Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance of Hypsolebias radiseriatus larvae to different salinities, and the effects of different prey concentrations and water salinities on the larviculture of this species. Salinity tolerance was tested by subjecting newly-hatched larvae to 96 hours of osmotic shock testing (experiment I) and gradual acclimatization (experiment II) of the following salinities: freshwater (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 g of salt L-1. A third experiment (experiment III) evaluated three water salinities (S0 - freshwater, S2 - 2 g of salt L-1 and S4 - 4 g of salt L-1) and three initial daily prey concentrations (100, 300 and 500 artemia nauplii larva-1). In experiments I and II, survival was only influenced by the salinity of 8 g of salt L-1 (p < 0.01). After 35 days, weight was only influenced by prey concentration (p < 0.05), with the highest value being with 500 artemia nauplii larva-1. The lowest survival was for 4 g of salt L-1 and for 100 artemia nauplii larva-1. H. radiseriatus larviculture can be carried out in salinity of up to 2 g of salt L-1 and initial daily prey concentrations with 500 artemia nauplii larva-1.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aims at investigating to follow the formation and development of biofloc aggregates in a system with the introduction of an in vitro selected bacterial consortium (Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus cohnii) in order to induce fast formation of biofloc and to compare it to the development of spontaneous formation biofloc. Two experimental groups were evaluated for biofloc formation, SFT and IFT. The first refers to spontaneous (conventional) formation of the flocs and the second to induced formation (IFT), achieved through the consortium of potentially inducing bacteria. Both treatments presented a constant increase of bioflocs, however, in the IFT treatment, the microbial aggregates were larger and more uniform. By the end of the experiment, we verified that the aggregates formed in the IFT showed higher volume and lower sedimentation rate in comparison to the spontaneously formed ones. The results show that domestication in microbial communities is efficient as related to bioflocs, reducing instability during its formation and development.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of the present study was to determine the apparent digestibility of juveniles of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus fed diets with different levels of protein. The experimental design was completely randomized, where the treatments consisted of four levels of protein in the diets (28, 32, 36 and 40%) and five replicates (water boxes) with 10 juveniles of matrinxã each. Diets were offered four times a day, and feces were collected twice a week, along 28 days, for digestibility analysis. Data collected were subjected to polynomial regression at 5% significance. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in dry matter digestibility, with higher digestibility according to increasing levels of protein in the diets. This behavior was directly expressed in the digestibility of nutrients by juveniles of matrinxã, such as % ash, % crude protein, apparent digestible energy, % digestibility of apparent digestible energy and energy: protein ratio. However, this was not observed (p > 0.05) in the digestibility of % ether extract. Digestibility of N, P, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn presented linear positive (p < 0.05) behavior, in which the use of these minerals increased with the increase in the level of protein in the diets. However, the digestibility of K, Fe and Mn reduced (p < 0.05) with increasing protein levels in the diets. Thus, it can be concluded that the rise in protein level in diets for juveniles of matrinxã improves nutrient digestibility. The results of this study indicated that 40% crude protein in the diets provided better results.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by slow-release urea on feed intake, ruminal parameters, blood metabolites, dry matter, nutrients digestion, and microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in ram. Rams were used for four 21-day periods. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square design. The experiment has consisted of the following four rations: 1) basic diet with soybean meal as a protein source, 2) basic diet with soybean meal plus 0.5 % of DM slow-release urea (SRU), 3) basic diet with soybean meal plus 1 % of DM SRU, and 4) basic diet with soybean meal plus 1.5 % of SRU, respectively. Soybean meal replacement by SRU decreased ruminal ammonia and blood urea. SRU increase in diets significantly increased acetic acid 3 hours after morning feeding, blood glucose, total purine, uric acid excretion, microbial nitrogen, and microbial protein. The results showed that soybean meal replacement by SRU sources had no negative effect on rams performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective was to evaluate sowing density influence on hydroponic corn fodder bromatological composition, harvested in different ages raised on grass mix substrate. The experimental design used was completely randomized with six replications for each treatment, using 2.0 m² plots (1.0 x 2.0 m). The densities were distributed into factorial array (4x4), consisting in four sowing densities (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg m-²) and four cutting ages (10, 15, 20 and 25 days). The dry matter content (DMC) and production (DMP) and crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), Fiber neutral detergent (FND) and ethereal extract (EE) were analyzed each cutting age. In terms of DMP (kg m-²), EE (%) and DMC (kg m-²), it is recommended to use the density 1.0 kg m-² with cutting age of 25 days. Regarding CP (%) the best result was at 15 days of cut and density 2.5 kg m-² and the values for FND (%) and ADF (%) were higher at 25 days at 2.0 kg density 2,0 kg m-². The choice of both best harvesting age and density will depend on what is desired of the nutritional forage (CP, EE, NDF, ADF, DMC and DMP) as well its destination, since very close values were found in all analyzes, regardless of density and age of harvest analyzed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to relate the occurrence of visible losses in silage (effluent, spoiled top-layer and during feedout) with silage-making practices, physical and chemical characteristics of silage, and milk composition in Brazilian dairy herds. One-hundred and eight silos from 95 farms, in the State of Parana, were visited for data collection. Data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact and Pearson Correlation Test. Effluent loss was higher in silages with the lowest dry matter content. Using unwalled clamp (drive-over piles) silos, neglecting a protection over the plastic film, and unloading silage with a bucket increased the occurrence of top spoilage. Feedout losses were higher in farms where: the crop was harvested with self-propelled machines; the particle size was larger, and the silage density was lower. There was no relationship between visible losses and silage composition or milk composition, except for milk fat content that, unexpectedly, there was a positive correlation with spoiled silage in the top-layer. Silage losses are reduced by adopting good practices during silage production and feedout.