Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. With the rise of world fish farming, the national scenario is favorable for using native fish for intensive farming. Among the catfish, the Amazonian Jundiá (Leiarius marmoratus) is a robust candidate, easy to grow and with good organoleptic characteristics in its flesh. For productive success in captivity, it is necessary to consider some questions about the species, such as genetic variability, which must have an acceptable level in a breeding stock, in order to maintain a good diversity; this reduces losses due to inbreeding and low diversity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the genetic variability of commercial stocks of L. marmoratus from the State of Mato Grosso through microsatellite molecular markers. We analyzed 143 individuals from three stocks. The mean heterozygosity and the inbreeding coefficients observed were 0.060; 0.084; 0.141; and 0.539; 0.562; 0.514, respectively, for the stocks of Campo Verde, Juína, and Nova Mutum. The Deviation in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in most of the loci in the three populations. Considering the genetic differentiation, it is concluded that the three populations are very close genetically, which requires introduction of new genetic material in the stocks to enrich them genetically for a later reproductive program.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The study aimed to evaluate whether the addition of pequi increases the nutritional value of meatballs made with piranha and pacu fillets. Piranhas were obtained from the colony of fishermen; pacu with the fish farmer and the pequis were collected in nature. Fish were filleted and triturated, and the resulting masses were used to prepare 4 types of meatballs: piranha fillet with 2.0% pequi pulp, piranha fillet without pequi pulp, pacu fillet with with 2.0% pequi pulp, and pacu fillet without pequi pulp. After preparation, acceptance, purchase intention and frequency of consumption were evaluated with untrained tasters. Chemical composition parameters evaluated were crude protein, lipids, ash, moisture, carotenoids and antioxidant activity. Results of acceptability for all formulations were similar. The chemical composition of piranha meatballs presented differences (p < 0.05) for lipids and carotenoids. Pacu meatballs showed no difference (p > 0.05) for moisture, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity. The addition of pequi did not alter the organoleptic characteristics, however increased the nutritional values, therefore, it can add value to the product to be marketed and be more nutritionally attractive to the consumer.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Over recent years, Macrobrachium amazonicum has become a popular species for shrimp farming due to their fast growth, high survival rates, and marketability. Several studies have focused on the development of new technology for the culture of this species, but many aspects of their nutrition and physiology remain unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to obtain transcripts of putative genes encoding digestive enzymes, based on a library of the cDNA from the hepatopancreas of M. amazonicum, sequenced in the Ion Torrent TM platform. We identified fragments of nine genes related to digestive enzymes, acting over proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Endo and exoproteases were also recorded in the hepatopancreas, indicating adaptation to the digestion of protein-rich foods. Nonetheless, the enzymes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism formed the largest functional group in M. amazonicum, including enzymes related to the digestion of starch, chitin, and cellulose. These findings indicate that the species has a genetic apparatus of a well-adapted omnivorous animal. This information may provide important insights for the selection of ingredients for the formulation of a more appropriate diet to the enzymatic repertoire of M. amazonicum.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Fruit residues represent alternative ingredients that can be included in diets of tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum. This study evaluated the growth performance of tambaqui fed diets containing different levels of guava agroindustrial residue. The experiment was based on a completely randomised design, with 105 fish randomly distributed in 15 plastic 60 L-1 boxes with a water recirculation system. Feeding was carried out to apparent satiety for 45 days, using diets with 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 g kg-1 inclusion of guava residue. Biometrics were performed every 15 days. Quadratic effect (p < 0.05) was observed for daily feed intake and apparent feed conversion, with optimum levels of 4.86 and 6.05% inclusion of guava residue, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in relation to final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, hepato-somatic index, survival rate and protein efficiency rate by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of up to 150 g kg-1 of the guava agroindustrial residue in the feed did not compromise the performance of tambaqui juveniles.