected to polynomial regression at 5%. Differences (p < 0.05) were detected in digestibility of all evaluated nutrients. Hens fed diets with 25% açaí meal presented worse (p < 0.05) metabolization and use of energy content. It can be concluded that hens fed diets containing açaí meal presented better use of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and mineral matter. However, there was worse use of dry matter, fiber carbohydrates and ether extract. This result directly affected the energy metabolism of the birds. The inclusion of açaí meal reduced the energy use.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to verify the impact of adding vinasse as an acidifier in sows diet during the lactating period and its effect on litter. A total of 14 agroceres females were used from the first day of lactation until weaning. The vinasse was obtained in a mill near the experimental facility and was stored in sterilized barrels. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into two treatments: control liquid diet and liquid diet with the inclusion of vinasse in each feed supply of the day. The diets were supplied four times a day, containing a mixture of ½ L of vinasse and ½ L of water. Feed leftovers were weighted daily. Feed intake was used to evaluate sows’ performance. The piglets were weighted every week after birth until weaning in order to obtain weight gain. Vinasse inclusion showed an increase (p < 0.05) in feed intake of lactating sows, improving diet palatability. Inclusion of acidifier in the diet did not show (p > 0.05) difference in weight gain of piglets. Vinasse consumption by sows did not influence litter performance. The inclusion of vinasse in the diet of lactating sows is beneficial because increases feed consumption.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. It was aimed to evaluate the effect of including the waste from passion fruit pulp extraction in diets for Japanese quail in the laying phase on their production performance and egg quality. A total of 280 female quail were distributed into five treatments with eight replicates and seven birds per cage. Treatments consisted of 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8% inclusion of passion fruit waste in the diet. The experiment began with quail at 70 days of age and lasted 63 days, with performance evaluated every 21 days and egg quality in the last two days of each cycle. There was no difference between the treatments for feed intake, body weight, specific gravity, or eggshell thickness. However, a decreasing linear regression was obtained for feed intake with the inclusion of the waste, while a quadratic response was show by egg production, weight and parts of the egg. Inclusion of up to 6% passion fruit waste in diets for quail is recommended to maintain the indices in relation to control treatment. However, the best values for egg-laying rate and for the weights of egg, albumen, yolk, and shell are obtained with 2.5 to 3.5% inclusion of passion fruit waste.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic and garlic powder instead of antibiotic on performance, carcass characteristics, oxidative enzymes and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 200 one-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a completely randomized design. The experimental groups were including control group (without any additives) or CG, antibiotic group or AG, garlic powder group or GG, probiotic group or PG and garlic powder plus probiotic group or GPG. The broilers were weighted at the end of days 10, 24 and 42 to evaluate the body performance. At the end of experiment, four broilers randomly selected from each replicate to blood sampling and carcass traits measurement (2 chickens for each one). The use of GG significantly decreased feed intake than AG (p < 0.05) which approved in GPG when probiotic added to GG (p < 0.05). All groups, exception GG showed less feed intake than CG between days 0 to 42 of experiment (p < 0.05). GPG shows significant differences than CG between days 21 to 42 and 0 to 42 and also than GG between days 0 to 42. The use of GG and GPG significantly increased liver enzyme activities (p < 0.05). AG, PG and GPG showed a higher height and width villi than CG. So simultaneous use of probiotic and garlic powder can be a suitable alternative to antibiotics to normal performance and liver function.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of inclusion of pinto beans in diets for quail in the laying phase on their performance and egg quality. A total of 280 Japanese quail in the laying phase were distributed into five treatments in a completely randomized design with eight replicates and seven birds per plot. Treatments consisted of five levels (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of inclusion of pinto beans in the diets, which remained isoenergetic and isoproteic. The experiment began with the quail at 70 days of age and lasted 63 days, with their performance assessed every 21 days and egg-quality parameters on the last two days of each cycle. The following parameters were evaluated: final weight, feed intake, egg-laying rate, feed conversion (per dozen eggs and per egg mass), egg weight, eggshell thickness, specific gravity, yolk color, and weights of shell, yolk, and albumen. No difference was detected between the bean inclusion levels for any of the performance and egg-quality traits assessed or the birds' final weight. In conclusion, up to 8% raw pinto beans may be added in diets for Japanese quail in the laying phase without compromising their performance or internal-external egg quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. In total, 240 one-day-old Japanese quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) allocated at random to 6 treatments with 4 replicates and 10 birds in each. Treatments used were: 1) Negative control (without any additives or AFB1); 2) Positive control (basal diet + 2.5 ppm AFB1; 2); 3) TA008 (positive control + 108 cfu/ml Bacillus. megaterium TA008); 4) TA049 (positive control + 108 cfu mL-1 Bacillus. subtilis TA049); 5) TA010 (positive control+ 108 cfu mL-1 Brevibacillus brevis TA010) and 6) P (positive control + 2.5 g kg-1 Polysorb® in feed). Hatchability and embryonic mortality were significantly influenced by additives and AFB1 (p < 0.05). Birds fed TA008 improved 12 % hatchability and reduced 10 % embryonic mortality in compared to positive control (p < 0.05). Weight gain and feed conversion ratio did not affected by treatments (p > 0.05). Feed intake was significantly improved in birds feeding by TA008 at 0-21 days (p < 0.05). There were significant differences on relative weights of carcass, gizzard and proventriculus among treatments (p < 0.05). Serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol, glucose, HDL, globulin and uric acid were significantly affected by treatments (p < 0.05). These results showed that the inclusion of bacillus megaterium as potential probiotic into contaminated diets could improve the adverse effects of AFB1 in Japanese quails.