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Agricultural production in semi-arid regions is limited due to water availability. In addition, the water quality available for irrigation is often compromised due to the high salt content present. Millet is a forage species considered tolerant to water deficit and moderately salt tolerant. In view of the above, the objective was to evaluate the growth of millet under water and saline stress associates. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, in a 4x3 factorial scheme, composed of four levels of water replacement, based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc): 25%.ETc, 50%.ETc, 75%.ETc and 100%.ETc and three levels of water salinity (0.03, 2.0 and 4.0 dS m-1). With 25%.ETc independent of salinity, all morphological characteristics of millet were affected, occurring death of plants in the initial growth phase. In the absence of salt and greater availability of water, greater plant growth occurred. With respect to salinity, there was a reduction in the increment of all variables evaluated, with the highest reduction at the highest saline level (4.0 dS m-1). Water and salt stresses, when associated, reduce the growth of millet, since concentrations above 2.0 dS m-1 and less than 50%.ETc compromise its full development, providing declines in yield.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the morphogenic and structural characteristics of six Panicum maximum cultivars during the establishment period. A completely randomized block design with four replicates and six treatments (Tamani, Mombaça, Massai, Tanzania, Aruana and Zuri cultivars) was used. Morphogenic (leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate e stem elongation rate), structural (final leaf length, tiller population density e number of leaves per tiller) and productive (forage mass, leaf blade mass, stem mass, senescent material mass and leaf:stem ratio) characteristics were evaluated. There was no difference (p > 0.05) between the cultivars in terms of the number of live leaves per tiller (2.95 leaves/tiller). Mombaça cultivar had (p < 0.05) higher canopy height (50.64 cm) compared with other cultivars. The highest (p < 0.05) tiller population density was observed in Tamani (235.90 tillers m-2) and Massai (201.60 tillers m-2) cultivars. Leaf lifespan (54.18 days), phyllochron (17.40 days/leaf) and leaf senescence rate (0.87 cm tiller day-1) were not different (p > 0.05) between cultivars. However, leaf appearance rate was higher (p < 0.05) in Tanzania (0.07 leaves tiller day-1) than in Aruana cultivar (0.05 leaves tiller day-1). Leaf blade mass was higher (p < 0.05) in Mombaça cultivar (1518.31 kg DM ha-1), whereas Massai showed higher (p < 0.05) leaf:stem ratio (9.25). Panicum cultivars Tamani, Tanzania and Massai establishment after 75 days, while the other cultivars establish at 105 days of sowing in the Brazilian Northeast.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed was the establishment of the genus Brachiaria in the Brazilian semi-arid region. The experiment was conducted from April to June 2016, as a randomized-block experimental design with five treatments and four replicates. Treatments were represented by five Brachiaria cultivars, namely, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã, Xaraés and Basilisk. Morphogenetic (leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate e stem elongation rate) and structural characteristics (final leaf length, tiller population density e number of leaves per tiller, forage mass, leaf blade mass, stem mass, senescent material mass and leaf:stem ratio) of the forage cultivars were evaluated. Canopy height fitted a linear regression model (P<0,05), with estimated daily increases of 0.50, 0.53, 0.53, 0.54 and 0.56 cm for cvs Basilisk, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã and Xaraés, respectively. The number of live leaves in cvs Basilisk and Paiaguás increased linearly (p < 0.05), by 4.3 and 2.8 leaves per tiller, respectively, during the 60-day period. The recommended height at which the growth of Brachiaria cultivars should be interrupted is upon reaching 25 to 35 cm. In the soil-climatic conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, the Brachiaria cultivars Basilisk, Marandu, Paiaguás, Piatã and Xaraés are established at 75 days after sowing, which is the recommended time for performing the first harvest or lenient grazing to stimulate tillering.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. In this study, the stimulatory effects of application of glyphosate herbicide coupled with manganese sulfate (8%) foliar fertilizer on the production and bromatological characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha ‘Marandu’ were evaluated. The experiments were performed using randomized complete block design with a 5×4 factorial scheme in plots subdivided over time (across four evaluations) with four repetitions, totaling 100 observations. The effects of sublethal doses of acid equivalent (a.e.) of glyphosate (5.40, 21.60, 64.80, and 108.00 g·a.e.·ha-1) and control plus manganese sulfate foliar fertilizer (1,000 g ha-1) were assessed in four successive evaluations at a defoliation frequency of 21 days. Foliage at 20 cm height (to evaluate forage production); leaf/stem ratio (LSR); and contents of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (LIG) were measured in experimental plots with a usable area of 7.5 m2. Application of sublethal doses of glyphosate plus manganese sulfate did not increase forage production, increased LSR, reduced LIG content, and did not affect CP content in all four evaluations. NFD and ADF indicated satisfactory qualitative indices for animal feed following the application of sublethal doses of glyphosate plus manganese sulfate in all four evaluations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Flaxseed oil is recognized as the plant source richest in α-linolenic acid, whereas clove leaf essential oil has a strong antioxidant capacity. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant capacity of diets containing a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and clove leaf essential oil (CLEO), as well as to use zebrafish (Danio rerio) to assess their effect on the animals’ growth. Fifty days after hatching, a total of 420 male specimens (0.29 ± 0.04 g) were divided into seven groups for each diet and fed for 55 days to be used, with the diets being: control, absent FO and CLEO; 3% FO + 0.5% CLEO; 3% FO + 1% CLEO; 6% FO + 0.5% CLEO; 6% FO + 1% CLEO; 9% FO + 0.5% CLEO and 9% FO + 1% CLEO. Antioxidant activity was determined through DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) tests, showing interaction effect between factors (FO x CLEO, p < 0.05); the diets containing 1% combined with 3, 6 or 9% of FO presented means higher than those of the 0.5% diets. No mortality was observed during the experiment. For final weight and weight gain, there was no interaction effect (p > 0.05), only isolated effect for FO, with the fish fed 6 and 9% diets having the best results. Final total length and specific growth rates showed interaction effect (p < 0.05). As for specific growth rates, the best response was that of the diet with 6% FO and 0.5% CLEO. Final length showed increase with FO levels, even when there was association with 0.5 or 1% of CLEO. Therefore, combined use of 9% of FL with 0.5% of CLEO is recommended for zebrafish.