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients and digestible values of crude protein, ethereal extract, gross energy and dry matter of mulberry leaf meal (MLM) (Morus alba L.) as Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feed. A total of 135 Nile tilapia juveniles were used, and the indirect methodology (Cr2O3) was applied for digestibility determinations. Mulberry leave meal presented good apparent digestible coefficients of protein, ethereal extract and energy with respective values of 0.94, 0.58 and 0.39. The mulberry leave meal thus comprises adequate digestible protein and digestible energy values, similar or better than other leafy foods, presenting potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. As an alternative to the use of cytochalasin B (CB), 6-dimethylamino-purine (6-DMAP) and thermal shock (heat shock by increasing the temperature from 25 to 36ºC) could be used to induce tetraploidy in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) diploids. Induction was performed by applying shocks after elimination of the first polar corpuscle at the end of meiosis I. Ploidy rates were verified using flow cytometry. Tetraploid larvae were obtained using all inductor (6-DMAP, thermal shock and CB) treatments. No difference in the efficiency of tetraploidy induction was noted among 6-DMAP, thermal shock and CB. The number of D-larvae and their yield, determined by calculating the percentage of well-formed D-larvae in relation to the total number of larvae, was similar (p > 0.05) among the evaluated induction methods. We suggest that 6-DMAP and thermal shock should be used in tetraploidy induction protocols, thereby avoiding the use of CB, which is a harmful agent for both humans and the environment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The growth of generations of the Genomar Supreme Tilapia (GST) strain, specifically G20 and G25, was evaluated. Tilapias 8 g were reared in a recirculating aquaculture system with 0.25 m³ tanks, 80 fish m-³, with four replicates. During growth, eight fish from each tank were weighed and measured at day 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210. Survival, weight gain, feed conversion and batch homogeneity were determined. Weight-age data were fit to Gompertz model. In addition, absolute and relative growth rates and weight and age at inflection were determined. Final weight showed 26.7% higher in G25 when compared to G20 (920.05 and 725.87 g, respectively). The feed conversion and homogeneity indexes were better in G25 than G20. The estimate of asymptotic weight was higher in G25 (1202.0 g) when compared to G20 (912.7 g). G20 presented smaller weight (335.76 g), age (108.87 days) and absolute growth rate (4.87 g day-1) when compared with G25 (442.19 g, 113.77 days and 6.41 g day-1). Carcass characteristics were similar, but G25 presented about 25% higher fillet weight than G20. After five years in the GST breeding program, results indicated that a sustained improvement of harvest weight was achieved, as well as 6 to 10% gain in performance by generation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to assess the chemical responses of forage watermelon fruit at different maturity stages or storage lengths, performing two experimental tests. In the first test, four maturity stages were assessed: 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after anthesis, with four replicates. In the second test, fruits were maintained under three storage lengths: T1D (harvest day), T3M (3 months after harvest), and T6M (6 months after harvest), with eight replicates. Experimental design was completely randomized in both experimental tests. Fruit maturity stage did not affect crude protein, total carbohydrate, neutral detergent fiber, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), pulp firmness, soluble solids content and total pectin content, but increased acid detergent fiber content from 45 days after anthesis. Storage length up to six months after harvest increased ash, crude protein and IVDMD, and reduced the content of soluble solids. Forage watermelon fruit can be harvested from 30 to 75 days after anthesis equivalent to 75 - 120 days after planting, and they can be stored under tree shade up to 6 months after harvest.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective was to evaluate the morphometric, productive and chemical aspects of purple elephant grass as a function of nitrogen fertilization. The treatments consisted of applying 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg ha-1 of N, using a randomized block design, with five treatments and four replications. The following were evaluated: plant height, number, length and leaf mass, stem diameter and mass, leaf/stem ratio, production of green and dry mass, support capacity for dairy cows, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and mineral matter. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey's test at 5% probability. The increase in N doses did not affect (p < 0.05) the morphometry of the purple elephant grass, however it positively stimulated the productivity, the animal support capacity and the bromatological components of the harvested material. The lack of response to nitrogen fertilization may be related to the edaphocilimatic conditions during the experiment and efficiency in the use of N of the variety used. The results demonstrate the high demand of the cultivar for N, actively interfering in the forage yield.