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of protease and sugarcane yeast in poultry diets on performance, organ weight, intestinal biometry, chemical composition and deposition of body nutrients in the 1 to 7-day old phase. The experimental design consisted of a randomized complete block design, in a factorial arrangement of 2 (without and with the enzyme protease) x3 (yeast levels: 0, 6 and 12%) +1 (positive control diet), totaling seven treatments with five replicates, birds per experimental unit. The treatments used consisted of a positive control diet and the others were the negative control, with reductions in nutritional levels of protein and amino acids by 4% requirement. In the negative control diets, protease enzyme was included in three levels of sugarcane yeast. In isolation, treatments with or without inclusion of protease influenced the chemical composition of the birds. The levels of yeast from sugarcane yeast presented effects for weight gain, feed conversion, moisture and crude protein in the nutrient deposition. The inclusion of protease in diets for broiler chicks cannot remedy the poor performance provided by the use of sugarcane yeast, in addition to presenting lower levels of deposition of body nutrients.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four types of diets containing different forms of selenium on the hematological blood parameters, reproduction and health of dairy cattle during the transition period. Twenty-four close-up dry cows with a mean of 259 ± 1days of pregnancy and expected 21 ± 1days prior to parturition were selected. The cows were fed four diets: 1) basal diet without selenium supplementation (C); 2) basal diet plus 0.5ppm selenium in the form of sodium selenite (Se-S) 3) basal diet plus 0.5ppm selenium in the form of selenium yeast (Se-Y); 4) basal diet plus 0.5ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine (Se-M). Blood samples for measuring hematological blood parameters (including lymphocyte, red blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDWc) were taken at 21 and 10 days before delivery, delivery date, 10 and 21 days after delivery. There was no significant difference in hematological parameters before and after delivery in experimental and control groups. However, in the prepartum period, MCH tended to increase significantly in selenium methionine treatment (p<0.05). Reproductive parameters (including distance to first estrus, insemination indexes and number of open days) and health parameters (including rectum temperature and vaginal content score) have been improved by selenium organic supplements. The results of this experiment showed that feeding organic selenium supplementation in multiparous dairy cow’s diet may improve their health and reproduction.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim in this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of goat kids fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing corn (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % on a dry matter basis). Thirty crossbred Boer kids, with 90 days old and initial body weight of 16.7 ± 3.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates. Diets were daily supplied ad libitum to allow 10-20 % leftovers. Three collections were performed every 28 days. Diets were isoenergetics and isonitrogenous, composed of corn, soybean meal, peach palm meal, mineral supplement and Tifton 85 hay, with roughage: concentrate ratio of 30:70. There was a linear reduction in the intakes of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) with a respective decrease of 35.7 % and 58.8 % comparing the diet with 85 % replacement and the control diet. The rumination and chewing times increased in diets with peach palm meal. The feeding and rumination rates decreased with reducing intakes of DM and NDF. The peach palm meal affects the feeding behavior and decreases the feed intake in response to palatability, fat and fiber composition, and it is recommended until 10 % replacing corn.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Produce and compare soft cheese with potential benefits of human health from Egyptian buffalo's and cow's milk was studied. Eight Egyptian lactating buffalos and cows were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (CD), 2% flaxseed oil (DFO), 2% soybean oil (DSO), or 2% of their mixture (1:1, DFSO) according to a double 4 x 4 Latin Square design. Milk yield was similar between buffalo's diets but was higher in cows fed a DFO, DSO or DFSO resulting in 11.15, 8.21% or 8.97% increases compared with the control diet, respectively. Milk composition was not significantly affected in both buffalos and cows fed diets. The DFO, DSO or DFSO displayed decreased short-chain fatty acids, especially DSO and DFSO (3.73 and 3.33%, respectively) when compared to CD for buffalo milk (6.32%). The DSO and DFSO were more effective for increasing unsaturated fatty acids followed by the DFSO in buffalo's milk fat (42.31 and 41.90 %), whereas DFO and DFSO were more effective in cow's milk fat (39.67 and 39.84%), respectively. DFO, DSO or DFSO had no significant effect on the yield, composition and sensory properties of resultant soft cheese compared to the CD for both lactating cows and buffalos. During storage, a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids enhances protein proteolysis and antioxidant activity of soft cheese during storage compared to the CD especially for soft cheese produced from buffalo's milk.