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the level of fiber and its action period in diets to laying hens on performance and egg quality. 180 Hisex white hens (65 weeks-old) were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 60 birds each, comprising 10 replicates of six birds per treatment. The experimental design was factorial scheme considering three levels of fiber (2.50, 4.87 and 7.24%) in birds’ diets, and three action periods of this fiber (short - 21 days, medium - 56 days, and long - 105 days) in the feed. The estimates of treatments were firstly subjected to ANOVA and a subsequent Tukey test at 5%. Birds fed diets with moderate levels of fiber (4.87%) presented better (p < 0.05) performance. High levels of fiber caused a significant reduction in performance. Birds fed diets with low and moderate levels of fiber produced eggs with better (p < 0.05) quality. High levels of fiber caused a significant reduction in egg quality. The exposure of birds to diets with fiber for long-term caused a negative effect (p < 0.05) on performance, egg weight and percentage of its main structures, albumen height, yolk height, eggshell thickness, and the specific gravity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This experiment was conducted to examine the effects of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with different levels of cholecalciferol on performance, and tibia parameters of one-d-old male broilers fed a tibial dyschondroplasia (TD)-inducing diet. A total of three hundred male broilers were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups with 4 replicates. The dietary treatments consisted of TD inducing diet, TD inducing diet supplemented with 5 μg per kg of 1-α(OH)D3; TD inducing diet supplemented with 5 μg per kg of 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500; 3,000 or 5,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. At 42 d of age, broiler chickens fed diets containing 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had higher body weight (p < 0.05). In the complete experimental period the best FCR and the highest daily weight gain were obtained in broilers supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet. Broilers supplemented with 1-α(OH)D3 and 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet had significantly lower incidence and severity of TD in comparison with other groups. In conclusion, the results indicated that the supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 in combination of 1,500 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet could maximize tibia bone ash, performance and prevent TD in broilers fed TD inducing diet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in diets with different energy levels in broiler performance. Birds were offered a starter (1-21 d), grower (22-35 d) and finisher (36-42 d) diets; wherein soybean oil was replaced by CLA. The study consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with two CLA levels (0 and 1%) and three energy levels (3050, 3100 and 3150 ME kg-1 diet). During the grower and finisher periods, birds were fed diets with same energy level and CLA supplementation was maintained the same. Growth performance was assessed weekly, and carcass and cuts yield were assessed at 42d. Interaction effect of CLA by energy level was observed in broiler performance and carcass yield throughout the study (p > 0.05). During the overall period (1-42 d) broiler performance was not affected by CLA (p > 0.05).However, CLA supplementation (1%) decreased weight gain (p < 0.05) at 21d, regardless of energy level, with no effects on feed intake and feed conversation rate (p > 0.05). The increase in dietary energy was not able to compensate the negative effect on growth performance of broilers supplemented with 1% CLA at the starter period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of vegetable oils on the antioxidant capacity, blood lipid components and immune responses in chickens raised in hot climate. In a completely randomized design, 300 chicks were assigned to four treatments and five replicates with 15 chicks per each. The highest concentration of malondialdehyde was found in broilers fed palm oil (p < 0.05). Chickens fed corn oil had the lowest and those fed flaxseed oil had the highest antioxidant enzymes activities (p < 0.05). The highest hepatic Alanine-transferase and Aspartate-transferase was found in chickens fed corn oil and the lowest levels in those received flaxseed and olive oils (p < 0.05). The highest hypersensitivity was in chickens fed palm oil and the lowest was for olive oil. The highest antibody titer against sheep red blood cells was found in chickens fed flaxseed oil and the lowest titer was for those received palm oil (p < 0.05). The highest triglyceride, cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein and the lowest high density lipoprotein was found in chickens fed palm oil and vice versa for flaxseed and olive oils. Olive and flaxseed oils had beneficial effects on antioxidant activity and lipid attributes and palm oil had detrimental effects on these parameters that related to the poultry health.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of eggs produced by Japanese quails fed with guava extract. A total of 400 eggs collected from the quails fed with experimental diets, were distributed in a completely randomized design in factorial arrangement 4 x 4 with main effects including four dietary levels of guava extract (0, 3, 6 and 9 g kg-1) and four storage periods (0, 9, 18 and 27 days) totalizing 16 treatments with five replicates of five eggs. The eggs were produced by Japanese quails, fed with experimental diets. The diets were isonutritive formulated by corn-soybean basis. The eggs were stored for different periods, at the same conditions, to constitute the treatments. The parameters evaluated were egg weight loss (g and %), yolk color, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell thickness and pH of the yolk and albumen. Data were submitted to ANOVA, and means were compared using Scott-Knott test, using α = 0.05. The specific gravity of fresh eggs was better with the use of 6 g kg-1 of guava extract in the diet. The use of 3 g kg-1 of guava extract resulted in smaller eggshell thickness of fresh eggs. The Haugh unit was affected just by the storage periods. The dietary guava extract (3, 6 or 9 g kg-1) increased the pH of albumen in eggs stored for 27 days. The use of 6 g kg-1 of guava extract in quails diet increase the specific gravity in fresh eggs and increase the yolk color when the eggs are stored.