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to evaluate the residual effects of the application of biofertilizer and mineral fertilizer on sward structure and morphological components of Panicum maximum cv. Massai. The experimental design comprised randomized blocks with six treatments consisting of increasing doses of swine biofertilizer (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 Mg ha-1) and mineral fertilization (150 kg N ha-1, 33 kg P ha-1), with four replicates. The variables analyzed were pasture height, light interception, leaf area index, forage mass and morphological components. Plant height responded linearly and positively to biofertilizer levels in the three evaluations. The highest averages for light interception (51.63%) and leaf area index (1.64) were observed for the 240 days (40 Mg ha-1). Dry leaf mass was influenced by the increase in biofertilizer dose, with increments of 39.68%, 25.07% and 44.66% for the 240, 300 and 360 days, respectively, when compared to the control treatment. Mineral fertilization promoted lower mass of dead material and lower leaf area index but did not differ from biofertilizer for the other variables. The residual effect of swine biofertilizer was greater than that of mineral fertilization, with a minimum use of 20 Mg ha-1 a practical agronomic recommendation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The stockpiled forage canopy consists of tillers at different ages, which have specific development patterns. The objective was to understand the development of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu during the stockpiling period, by the morphogenic evaluation of tillers at different ages. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Three tillers ages (young, mature and old) and two periods of stockpiling (initial and final) were evaluated. The leaf appearance and elongation rates were higher in young tillers (0.05 tiller-1 day-1 and 0.62 cm tiller-1 day-1, respectively), compared to old tillers (0.02 tiller leaf-1 day-1 and 0.20 cm tiller-1 day-1, respectively). The final leaf length of the tillers' age groups was the same in the beginning of stockpiling. The number of live leaves was lower in the old tillers (2.4), compared to the young (3.6) and mature (4.1) ones, contrary to the stem length. The number of old tillers (800 tillers m-2) was higher than the young (299 tillers m-2) and mature ones (358 tillers m-²). The participation of different age groups of tillers in the canopy influences the development and structure of marandu palisadegrass.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of increasing periods of coexistence of weed plants with Urochloa ruziziensis on the canopy structure and productivity of a pasture already established with this forage species. The experiment was a randomized blocks design with four replications, and treatments consisted of seven increasing periods of coexistence of forage grass with weed plants: 0 (control), 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after regrowth (DAR). The main morpho-structural and productive characteristics of the forage plants were determined at the end of the experimental period (90 DAR). The ratio of the first green leaf height to the tiller height increases, while the leaf to stem ratio diminishes as the period of interaction with the infesting community increases. The number of green leaves per tiller and the tiller height diminishes as the period of coexistence with weed plants increases. The presence of weed plants interferes negatively with all parameters of the grass canopy structure and productivity of a grazing land already established with Urochloa ruziziensis, suggesting that measures of control of the infesting community should be adopted up to 17 days of regrowth of the forage plant.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective was to evaluate the production of Megathyrsus maximus genotypes (Syn. Panicum maximum), under different levels of water in the soil. This was a 5x5 factorial completely randomized design conducted in a greenhouse, combining five genotypes of M. maximus (B55, C10 and PM30, cv. Massai and cv. BRS Tamani) and five levels of soil field capacities (20%, 40%, 60%, 100% and 140%), with three replications. Dry matter production was evaluated: leaf, stem, dead material, root, shoot and total dry matters, as well as the number of tillers and leaf:stem and aboveground:root ratios. The qualitative factor (genotypes) was subjected to Duncan test at 5% probability. The quantitative factor (% field capacity) was subjected to regression, adopting 5% as a critical level of probability. There was no interaction between the factors for any of the evaluated characteristics. Significant differences among the genotypes were detected for tiller number, dead material dry mass, root and total dry mass and leaf:stem ratio. There was no significant effect of the percentage of field capacity on most of the characteristics, except for leaf:stem and aboveground:root ratios. Cultivar Massai showed the best forage production compared to the other genotypes, regardless of the percentage of field capacity evaluated. In general, the evaluated genotypes were more tolerant to excess water stress than to water deficit.