Abstract in English:ABASTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the plasma lipid profile and plasma fatty acids of dairy cows receiving diets supplemented with annatto. A total of 32 Holstein cows (550 kg), distributed in a completely randomized design, were allocated to individual stalls and submitted to following treatments: C0 = no annatto; C4 = inclusion of annatto at 4 g kg-1 dry matter (DM) of diet (0.07 g bixin kg-1 diet); C5 = inclusion of annatto at 5 g kg-1 DM of diet (0.09 g bixin kg-1 diet); and C7 = inclusion of annatto at 7 g kg-1 DM of diet (0.12 g bixin kg-1 diet). Blood samples were collected via epigastric vein puncture, centrifuged, and frozen for subsequent analysis. The results indicate that the inclusion (p > 0.05) of annatto does not decrease the total cholesterol or low and high density lipoproteins. However, it impacts the profile of fatty acids, evidenced by the reduction (p < 0.05) in levels of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids viz, myristic acid and palmitic acid. It also causes an increase in the levels of arachidonic acid, rumenic acid, linoleic acid, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, bixin included in the diets of dairy cows induces changes in the plasma fatty acid profile.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective was to evaluate the partial substitution of sugarcane treated with urea by elephant grass in the feeding of crossbred cows in lactation. Eight crossbred cows (Holstein x Gyr) were used, with 474 kg of body weight (standard deviation = 46.15 kg) and 8.15 kg of milk per day. The animals were housed in individual stalls, distributed in two 4 x 4 Latin squares, and the treatments were: sugar cane; sugar cane corrected with 0.5% of urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1); 75% of sugar cane + 25% of elephant grass and 50% of sugarcane + 50% of elephant grass, based on natural matter. In addition to the treatments, it was provided water and mineral salt ad libitum and 3 kg of concentrate supplement (24% crude protein), based on corn meal and soybean meal, supplied in two portions during the morning and afternoon milking. There was a treatment effect on the intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, except for non-fibrous carbohydrate intake, and there was no effect on milk production and composition. It can be concluded that the substitution of sugarcane by elephantgrass (25 and 50%) increases the intake and decreases the digestibility of DM and OM, without affecting milk production, when the cows are supplemented with 3 kg of concentrate, containing 24% of protein per day.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of low-purity crude glycerin (CG, 63.1% of glycerol) in the diets of feedlot-finished goats on the weights and yields of the non-carcass components, with are frequently used in regionals dishes (buchada and panelada). Forty castrated male goats with the initial mean body weight of 19.70 ± 2.30 kg were used. Experimental treatments consisted of inclusion of CG at levels of 0, 6, 12, and 18%, based on dry matter. The weights of the lungs, spleen, total organs (TWO), and TWO yield, as a function of the slaughter body weight, decreased linearly. It was shown that the rumen portion of the weight showed a quadratic effect, at the level of 10.71% of CG, with a minimum point of 0.37 kg. Similar behavior was observed for the reticulum, with a minimum point of 0.08 kg, at the level of 7.5% of CG. The weights and yields of the buchada and panelada were negatively influenced by the experimental diets. Low-purity crude glycerin may partially replace corn and be included in up to 6% of the dry matter of the finished goats' feedlot diet without adversely affecting weights and yields of organs, viscera, and regional dishes, such as buchada and panelada.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate non-carcass components of goats submitted to grazing in the Caatinga rangeland and supplemented with spineless cactus (Nopalea cochelinifera Salm Dick), Jitirana hay (Merremia aegyptia L. Urban) and Mororó hay (Bauhinia cheilanta Bong Stend). Thirty male goats (castrated), with no defined breed, with an initial mean body weight of 19 ± 0.35 kg and approximately 90 days of age were used. The treatments consisted of grazing without supplementation (GWS), grazing + Jitirana hay (GJ); grazing + Jitirana hay + spineless cactus (GJSC); grazing + Mororó hay (GM); grazing + Mororó hay + spineless cactus (GMSC). The means of the variables were tested by Tukey's test at 5% probability. The goats fed GWS, GJSC, GM and GMSC presented higher weights and yields of the diaphragm, and the spleen weight (p < 0.05). The highest yield of omasum (p < 0.05) occurred with goats fed GJ treatment. There were treatments (p < 0.05) on omental fat weight and leg yield, with the highest values for goats, fed GWS, GJSC, GM, and GMSC. The "Buchada" EBW-1 yield was higher (p < 0.05) for animals fed GWS. Feeding supplementation of goats grazing in the Caatinga had few influences on weights and yields of non-carcass components.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The experiment was carried out to evaluate total and partial digestibility of nutrients, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, in situ degradability and ruminal parameters in cattle fed diets with rehydrated corn grain silages, okara or soybean grain. Three Holstein steers were distributed in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. The treatments evaluated were: SO (corn grain silage + 30% okara), SSG (corn grain silage + 20% soybean grain) and CG (dry corn grains). The ruminal digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) increased in SO (88.34%) and SSG treatments (87.87%), compared to the CG treatment (63.48%). The minimum ruminal pH value was 6.01, observed 4.13 hours after feeding a diet with SO. The highest ammonia-N contents were 15.25 and 15.07 mg dL-1 observed in SSG and SO, respectively, 2.45 and 2.61 hours after feeding. Treatments SO and SSG showed higher fraction A content (readily degradable fraction) and C (constant rate of degradability of fraction B). The effective degradability (ED) of dry matter (DM) was higher for the diets SO and DE of CP was higher for treatments SO and SSG. SSG and SO result in better utilization of nutrients by animals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of replacement of Tifton 85 hay with Guandu hay on the intake, digestibility and ingestive behavior of dairy goats. Five Saanen goats with average milk production of 2.26 ± 0.10 kg d-1, around 123 ± 4 days of lactation were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of five levels of replacement with Guandu: 0, 8.4, 16.8, 25.2, or 36.4 %. We sampled the food offered, leftovers and feces to calculate intake and digestibility, and the ingestive behavior was monitored for 24 hours. Regression analysis was applied with 5% significance. The nutrient intake and the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and protein decreased linearly with increasing levels of Guandu hay in the diet (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the neutral detergent fiber digestibility increased linearly, without change the water intake and ingestive behavior with replacement levels of Tifton hay with Guandu hay in the diet (p < 0.05). The replacement of up to 36.4% Tifton hay with Guandu hay in the dairy goat diet reduces the intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and protein, and increasesfiber digestibility, without changing the ingestive behavior and water intake.