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Laurel leaves characterized with interesting antioxidant effects, which have often used to improve the immunity with positive consequences on growth and performance This study was conducted to assess the effect of adding crushed laurel leaves to the diet on the productive traits of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments, with a rate of 45 birds per treatment; each treatment consisted of three replicates. The first treatment, or control, was generated without adding laurel leaves to the diet, second, third, and fourth treatments were generated by adding laurel leaves with amounts of 1, 2, and 3 g kg-1 feed, respectively. Nine productive traits were evaluated in this study, including the average of live body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, percentage of mortality, productive index, length of the villus, depth of crypts, and villus length/crypts length ratio. Results indicated that the addition of laurel leaves led to a significant improvement in all productive traits, signifying highly essential participation of laurel leaves to enhance growth and performance. In conclusion, it can be stated that adding 3 g kg-1 of crushed laurel leaves to the diet can improve the productive traits of broiler chickens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and digestibility of diets containing different levels of crude propolis for growing rabbits. Forty-eight New Zealand White rabbits, 43 days old, of both genders, were used, distributed in a completely randomized design. There were four diets with different inclusion levels of crude propolis (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5%). There was no statistical difference for performance regarding the inclusion levels of crude propolis (p = 0.85), as well as for the variables dry matter consumption, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (p ≥ 0.07). Crude protein consumption showed a statistical difference in relation to gender (p = 0.04): males showed higher consumption. However, final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain and feed efficiency were not influenced by the addition of crude propolis (p ≥ 0.37). Dry matter digestibility, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were not influenced by the inclusion levels of crude propolis in the diets (p ≥ 0.12). This study indicates that the inclusion of raw propolis up to 1.5% in the diets does not affect the performance parameters of rabbits.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of homeopathic products in diets of quails in the egg quality when submitted to different storage periods. In the trial we used 200 Japanese quails in a completely randomized design with 4 diets: reference diet, vehicle used in homeopathic products and 2 homeopathic products - Fertsigo® and Ovosigo® with ten replicates of three eggs in each. Egg quality parameters were evaluated during 3 storage periods. Data were evaluated as repeated measures in time, the effects of the interactions between treatments and time as well as their isolated effects were verified. There was the interaction between homeopathic products and storage time in the parameters of albumen and yolk height, Haugh unit, and yolk index, in which a reduction was obtained over time. For egg weight, yolk, albumen and shell, percentage of albumen, and percentage of eggshell there was a significant effect only for homeopathy. The inclusion of homeopathic additives increased egg weight. It is indicated the addition of the product with homeopathic basis Ovosigo® and FertSigo® in diets of Japanese quails in the laying phase resulting in better egg and components but did not influence the quality maintenance of eggs of Japanese quails in the periods evaluated.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The physical-chemical characteristics and sensory attributes of milk are variable. This study aimed to evaluate how spineless cactus varieties resistant to carmine cochineal (Dactylopius sp.) influences the composition and sensory characteristics of goat milk. Twelve lactating goats with body weights of 51.35 ± 3.75 kg were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square, with three simultaneous squares composed of four animals, four periods, and four experimental diets: Control - goats fed tifton grass hay and concentrate; SCOE - goats fed the Orelha-de-elefante spineless cactus, tifton hay, and concentrate; SCB - goats fed the Baiana spineless cactus, tifton hay, and concentrate; SCM - goats fed the Miúda spineless cactus, tifton hay, and concentrate. The levels of protein and non-greasy solids and the sensory attributes of the milk (odor, butter flavor, and global acceptance) did not differ between the treatments (p > 0.05). The lipid content of the milk was reduced in the SCOE treatment compared to the control (p = 0.0014). The milk obtained from animals fed the SCOE and SCM treatments had a stronger flavor (p < 0.05). These results suggest that varieties of spineless cactus resistant to carmine cochineal can be used as goat feed without affecting milk production or global acceptance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Reducing livestock negative environmental impacts get great interest in last years. So, present study was carried out to determine the effect of adding different levels of mixture of thyme and celery versus salinomycin on ruminal fermentation, gas production, dry, organic matter and fiber degradation. Four experimental treatments were used by in-vitro batch culture technique, as follow: 60% CFM, 40% clover hay (control), control diet + 2.5 gm thyme + 2.5 gm celery kg-1 DM (T1), control diet + 5 gm thyme + 5 gm celery kg-1 DM (T2), control diet + 10 gm thyme + 10 gm celery kg-1 DM (T3), control diet + 0.4 gm Salinomycin kg-1 DM (T4). Ruminal pH value was significantly increased (p < 0.05) with T4 compared with other treatments. While, the T4 recorded the lowest value (p < 0.05) for microbial protein, short chain fatty acids concentrations (SCFA), total gas production, dry matter and organic matter degradability (DMd and OMd) compared with other treatments. Fiber fraction degradability (NDFd and ADFd) appeared no significant variance (p > 0.05) between control and other treatments except for T1 that recorded the lowest value (p < 0.05). It is concluded that mixture of thyme plus celery could be alternate for ionophores in the ruminant diets to enhance ruminal fermentation, reducing gas production without any negative effect on nutrients degradability.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study examined the influence of the external markers chromium oxide (CO), titanium dioxide (TD), isolated, purified and enriched lignin (LIPE®) and isolated, purified, enriched lignin in nanoparticles (NANOLIPE®) as well as the internal markers indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) in diets with inclusion of passion fruit by-product for dairy heifers on the estimation of fecal output and nutrient digestibility. Sixteen Holstein × Zebu crossbred heifers at an average live weight of 363 ± 28 kg were randomly distributed in a completely randomized design where they received diets in which Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay was replaced with passion fruit by-product (0, 12, 24 and 36%, as-fed basis). The CO, LIPE®, NANOLIPE® and iNDF markers did not differ from the total collection method (p > 0.05) in the estimation of fecal output and nutrient digestibility. The TD and iDM markers overestimated, while iADF underestimated fecal output. Under the presented conditions, we recommend using the CO, LIPE®, NANOLIPE® and iNDF markers to estimate fecal output and nutrient digestibility in diets with inclusion of passion fruit by-product for dairy heifers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P) supplementation on the intake, digestibility, and quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls fed on high-grain diets finished in feedlot. Forty young bulls (30 months old) with an initial body weight (IBW) of 296 ± 25 kg were used. It was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The treatments were: without P supplementation (CO), commercial mineral supplement (CM), and supplementation with dicalcium phosphate (DP) with 2.4, 4.2, or 5.0 g of P per kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Diets were composed of sugarcane bagasse (200 g kg-1) plus concentrate (800 g kg-1) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The meat quality parameters analyzed were pH, color, cooking losses, shear force, and water-holding capacity. P supplementation did not affect the intake and digestibility of nutrients There was no interaction (p > 0.05%) between diets and the aging time for the meat quality parameters. However, bulls fed with DP exhibited lower pH (5.98) compared to CO and CM (6.19 and 6.14, respectively). The longer aging time increased the cooking losses and intensity of yellow (b*). Under Brazilian conditions, feedlot Nellore cattle fed with high-grain diets do not require additional mineral supplements.