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The application of morphofunctional measurements allows the selection of suitable animals to perform working activities and ensure that animal maximum capacities are not exceeded. Mules are commonly used by small farmers for agricultural work in mountain areas where the access is extremely difficult. We aimed to estimate the functionality indexes of working mules in mountain areas of the Colombian Central Andes. A total of 94 adult mules were evaluated for withers height, thoracic perimeter, body length, neck length, and body weight, which were used to determine the body index (BI), proportionality index (PI), and load carriage index (LCI). Descriptive statistics, analysis of correlations, and principal component analysis were performed. Males presented higher morphometric measurements than females. There was a negative correlation between BI with PI and LCI. The principal component analysis was able to merge characteristics in two components explaining 81.78% of the variance in the indexes. These results demonstrated that working mules in the studied area have morphometric characteristics that define them as mesolinear animals with a low frame and broad chest, and these characteristics can function as a guide to identify desirable conformation indices for working mules, determining values of adequate load, respecting animal welfare.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Maremmana is a local Italian breed reared in southern Tuscany and northern Latium. Twenty-two young bulls were reared in pasture system with concentrate supply (PSCS), whereas 20 young bulls were reared in feedlot intensive system (IS) in order test differences between meat typologies. The bulls were slaughtered at 18 months old. The performances at slaughtering were similar between finishing systems. IS bull meat has shown higher cooking loss than PSCS bull meat (p < 0.001), higher moisture content (p < 0.01), and fat (p < 0.001), and lower crude protein (p < 0.001). The SFA, MUFA and PUFA percentage were similar between meat typologies; whereas if considered in mg per 100 gr of muscle MUFA and SFA content was higher in PSCS meat (p < 0.05). Among the Healthy Indices, C18:2/C18:3 was higher in IS System (14.08 vs. 9.77; p < 0.001); the results of the PCA (Principal Component Analysis) of fatty acids composition showed that PSCS meat was characterized by MUFA and SFA, while IS meat was identified by C18:2/C18:3, and ω6/ ω3.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the monthly milk production and quality of buffaloes from two milk production systems in the Brazilian northeast using the multivariate analysis: principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 2,506 individual milk recordings were performed in two production systems, containing information on milk production (kg day-1), fat, protein, lactose and total solids counts and somatic cell count (SCC). There were positive correlations between the fat content and the contents of total solids (TS) and protein, and of TS and protein. From the PCA, two main components (PC1 and PC2) were identified, explaining 67.71% of the total variation. The fat, protein, lactose and ST level, represented by PC1, explain 46.18% of the total variance, and were an indicator of milk nutritional quality. The CP2, composed of milk production, SCC and production systems, explains 21.53% of the total variance, and was indicative of herd health. PCA results may be useful in dairy buffalo breeding programs, and a reduced number of variables are necessary to assess the nutritional quality of milk and herd health.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objectives were to evaluate the biodiversity of bees, forage behavior and their effect on fruit production in the gherkin crop (Cucumis anguria L.) in the campus of the University Center Moura Lacerda in two years. The frequency and type of collection of the insects in the flowers was observed by counting from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., in the first 10 minutes of each time, for three distinct days in each year. The percentage of fruiting was quantified in 25 female flowers covered with nylon compared to the 25 female flowers uncovered in the two years. The flowers were visited by the Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera and the native bees Plebeia sp., Exomalopsis sp. and Melissodes sp., and the Africanized honey bees presented higher frequency and constancy with a higher number of visits in the male flowers compared to the female ones and these visits occurred between 8:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. Without the visitation of the bees there was no fruit production, and both the Africanized honey bee and the native ones when collecting nectar and pollen, visited both female and male flowers, carrying pollen in their body, being considered important pollinators of this culture.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine polymorphism of LCORL gene in horse breeds and its association with body size. PCR-RFLP technique was performed using AluI for genotyping of 306 horses. Results showed that C is the rare allele in Iranian Breeds, because these horses have been used since ancient times as a courier and for war and archery, hence selection has done to benefit of spiky horses with medium body that need less food and are tireless. While, for foreign breeds; frequency of C allele was high that can be concluded these breeds used in fields, forests, and mines. A UPGMA dendrogram based on the Nei's standard genetic distance among studied breeds showed separate clusters for Iranian native and exotic breeds. Statistical association analysis of three observed genotypes with body size showed that there is an association between this polymorphism and body size criteria (p < 0.01). Overall, it can be concluded that studied mutation in LCORL gene can be used as candidate marker for improving body weight in horse.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to employ the principal component technique to physiological data and environmental thermohygrometric variables correlated with detection of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. A total of 24 lactating Girolando cows with different clinical conditions were selected (healthy, and with clinical or subclinical mastitis). The following physiological variables were recorded: udder surface temperature, ST (°C); eyeball temperature, ET (°C); rectum temperature, RT (°C); respiratory frequency, RF (mov. min-1). Thermohygrometric variables included air temperature, AirT (°C), and relative humidity, RU (%). ST was determined by means of thermal images, with four images per animal, on these quarters: front left side (FL), front right side (FR), rear right side (RR) and rear left side (RL), totaling 96 images. Exploratory data analysis was run through multivariate statistical technique with the employment of principal components, comprehending nine variables: ST on the FL, FR, RL and RR quarters; ET, RT; RF, AirT and RU. The representative quarters of the animals with clinical and subclinical mastitis showed udder temperatures 8.55 and 2.46° C higher than those of healthy animals, respectively. The ETs of the animals with subclinical and clinical mastitis were, respectively, 7.9 and 8.0% higher than those of healthy animals. Rectum temperatures were 2.9% (subclinical mastitis) and 5.5% (clinical mastitis) higher compared to those of healthy animals. Respiratory frequencies were 40.3% (subclinical mastitis) and 61.6% (clinical mastitis) higher compared to those of healthy animals. The first component explained 91% of the total variance for the variables analyzed. The principal component technique allowed verifying the variables correlated with the animals' clinical condition and the degree of dependence between the study variables.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim was to evaluate the proximate food composition, cholesterol content, coloring and economic aspects of the main nutrients present in by-products from the slaughter of cattle. The samples were collected from 14 organs, with four repetitions each, of which we conducted the analyses of moisture, crude protein, mineral matter, cholesterol and fat content. The color was measured through the coordinates L*, a*, b*. The differences between the groups of red and white viscera were evaluated by contrasts analysis. Subsequently, the data were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, which was complemented by the principal component technique. In the analysis of contrast between red and white viscera, the results showed that the components with the highest content of total fat does not necessarily have the highest content of cholesterol and vice-versa. For minerals, the red viscera presented higher content than white viscera and, in order to analyze the protein composition, there was less variability for red viscera in relation to white viscera. In the color analysis, the values for the color readings indicated uniformity between the external and internal readings, except for the tongue. On mean, the proximate composition values for the offals are similar to the values for beef, especially regarding the red viscera.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three breeding systems on the organoleptic quality and the physico-chemical composition of kids goat meat. Were used thirty newborn baby goats of 3.35 kg ± 0.65 kg crossed Parda Alpina x Undefined Race (SPRD) submitted to three breeding systems: Traditional system-TS; Intensive Feeding System without Concentrate- IS and Intensive Feeding System with Concentrate- IS+C. When the goats reached 12 kg, the animals were slaughtered and chemical and physical analyzes were performed in the evaluation of the meat and sensorial. The experimental design was completely randomized, submitted to analysis of variance and compared by the Tukey test and Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsh at 5%. All analyzed variables were also submitted to Pearson correlation. The meat of the goats submitted to IS+C and IS presented higher intramuscular fat content and better flavor and aroma scores. A of Goats that used concentrated ration (TS and IS+C) showed a more intense red color in the meat than the animals that did not receive concentrate in their diets, besides presenting higher lipid contents in their composition, better scores for these two organoleptic characteristics. The chemical composition of goat meat in both breeding systems indicates that it is low in fat and high in moisture and therefore classified as very tender and juicy. The meat obtained from the IS+C, in general, presented better attributes than the others, believing it in the markets of meat of high quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed at evaluating the internal and external quality of brown-shelled eggs commercialized in the municipality of Parintins-AM. A total of 540 eggs were evaluated and distributed in a completely randomized design, which consisted of three treatments and six replications of 30 eggs each. The treatments were: eggs sold in supermarkets; in grocery stores; and eggs sold directly at the farm. The age of the eggs from supermarkets and grocery stores was unknown, however, the eggs bought at the farm were marketed as being from the day of laying. The collected data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test at 5% probability. There were no differences (p > 0.05) of treatments in the percentage of dirty eggs, however, grocery and farm eggs presented higher (p < 0.05) crack percentage. The eggs at the farm presented higher incidence (p < 0.05) of internal stains of blood. The weight of the egg and albumen presented no differences (p > 0.05). However, the albumen percentage of the farm eggs was higher than the other treatments (p < 0.05). The percentages for yolk and eggshell weight from the farm eggs were lower than the supermarket and grocery eggs (p < 0.05). For the variables albumen height, Haugh unit, albumen index, yolk and albumen pH, the best results were observed for the farm eggs, however, regarding these variables, eggs sold in supermarkets and grocery stores did not differ from each other. The brown shell eggs sold in the city of Parintins/AM have high rates of external defects, and the eggs bought directly from the farm presented better internal quality, when compared to eggs sold in different