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro fermentation (IVRF) and apparent in vivo digestibility (AIVD) of diets formulated with four inclusion levels of babassu mesocarp meal (BMM) (0.0; 7.5; 15.0 and 22.5%) in ewe lambs. The IVRF test was performed through the "Hohenheim Gas Test" technique, following a randomized complete block design, with four blocks (rumen fluids from four different bovines). Gas production was measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after incubation. For the AIVD trial, 20 ewe lambs were used in a completely randomized design with five replicates. The animals were housed in metabolic cages during the digestibility test. Diets with BMM showed lower fermentation levels than those without BMM. The BMM reduced the gas production per incubation time and dry matter effective degradability (DMED), possibly due to its chemical characteristics, or even to the influence of other factors, such as physical properties. The BMM negatively influenced the AIVD of DM. Thus, it can be stated that, despite being a starch source, BMM reduces ruminal fermentation parameters when included in ruminant diets, negatively interfering with diet digestibility. Therefore, its use should be cautious.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. To investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum at different duration on the health and performance, 48 Holstein calves were enrolled randomly into four treatment groups before first feeding and consumed untreated colostrum (H0, n = 12), heat-treated colostrum at 60ºC for 30 min. (H30, n = 12), heat-treated colostrum at 60ºC for 60 min. (H60, n = 12) and heat-treated colostrum at 60ºC for 90 min. (H90, n = 12). Blood samples were collected for analyses of IgG and protein profile at 0, 6, and 24h of age. The colostrum sample from treated and untreated batches and feces sample from each calf also were taken. The results showed heat-treatment of colostrum at 60ºC for 60 (p = 0.03) and 90 min. (p = 0.01) reduced total bacterial count, while colostral IgG concentration maintained up to 60 min. Serum total protein (p = 0.02), IgG concentrations (p = 0.03), and apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (p = 0.02) were significantly greater at 6 and 24h in calves that were fed heat-treated colostrum (H90) compared to calves fed unheated colostrum (H0). General health status of calves that were received heat-treated colostrum was better and the prevalence of diarrhea-induced pathogens was lower than calves were fed unheated colostrum. In conclusion, the consumption of heat-treated colostrum had a positive effect on health, growth characteristics, and performance of calves during the suckling period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to assess the nutrient intake and milk production of dairy goats fed with total mixed rations with different species of forage cacti. Five pluriparous Saanen goats (50 ± 4 kg) at nine weeks of lactation were allocated in a Latin square (5 x 5) with five diets and five periods. Each period was composed of 10 days for adaptation and seven days for collection. The treatments were composed of 473.0 to 501.0 g kg-1 of forage cacti: xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei), mandacaru (Cereus jamacaru), facheiro (Pilosocereus chrysostele), cactus cladodes cv. miúda (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm-Dyck) and cactus cladodes cv. orelha de elefante mexicana (Opuntia stricta); plus sabiá hay (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) (188.0 to 198.0 g kg-1) and concentrate (311.0 to 329.0 g kg-1). The intake of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, and water intake through diet components were unaffected by experimental diets. For milk production and feed efficiency, no difference was observed among the diets. All diets containing different species of forage cacti can be used for dairy goats feed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to characterize four corn and sorghum co-products (DDG) in terms of their protein and carbohydrate fractions; we also evaluated the effects of substituting the protein source of the conventional supplement by DDG on consumption and nutrient digestibility in confined finishing cattle. Thirty-six male Nellore cattle with a mean age of 24 months were used. The treatments were: FA: concentrate with corn as an energy source and cottonseed meal as a protein source; DDG50: concentrate with a 50% substitution of the FA protein source by DDG; DDG100: concentrate with 100% substitution of the FA protein source by DDG. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments and three replicates (pens) containing four animals per pen. We found that the use of DDG in the finishing phase did not interfere with the animals’ food intake or the digestibility of the nutrients (p > 0.05). Nutrients were used by the animals; therefore, DDGs may be viable substitutes of cottonseed meal. We conclude that the bromatological composition of this co-product is influenced a lot during processing; therefore, the nutritional values of this co-product present in the composition tables may not be true.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Coriandrum sativum seeds on carcass performance, immune system, blood metabolites, rumen parameters and meat quality of Lambs. 16 Sanjabi lambs of 27 ± 5.1 kg during post-weaning (97 d of age) period were randomly selected. Four diets including 0, 1, 3, and 5% coriander seeds, replaced by Alfa alfa in the diet, were considered. A 30:70 alfalfa hay: concentrate diet for a period of time (97 to 187 d of age) was used. The results showed that feed intake was significantly increased by adding coriander seeds, linearly. There was no significant difference for apparent digestibility of crude protein, crude fat, neutral and acidic detergent fiber, crude ash, rumen fluid pH and ammonia nitrogen at 0, 2 and 4 h after feeding, Meat dry matter, ash, crude protein and fat, and the meat’s fatty acid profile (p > 0.05). Dietary coriander seeds had a significant effect on neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil’s (in days 7 and 14 of trial) and blood metabolites at the middle of trial. Obtained results suggested that supplementation of coriander seed may have limited effects on nutrient digestibility, ruminal parameters, meat quality, blood cells and metabolites.