establishments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters and trends for reproduction traits using data collected at the breeding station of Iran-Black sheep during 1980 to 2004. The traits included in the analyses were litter size at birth (LSB) and weaning (LSW) and litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB) and weaned (LMWLW) as basic traits, and total litter weight at birth (TLWB) and weaning (TLWW) as composite traits. Direct heritability estimates for LSB, TLWB, LMWLB, LSW, TLWW and LMWLW were 0.11, 0.07, 0.33, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.11, respectively. The permanent environmental effects had significant impact on all traits and ranged from 0.05 to 0.16. Effect of service sire was highly significant (p < 0.01) for all traits except LMWLW. Estimates of genetic correlations ranged from -0.76 (LSB-LMWLB) to 0.98 (LSB-LSW). Phenotypic and environmental correlations were generally lower than those of genetic correlations. Environmental correlations ranged from -0.55 (LSW-LMWLW) to 0.99 (LSB-LSW). Also, the estimated correlation for the effect of service sire ranged from -0.77 (LMWLB-TLWW) to 0.96 (LSB-LSW and LSB-TLWW). The results suggest that selection based on TLWB could be more effective than the other traits to enhance reproductive performance in Iran-Black ewes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of urea and tannin in multiple supplements on ingestive behavior of cattle in pasture. The experiment was taken in the Cattle Nutrition pasture of the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, in 4 x 4 Latin square design with a factorial arrangement 2 x 2 (with and without urea and with and without tannin). Four Nellore bulls were used, with average weight of 470 kg and an average age of 20 months, randomly divided in: Supplement without urea and without tannin, Supplement without urea and with tannin, supplement with urea and without tannin, and supplement with urea and with tannin. The level of supplementation used was 1% of body weight during the dry period of the year. The experiment lasted 80 days in total, divided into four periods of 20 days each and every where, the 14 first days were intended for the adaptation of animals to the add-in and the 6 days left to collect samples. Bulls were visually observed for two days during 12 consecutive hours, morning and evening shifts recital. The variables studied were: grazing time, idle time, time of rumination, length of stay in the trough and length of stay at a watering hole.The inclusion of urea to cattle supplement in grazing reduced the grazing time and increased time spent in the trough. The addition of tannin did not influence ingestive behavior.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. One of the main factors to establish productivity of grazing cattle is the estimation of forage intake. For this, the most widely used technique is based on the estimation of fecal output using chromium dioxide as external marker. However, quantification can be expensive and sometimes not precise due to the methodology used for this purpose. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate the colorimetric method for chromium quantification and to implement it in the estimation of fecal output in grazing cattle. The temperature, the digestion time and the wavelength for the measurement were evaluated. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision, accuracy, and stability. Results showed that temperature and digestion time are critical to improve sensitivity and quantification limits. The validation demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantification of Cr2O3 in a wide range of concentrations, being statistically comparable with a reference method, and offering a reliable low cost and easy to implement alternative, to estimate fecal output in bovine digestibility studies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Consumers today are increasingly more demanding regarding their food, seeking healthier and better quality products, and in this context animal nutrition plays a key role. The meat composition can be altered by animal feed itself, being that lipid profile may directly contribute to consumer health, reducing the predisposition of developing cardiovascular diseases, main cause of mortality in the world. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary feed restriction in Santa Inês lambs on their intramuscular, intermuscular, and subcutaneous fat profile, fat profile of the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle, and the total meat lipids and cholesterol. Three groups of lambs were subjected to diets: without restriction (WR), and 30 and 60% feed restriction. Overall, stearic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the predominant and the lowest lipid and cholesterol levels were observed at the highest restriction level, presenting higher polyunsaturated:saturated (PUFA:SFA) and desirable (DFA) fatty acid ratios (p < 0.05). Lambs subjected to 60% dietary feed restriction had a better quality meat with lower lipid and cholesterol contents, and profile favorable for human health due the presence of unsaturated fatty acids, that is important parameter the market demands to meet the consumers’ expectations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of auto-lysed yeast and yeast extract on performance and immune responses of cows in hot climate in the early lactation period. Twenty five lactating dairy cows randomly assigned to 5 groups and 5 replicates. Cows received basal diet with or without auto-lysed yeast (20 or 40 g/d/head) or yeast extract (20 or 40 g/d/head) as on top-dressed. There were no differences for daily dry matter intake, milk production milk fat and the counts of red blood cells and white blood cells among treatments (p > 0.05). There were significant differences among treatments for immunoglobulin G (IgG) level, lymphocyte and neutrophil percentages. Yeast extract had no effect on IgG level, but auto-lysed yeast increased IgG level and neutrophil percentage and decreased lymphocyte percentage (p < 0.05). The highest relative interleukin-2 gene expression was for cows received auto-lysed yeast at the level of 40 g/d/head. Yeast extract had no significant effect on interleukin-2 gene expression as compared to the control group. It was concluded that auto-lysed yeast at the level of 40 g/d/head had no effect on performance, but it could positively influence on immune response of lactating dairy cows in hot climate during early period of lactation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Microfiber fabrics are more efficiency in retaining fine-particles that increase the variation in in situ degradability. The aim of this was to examine the performance of in situ bags made from different microfiber fabric for meeting the required specification and their ruminal degradability compared with standard Ankom in situ bags. Four fabrics were manufactured using polyester microfiber with 1.04 denier, weft yarn counts (150 and 300), weft density (22 and 28 picks / inch), plain 1/1 textile structure. Physical and mechanical properties of manufactured fabrics were measured before and after incubation. Ruminal degradability was measured for three feedstuffs (soybean meal, wheat bran and berseem hay) using three rumen-fistulated rams as a replicates after 24 and 48 hours. Fabric's pore size was significantly decreased as either yarn weft count or density increased. Yarn weft count had a significant effect on all fabric's properties. Air permeability was significantly decreased as fabric's weft yarn count increased. Sample (1) meet the specific requirements for in situ bags and showed the nearest degradability values to those observed using Ankom bags for all feedstuffs in most incubation times. Microfiberin situ bags could be used in in situ ruminal degradation trials to reduce the variation in results due to the present of the fine particles.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein energetic, enzymatic and mineral profile of Nellore cows during the pregnancy, parturition and postpartum. Fifteen multiparous cows with 4 ± 1 years of age and live weight of 400 ± 50 kg were used at different stages (non-pregnant, in the initial, middle and late pregnancy, at birth, one day postpartum, 30 and 60 days postpartum). Blood collections were performed every 30 days and assayed for the following blood biomarkers: Protein (total proteins, albumin, urea and creatinine), energetic (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and beta hydroxybutyrate), mineral (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and enzymatic (alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase). Calcium had the lowest concentrations (p < 0.05) in the initial pregnancy, while phosphorus had the highest concentration at parturition (p < 0.05). Triglycerides, glucose and beta hydroxybutyrate were influenced by the stages of pregnancy, reducing in the late pregnancy and at parturition. Glucose had a reduction in the late pregnancy and elevation in the postpartum. Beta hydroxybutyrate showed increase at the late pregnancy. Although lipomobilization occurred in the phases of higher metabolic demands in the attempt to maintain homeostatic conditions. Nellore cows did not present negative energy balance in the late pregnancy period, maintaining normal variation in blood markers throughout the experimental period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Characteristics correlated with beekeeping production, less influenced by the environment and that can be controlled by management techniques, can help in the selection of colonies with higher production capacity, aiming to improve breeding programs. This research was carried out to evaluate the production of Africanized Apis mellifera drones and the longevity of spermatozoa from different genetic groups when supplemented with protein or not. Two genetic groups were used: one selected for royal jelly production from the Africanized honeybee breeding program and another without genetic selection. In both groups, the number of drone brood and the quality of semen were evaluated every 30 days, for five months. Statistical analysis was performed using Bayesian Inference. Statistical difference was found for the drone production among the treatments, and colonies without genetic selection produced more males (187.80 ± 11.15) than the selected colonies (93.07 ± 8.88). The selected colonies for royal jelly production presented greater efficiency in the reproductive cycle of males, because they produced fewer drones than colonies without genetic selection, however, with 31% greater semen viability.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to predict average number of kits per birth and mortality number of non-descript rabbits in Plateau State, Nigeria using artificial neural network (ANN). Data were obtained from a total of 100 rabbit farmers. The predicted mean value for number of kits per birth using ANN (6.60) was similar to the observed value (6.52). As regards mortality, the predicted mean value using ANN (17.75) was also similar to the observed value (17.80). Primary occupation, experience in rabbit keeping, flock size and credit type were the parameters of utmost importance in predicting number of kits per birth. The fairly high coefficient of determination (R2) (55.7%) and low root mean square error (RMSE) value of 1.22 conferred reliability on the ANN model. The R2 value obtained in the prediction of mortality using ANN implies that 61.1% of the variation in the number of mortality can be largely explained by the explanatory variables such as flock size, age of farmers, experience in rabbit keeping and average number of kits per birth. The low RMSE value of 3.82 also gave credence to the regression model. The present information may be exploited in taking appropriate management decisions to boost production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The goat's milk is an excellent choice to replace cow’s milk for children and adults, who are allergic to cow’s milk. Both the proteins and the fat portion of goat’s milk are absorbed by the body faster than cow's milk. Visually it is not possible to differentiate cow’s milk from goat’s milk, which can be differentiated through odor and taste which generates some concern to consumers. The objective of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of goat’s milk, compared to cow’s milk by children and young adults between 06 and 21 years old, in public network of schools Bambuí-MG, living in different socioeconomic levels, in order to verify if there is difference, in acceptance, between these two types of milk and study if the age and socioeconomic status could influence the results. Samples were prepared with chocolate powder and subjected to sensory evaluation by a group of 330 students, who are milk consumers. The samples were evaluated for preference through the hedonic scale of 5 points, asking about the score of the consumers and the preference of each type of milk. The test was conducted in two public schools. the data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test for comparison of means. Although goat's milk has some compositional characteristics and different physicochemical properties of cow's milk, there was no difference between them, due to acceptability between students of the public high school and elementary school network. The mixture 50% goat milk + 50% cow's milk generated greater rejection of the sampled population, a fact justified by the formation of small clots when mixing the different types of milks. Conventional cow's milk can be replaced by goat's milk in school meals, regardless of the age group and socioeconomic status of students.