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of 50% broken rice (BR) in diets for meat quail from 1 to 35 days old, starting at different ages. A total of 875 mixed quail were allocated to five treatments in a completely randomized design with five replicates of 35 birds. The treatments consisted of a maize- and soybean meal-based control diet and four other similar diets in which the inclusion of 50% BR was started at different ages, namely, 1st, 8th, 15th and 22nd days. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated weekly. At 35 days, 10 quail per plot were weighed and selected to be slaughtered for evaluations of live weight, carcass yield and gizzard yield. Lastly, a study of economic viability was carried out. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was detected for the performance parameters, live weight or carcass yield, but a higher gizzard yield was found (p < 0.05) in the treatment without BR. The inclusion of BR from the first day of life provided better economic viability. Diets with a maximum inclusion of 50% BR can be formulated for meat quail at any age.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was performed to investigate the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by L. leucocephala leaves in proportions of 25, 50 and 100% on in vitro gas production (GP) parameter, digestibility and in situ degradability in buffalo. Results showed that the volume of GP at 2 to 12 hours after incubation was significantly affected by replacing alfalfa hay with L. leucocephala leaves. In vitro digestibility of organic matter (OMD) differed significantly between treatment as it declined by increasing the alfalfa hay substitution rate from 25 to 100%. The microbial crude protein (MCP) differed significantly between treatments and was the greatest of 589 and 599 mg g-1 of dry matter (DM) when L. leucocephala leaves replaced alfalfa hay at 25 and 50%. The in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD) increased significantly at 50% L. leucocephala replacement rate. Moreover, substituting alfalfa hay by L. leucocephala had a significant effect on the in situ degradability parameters. The insoluble but potentially degradable fraction (B) and potential of degradability (A+B) significantly increased for treatment contain 50% L. leucocephala leaves. The effective degradability (ED) was significantly different between dietary treatments and was the greatest when alfalfa hay was replaced by 25 and 50% L. leucocephala. In conclusion, L. leucocephala leaves can substitute 25 to 50% of dietary alfalfa hay in buffalo rations without effect on rumen efficiency.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The accumulation of industrial by-products increases the use of sweet potato waste for ruminants, but ruminal pH characteristics are still not well known. The objective was to assess the fluctuation of ruminal pH in sheep supplemented with different levels of sweet potato flour inclusion in their diet. Four rumen-fistulated sheep were used; they were fed a diet based on ryegrass haylage (Lolium multiflorum) and sweet potato flour (Ipomoea batatas), provided according to the level of inclusion in the total diet (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Approximately 80 ml of ruminal fluid was collected for reading on a bench pH meter. Statistical data analysis was run on Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute INC. Cary, NC, USA), and statistical difference was considered for p < 0.05. The animals that received 1.5% of sweet potato flour in their diet presented acid rumen pH; the 1.0% group presented rumen pH acidification in the first 6 hours after feeding, and the 0.5% level of inclusion did not change the rumen environment. It is concluded that the inclusion of 0.5% sweet potato flour in sheep diet proved to be an efficient energy supplementation strategy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Buffaloes make better use of coarse and inferior feed by converting them to biologically valuable animal production. They make very good use of the additional production of crop production, such as straw, sunflower cakes, sprouts and other. The aim is to study the physicochemical and fatty acid composition of the rations of buffalo of the Bulgarian mura breed in a church farm in Gigentsi village, Pernik District. The application of standard methods for the nutrition of buffaloes in separate periods - pastured with succulent fodder, winter (indoor) with coarse fodder, through which the ruminants are provided with the necessary nutritional components, allows to obtain high quality milk as a basic raw material for the production of dairy products. The use of succulent fodder and the incorporation of root crops into the feed instead of the buffalo concentrate provides them with respect to linoleic and alphalinolenic fatty acids, which are substrates for the synthesis of CLA (anticancer action) in rumen of ruminants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate productive, nutritional, and economic traits in lactating cows on pasture fed diets with different cation-anion balances (DCAB). Ten lactating – Holstein × ¼ Dairy Gyr cows in the middle third of lactation, at an average age of 70 ± 4.6 months and an average body weight of 400 ± 55.2 kg, were distributed into five treatments in a 5 × 5 Latin square experimental design with two simultaneous squares. Treatments consisted of diets with DCAB of +237, +258, +294, +347, or +419 mEq dry matter (DM). No effects of intake were observed. There was no significant effect of DCAB on milk yield. The milk protein content was not influenced by the DCAB. Body condition score was not significantly affected by the DCAB. The apparent digestibilities of dry matter and nutrients (crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, ether extract, non-fibrous carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients) were not affected by the DCAB. Marginal rate of return did not show significant differences. Under good conditions of pasture, forage availability, and quality associated with the lactation phases of the cows, all diets were efficient in milk production, dry matter intake, and digestibility. However, in economic terms, the most attractive DCAB was +237 mEq kg-1 DM.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was designed to examine the protective effects of nano-selenium and nano-zinc oxide on queen and workers performance under heat stress condition and gene expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as an index of heat tolerance. Sixty colonies were randomly assigned to five treatments with 12 replicates from June until early September. Sugar syrup (50%) containing no supplement or nano-selenium at levels of 50 and 100 µg L-1 or nano-zinc at levels of 100 and 200 µg L-1 was fed to colonies. Nano-selenium supplementations had no effect, but nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1 significantly decreased body malondialdehyde concentration. The highest bee population was seen in nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1 and the lowest one in control group. The lowest and the highest body weight, fat and protein deposition was found in group received nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1 and control, respectively. The highest gene expression was for group received nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1 In group received nano-zinc at level of 100 µg L-1, an increase in hsp70 gene expression was found. In conclusion, nano-zinc oxide at level of 100 µg L-1 could increase queen and worker performance and heat resistance of bees in the hot climate condition.