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient fluxes for lactating cows in a pasture-based dairy system and the impact of a nutritional management strategy on the environmental performance indicators. Fourteen lactating cows were divided into two experimental groups with seven animals each. The nutritional managements were a diet containing 20% crude protein (Group 1) and a diet with adjusted protein (Group 2). The nutrient budget was calculated on a monthly basis for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The nutritional strategy of adjusted protein reduces the total surplus in the lactation period for nitrogen by 7.6% and for phosphorus by 6.3%. The total potassium surplus of the adjusted protein group was 8.5% higher. The average nitrogen use efficiency was 21% for group 1 and 22.7% for group 2. Phosphorus use efficiency ranged from 13.4 to 35% for group 1 and from 15.5 to 34% for group 2 and potassium average use efficiency was 14.2% for group 1 and 12.6% for group 2. Nutritional management reduced nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses as well as the values of the environmental performance indicator. Based on this, it is possible to improve the environmental efficiency of dairy systems through improved nutritional management.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effect of replacing corn silage with spineless cactus, in combination with Tifton 85 hay or sugarcane bagasse, on the carcass measurements and sensory properties of the meat of lambs finished in feedlot. Twenty-one, intact, Santa Inês males, with an initial body weight of 22.86 ± 2.87 kg and an average age of 150 days, were individually confined for 74 days and fed at will three treatments diets: Corn silage (CS); Spineless cactus + Tifton 85 hay (CT) and Spineless cactus + sugarcane bagasse (CB). Lambs fed CT had a wider croup (p < 0.05) compared to animals fed CS. The replacement of corn silage with CT or CB did not influence (p > 0.05) the body length, withers height or chest circumference of the lambs. Values of carcass length and compactness index were similar (p > 0.05) between treatments. There was a high and positive correlation (p < 0.05) between chest width (0.82) and chest circumference (0.81) of animals with cold carcass weight. The odor and taste of sheep meat fed CT or CB was more accepted when compared to the meat of animals fed corn silage. The replacement of corn silage with spineless cactus in combination with Tifton 85 hay or sugarcane bagasse improves the sensory quality of sheep meat, but does not interfere with carcass measurements.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to estimate lactation curve parameters with Dijkstra mechanistic model and to evaluate genetic and phenotypic relationships between the parameters and the average somatic cell count in primiparous cows. The finding indicated that heritability estimates for partial milk yield (PMY1, PMY2 and PMY3), total 305-day milk yield (TMY305), decay parameter (λ2), age at first calving (AFC) and peak yield (PY) were moderate while the heritability of persistency (PS%), average somatic cell score (AVGSCS), time to peak yield (TP), initial milk production (λ0), specific rate of cell proliferation at parturition (λ1), and specific rate of cell death (λ3) were quite low. Genetic correlations between both AFC and PS% traits with average somatic cell scores was negative (-0.047 and -0.060) but low positive genetic correlation were between partial milk yields (PMY1 and PMY3) while negative genetic correlation (-0.06) was obtained between TMY305 and AVGSCS. Differences between TMY305 of cows with less than 100000 cells mL-1 and cows with >1,500,000 cells mL-1 was approximately 708 Kg and is equivalent to 8% loss of milk yield/cow during lactation period and also loss of persistency (11.1 %( was shown for the extreme classes of SCC in this study.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Data collected on 2550 Kurdi lambs originated from 1505 dams and 149 sires during 1991 to 2015 in Hossein Abad Kurdi Sheep Breeding Station, located in Shirvan city, North Khorasan province, North-eastern area of Iran, were used for inferring causal relationship among the body weights at birth (BW), at weaning (WW), at six-month age (6MW), at nine-month age (9MW) and yearling age (YW). The inductive causation (IC) algorithm was employed to search for causal structure among these traits. This algorithm was applied to the posterior distribution of the residual (co)variance matrix of a standard multivariate model (SMM). The causal structure detected by the IC algorithm coupling with biological prior knowledge provides a temporal recursive causal network among the studied traits. The studied traits were analyzed under three multivariate models including SMM, fully recursive multivariate model (FRM) and IC-based multivariate model (ICM) via a Bayesian approach by 100,000 iterations, thinning interval of 10 and the first 10,000 iterations as burn-in. The three considered multivariate models (SMM, FRM and ICM) were compared using deviance information criterion (DIC) and predictive ability measures including mean square of error (MSE) and Pearson's correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted values (r(y, ŷ)) of records. In general, structural equation based models (FRM and ICM) performed better than SMM in terms of lower DIC and MSE and also higher r(y, ŷ). Among the tested models ICM had the lowest (36678.551) and SMM had the highest (36744.107)DIC values. In each case of the traits studied, the lowest MSE and the highest r(y, ŷ) were obtained under ICM. The causal effects of BW on WW, WW on 6MW, 6MW on 9MW and 9MW on YW were statistically significant values of 1.478, 0.737, 0.776 and 0.929 kg, respectively (99% highest posterior density intervals did not include zero).