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different hormonal protocols on the reproductive performance of Santa Inês ewes in Amazon environmental conditions. Twenty-two Santa Inês ewes between 3 and 4 years-old were distributed in a randomized block experimental design, where the treatments consisted of two protocols for estrus synchronization (short and long) with eleven animals each. Data on the occurrence of estrus were described for each protocol. Data of estrus, pregnancy, and prolificity were firstly subjected to ANOVA and a subsequent Tukey’s test. Results were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. The short-term protocol presented an interesting successful rate, where above 70% ewes tested had estrus. The long-term protocol also achieved a high successful rate, where above 80% ewes tested had estrus. However, comparing the protocols, the long-term protocol presented better results of positive estrus and pregnancy rates in ewes. Thus, it can be concluded that both protocols presented satisfactory results regarding estrus manifestation, and prolificity (lambs produced per ewe). However, under Amazon environmental conditions, the long-term protocol presented better results regarding positive manifestation of estrus and pregnancy rate.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of the current study was to evaluate cardiac status, ascites susceptibility, thyroid hormones, some hematological parameters and performance of five commercial broiler strains. Chicks were selected from strains of Cobb, Hubbard, Ross 308, Arbor Acres, and Arian (Iranian commercial broiler strain). Management and nutritional conditions were the same for all strains. Ascites related factors, and growth performance were measured. The highest and lowest, RV weight/live weight at 21 day of age were related to Arian and Ross 308 strains, respectively (p < 0.05). The TV weight, TV weight/live weight and the RV weight/live weight were significantly different between various strains at 49 and 54 days of age (p < 0.05). Strain had no effect on RV/TV. Performance, T3 and T4 hormones, hematological parameters, and mortalities were not significantly different among the strains (p > 0.05). Ascites mortalities in the Ross 308 was zero; however, it had no significant difference with other strains (p > 0.05). It was concluded that, based on performance and physiological status, even though considered broiler strains did not differ significantly because of the same genetic programs probably, but according to the prices and market conditions each can be selected for breeding.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical quality and bioactive compounds of Apis mellifera honey as well as the alterations in the quality of A. mellifera honey after being used in the feeding of Melipona subnitida colonies. A. mellifera honeys were collected in apiaries, homogenised and used as feed for M. subnitida bees for 30 days. Every five days, honey samples were collected and evaluated for physicochemical characteristics and bioactive compounds. The treatments consisted of natural honeys of A. mellifera and M. subnitida and honey of M. subnitida bee after being fed with A. mellifera honey (modified honey). M. subnitida bees, when fed with honey from A. mellifera, modified some of its characteristics, such as moisture, reducing sugars, diastase activity, colour and flavonoid content. Natural and modified honeys of A. mellifera were similar to each other and different from M. subnitida honey in terms of minerals, free acidity, electrical conductivity, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Treatments were similar in terms of sucrose, insoluble matter, hydroxymethylfurfural and water activity. In general, the quality attributes of the modified honey were closer to the honey of A. mellifera than to the natural M. subnitida honey.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. In situ bags made from microfiber fabrics have a greater surface area and filtration efficiency that retains the fine particles and reduce the variation in the results. Also, it is more durable than that made from traditional fabrics. This work aimed to study the effect of filament denier on the performance of in situ bags. Two polyester microfilaments with 0.4 and 0.7 deniers were used in manufacturing of four fabrics. Physical and mechanical properties of manufactured fabrics were measured before and after incubation to show the efficiency of the manufactured samples. In vitro trail was conducted to estimate ruminal degradability after 24 and 48 hours for three feedstuffs using three cannulated rams as replicates. The mechanical properties of manufactured in situ bags were significantly affected with both denier per filament and weft densities. According to the statistical analysis of radar chart, sample 2 remarked the highest value which achieved the acceptable ruminal dry matter disappearance compared with Ankom bags in different incubation times.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The present work evaluated the effects of feeding graded levels of whole cottonseed on reproductive parameters of Red Sokoto bucks. Twenty Red Sokoto bucks were used for the experiment. After a 14-day pre-treatment period, bucks were assigned for 90 days to one of four isonitrogeneous treatments: control (diet A); 0 mg kg-1 of total gossypol, (diet B); 15% mg kg-1 of total gossypol, (diet C); 30% mg kg-1 of total gossypol and (diet D); 45% mg kg-1 of total gossypol. The mean percentage sperm gross motility was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in group D (45% WCS) compared to groups C (30% WCS) and A (control) at days 60, 75 and 90. The mean semen pH and reaction time were not significantly (p > 0.05) different among treatment groups. Semen colour of the bucks in the control group was majorly creamy, in group C (30% WCS) and B (15% WCS) creamy to milky and group D (45% WCS) colourless. The mean semen volume was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in groups C and A compared to group D (45% WCS) at days 60, 75 and 90. The mean semen concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in group D (45% WCS) when compared to group A (control) at days 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90. Group A (control) bucks had significantly (p < 0.05) higher percentage live sperm compared to those in group D (45% WCS) at days 45, 60, 75 and 90. Mean Sperm morphological abnormalities including detached head, free tail curved tail and midpiece droplets were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in group D (45%) than in group A (Control) at day 15 (for free tails) and day 90 (for all). Testicular and epididymal sperm reserves were higher in animals supplemented with up to 30% whole cottonseed. In conclusion, feeding bucks above 30% WCS resulted in more deleterious effects on the semen characteristics and testicular profile.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The cultivation of olive trees is expanding in Brazil, mainly in Rio Grande do Sul in order to meet the demand for olive oil, the main product of the industrialization of olives. However, from the extraction, there is a significant generation of waste. This residue has high moisture and an appropriate destination is necessary given its environmental and economic importance. The chemical composition of the residue is similar to other products used in animal feed, such as corn silage or sorghum, in relation to DM, CP and NDF, the differential being high levels of EE and ADL. In order to evaluate the replacement of corn silage by the extraction residue of olive oil (olive pomace), eight Holstein dairy cow, between 90 and 100 days of lactation, were used, making a double Latin square (4x4). Analyzes were made regarding animals, feed and milk product in order to verify the feasibility of the substitution. The inclusion of olive pomace, conserved as silage, to replace corn silage, in the diet of lactating cows up to 15% (dry basis) does not alter milk production, as well as its composition and feed efficiency.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Climate change (CC) affects food production, mainly those based on livestock systems. Producers must identify adaptation strategies to ensure the production, during periods of drought, and lack of forage. Besides contributing to CC, high emissions of ruminal methane (CH4) are energy loss potentially usable for livestock production. The objective was to estimate in vitro ruminal gas production (RGP) and determine the CH4 emissions from silages. Treatments were made with forage of Cenchrus purpureus mixed with Tithonia diversifolia T1= C.purpureus at 100%; T2= C.purpureus/ T.diversifolia in 33/67 percent ratio; T3= C.purpureus/ T.diversifolia 67/33; and T4= T.diversifolia at 100%. Samples of silages were analyzed, and they were inoculated with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei (T735); then they were fermented in vacuum-sealed bags for 67 days. RGP and CH4 were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 48 hours. Additionally, modeling of CH4 production kinetics was conducted, using different equations. The results indicate that the highest cumulative CH4 production was for T1. This kinetics was represented using the Gompertz model. In conclusion, the inclusion of T.diversifolia to C.purpureus silages contributes to the decrease of methane at the ruminal level, which constitutes an adaptation practice at climate change.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of carbon incorporation and turnover in hoof and ribs of pigs at different periods of development in the search for tissues that reflect longer the former diet. We used 132 commercial hybrids (barrows and females), weaned at an average age of 21 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments on different days of substitution of corn (C4 cycle plant grain) diets with broken rice (C3 cycle plant grain) at 21, 42, 63 and 110 days of age to change the carbon-13 isotope signal. By means of isotopic dilution curves, we observed that animals whose C4 diet was replaced with C3 diet at 21, 42, 63 and 110 days of age, for hoof and rib, reached a new level of isotope equilibrium. Bone samples are better choices to reflect the former diet, due to conservation of the isotopic signal for longer.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Studies have been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of using easy-assembled cow houses in modern milk production technologies for the use of high-productive milking plants of the type ‘Parallel’ and ‘Carousel’ with 32 machines each. It has been established that new types of premises not only provide comfortable conditions for the maintenance of highly productive cows, but also reduce the labor costs for their maintenance and, most importantly, allow the use of modern high-productive milking installations of the type ‘Parallel’ and ‘Carousel’. It has been established that the technology of preparation of cows for milking and milking technology provides more complete display of the milk ejection reflex at the installation of the ‘Parallel’ type. The average intensity of cows’ milk flows at this plant is 30% higher compared to those of the installation of ‘Carousel’ type, which is confirmed by the intensity of milk flow production at the first minute of milking, which is at the level of 2.97 against 1.85 kg min.-1 per installation of ‘Carousel’ type. Milk obtained using a milking installation of the ‘Parallel’ type has higher values of the mass fraction of fat and protein that is associated with the genetic potential of animals. According to physical, chemical and technological properties, milk obtained from milking installations such as ‘Parallel’ and ‘Carousel’ is within the limits of the standards in force. Milk obtained from the use of milking equipment such as ‘Carousel’ has higher electrical conductivity at the level of 4.6 mS cm-3, which is confirmed by a higher level of mastitis disease of cows. Due to bacterial contamination, reductase test and milk clot characteristic, milk obtained using a milk installation of ‘Parallel’ type also has higher quality indicators than the installation of ‘Carousel’ type. But according to the complex of indicators, milk obtained from various technologies of milking refers to the desired cheese-making class.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to analyze the principal components of the meteorological variables, physiological and behavioral response of cows subjected to different cooling times and their influence on milk quality, in the dry and rainfall periods, and to establish multiple regression models for milk quality. The data used in the study came from an experiment conducted in the Agreste Region of Pernambuco. The pre-milking cooling time was 10, 20, 30 min. and the control (without cooling). Sixteen multiparous lactating Gir cows were selected. Data were analyzed by principal component analysis and a multiple regression analysis was applied to determine milk quality. There was a strong relationship between somatic cell count (SCC) and activity of the animal in the shade for dry, and lying for rainfall, with increased SCC in cow milk. It was possible to establish two multiple regression models to determine milk quality in dry and rainfall periods. According to the principal component analysis, the cooling time to meet the thermal requirement of the animals was 20 min., regardless of the season and milking shift.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Feeding behavior analysis provides information about the relationships between animals and pastures. Therefore, this review aims to describe some aspects of the feeding behavior profiles of both sheep and goats in grazing systems. The structure of the pasture is a key factor in the feeding behavior of grazing animals. The amount of feed consumed in a given period of time is affected by the number of meals, duration and velocity of swallowing, changes in grazing time, bite rate, bite weight, and quality of ingested forage. The different phenological stages of forage also influence the animals’ strategies to optimize their intake, which consequently changes their behavioral activities. Sheep and goats tend to be more selective than cattle, and young animals are more selective than older animals; this selectivity characteristic is one of the most important aspects to be observed in pasture management. According to the degree of selectivity, the animals will intake forages of higher or lower nutritive quality. In addition, the intensity and distribution of their daily activities (grazing, ruminating, and resting) are influenced by several factors, such as the availability and nutritive value of the pasture, its management, the animal activity in the group, and the predominant climatic conditions of the region.