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study investigated whether genotype influences the establishment of Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks with four treatments and eight replications (n=8). The treatments were four genotypes of P. purpureum, two classified as tall sizes: P. purpureum cv. Elephant B and cv. IRI 381; and two as dwarf types: P. purpureum cv. Mott and Taiwan A-146 2.37. They were planted in a tropical wet and dry region of Brazil. Tall genotypes showed superior field sprouting rates (p < 0.05), ranging between 95-99%, while dwarfs varied between 88-90%, however, Elephant B and IRI 381 produced a much lower average number of tillers (31 and 32 linear m-1, respectively), than Taiwan A-146 2.37 and Mott (56 and 41 linear m-1, respectively) (p < 0.05). Dwarf genotypes produced lower biomass yields (p < 0.05), but this was genotype-dependent and did not impact on their establishment. The levels of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) (>10%) in the planted stems were associated with satisfactory field sprouting of the elephantgrass genotypes. Despite some variations between the genotypes in terms of sprouting, tillering, and growth rates, the kind of genotype had no major significance on the establishment of the elephantgrass.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effect of increased energy via supplementation on the performance, ingestive behavior, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen metabolism of grazing heifers fed tropical forage in the rainy-dry transition season. Treatments consisted of mineral supplementation ad libitum (control) and multiple supplements formulated to provide different energy levels and the same amount of protein (300 g CP animal d-1) and were denominated as low (LE; 340 g TDN animal d-1), medium (ME; 780 g TDN animal d-1) and high (HE; 1220 g TDN animal d-1) energy. Animals supplemented with ME, and HE had a greater average daily gain in relation to the control treatment, with an increase of 41 and 46%, respectively. Greater values for total apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber were observed for the treatment HE. Lesser values of urinary urea N were observed for the control and HE treatments. Our results define the use of energy levels in the supplement as a tool for pasture management. If the purpose of the production system is to enhance forage intake, the option is to supply supplements with less energy levels. In contrast, if the purpose is to increase the stocking rate, supplements with greater energy levels should be used.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. A diverse group of rangeland-medicinal plants are being used by ruminant whilst some of them have not been assessed for their nutritional value. This study was aimed to evaluate the chemical and mineral composition, buffering capacity, and in vitro fermentation of some rangeland-medicinal plants including Thymus kotschyanus, Ziziphora persica, Lallemantia royleana, and Scutellaria litwinowii in the family Lamiaceae, and Hypericum scabrum, in the family Hypericaceae. The results indicated that crude protein (CP) content ranged from 8.66% (S. litwinowii) to 12.17% of DM (H. scabrum). It was found that Z. persica had the highest potential gas production, metabolism energy (ME), relative feed value (RFV), and dry matter digestibility (DMD) values of 53.44 (mL 200-1 mg DM), 5.84 (MJ kg-1 DM), 170.66 and 70.88%, respectively. Mineral content differed among plants; Ca ranged from 5.79 to 41.96 g kg-1 DM. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Co were highest for L. royleana. Total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and propionate concentrations were highest in the culture medium cultured with Z. persica, however, acetate, and butyrate were highest in H. scabrum. Acid-base buffering capacity was lower in T. kotschyanus and H. scabrum compared to other plants, while it was higher in S. litwinowii. Overall, it can be concluded that among plants evaluated in this study, Z. persica had higher nutritional value for sheep feeding.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study examines the effect of adding coffee husks (CH), cacao by-product (CBP) and passion fruit by-product (PBP) (fresh-matter basis) in the silage of elephant grass cv. Napier on nutritional characteristics. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement represented by three additives (CH, CBP or PBP) and four inclusion levels (0, 12, 24 or 36%). Four replicates were used per treatment. The material was ensiled in experimental mini-silos that were opened 60 days later for chemical analysis of the produced silages. The dry matter content of the silages with CH and PBP included at levels greater than 25% was adequate. The silage with PBP inclusion showed the highest crude protein levels and the best results for in vitro dry matter digestibility. In the silage containing CH, the neutral detergent fiber content decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of the husks. The silage with CBP showed the lowest dry matter and crude protein levels and the highest pH. In conclusion, the inclusion of up to 36% PBP in the ensiling of elephant grass is recommended, as the resulting material has potential for use in ruminant feeding at times of forage scarcity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Ergot is a fungal disease and causes reductions in seed productivity and quality. We aimed to identify promising genotypes of brachiaria evaluating: (1) seed production potential (number of tillers, racemes per inflorescence, spikelets per raceme, raceme length, weight and number of seeds, and germination) and (2) resistance of seeds to Ergot (infected tillers, infected seeds). Five genotypes of Brachiaria grasses, four non-natural hybrids named BH1619, BH1810, BH1516 and Mavuno Palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha x Urochloa ruziziensis), and Marandu Palisadegrass (U. brizantha Hoechst cv. Marandu) were evaluated. The BH1619 hybrid, despite the high weight of seeds, produced less viable, pure seeds. The hybrid BH1516 had a lower percentage of flowered tillers (42%) and seeds infected with ergot (8%). Marandu Palisadegrass had a higher percentage of infected tillers (95%) and infected seeds (38%). The hybrid BH1516 was the most resistant to ergot, followed by Mavuno Palisadegras sand BH1619. Among all materials, Mavuno Palisadegrass and BH1516 have a higher potential for seed production due to the higher percentage of flowered tillers and production of pure seeds with high germination capacity. The BH1516 hybrid was resistant to ergot, making it a better choice for use in infected areas used for seed or forage production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. A total of 1,296 broiler chicken were housed, distributed in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 6 repetitions. The treatments consisted of a control diet formulated with corn considered adequate and without the addition of adsorbent, a diet formulated with corn naturally contaminated with mycotoxin (CCM) and four diets formulated with CCM and added with different commercial adsorbents. At the end of the first week and at 21 days of age of the birds, it was observed that the control diet resulted in greater (p < 0.05) live weight and weight gain in relation to the inclusion of CCM. The relative weight of the liver was lower for the control group compared to the groups receiving a diet with CCM and CCM + ads D. The relative weight of the proventriculus and cloacal bursa was lower for the control group compared to those who received a diet with CCM + ads B and CCM + ads C. There was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of the diets on the analysis of serum biochemistry and the occurrence of fatty and hydropic degeneration in the liver of broilers. The use of adsorbents can mitigate the harmful effects of mycotoxins, however, these products have specific binding capacity to the type of mycotoxin present in food.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Waste oil from olive oil extraction industry was used, instead of soybean oil, in heavy roosters’ diet in order to evaluate birds’ reproductive parameters. A total of forty roosters were housed individually in boxes with 1.2 m². Two experimental diets were used: control diet, based on corn, soybean meal, and soybean oil; and test diet, where soybean oil was totally replaced by waste oil. In order to verify weight gain and feed intake, animals were individually weighed weekly. Seven semen collections were performed with fifteen-day interval. Reproductive variables analyzed sperm volume, motility, concentration, and morphology. No statistical difference (p > 0.05) was observed between treatments at the different collection periods for the variables sperm volume, motility, and concentration. There was a statistically significant difference between treatments for body weight in periods three (p = 0.04), and seven (p = 0.04). Statistical differences (p = 0.01) were also observed between treatments for abnormal sperm morphology. Among collection periods, statistical difference was observed for motility (p = 0.00), and sperm concentration (p = 0.01). Total replacement of soybean oil by waste oil from olive oil extraction in young heavy roosters’ diets does not affect sperm volume, motility, and concentration; reduces defects in sperm tail, and promotes better weight gain control.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study investigated the effects of adding different adsorbent substances to broilers feed naturally contaminated by mycotoxins. Two hundred and eighty male 1-day-old chicks, Cobb Slow® lineage, were distributed in a randomized block design with 4 treatments, 5 repetitions with 14 birds each. The treatments consisted of: T1- basal feed naturally contaminated with mycotoxins. T2- basal feed + Bentonite, Thistle Extract, Yeast Extract, Vitamin E and Choline. T3- basal feed + Bentonite, Thistle Extract, yeast cell wall and Silymarin. T4- basal feed + Bentonite and Algae extract. Performance (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion) at 7, 14, 21, 28 days were evaluated. At 28 days, a portion of the jejunum was collected in two birds by replicate to study the intestinal morphology. The relative weight of the gizzard, proventricle and total intestine was evaluated. The data obtained were analyzed using the statistical program SAS (9.3). With the use of any adsorbents studied, the performance and liver weight were improved in all evaluated periods. Thus, the inclusion of adsorbents improves the performance of the broiler chickens when the feed is contaminated by mycotoxins.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of studywas to compare efficacy of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with phytase and 1-α(OH)D3 in combination of phytase and different concentration of cholecalciferol on performance, tibia parameters, andplasma minerals of quails fed Ca-P deficient diet. A total of 280 mixed sex 5-d-old quails were allocated to 7 treatments with 5 replicates. The vitamin supplement which incorporated to basal diet did not contain cholecalciferol. The dietary treatments were as follows: Ca-P deficient diet (basal diet); basal diet + 500 FTU phytase/kg of diet; basal diet + phytase + 5 μg of 1-α(OH)D3 kg-1 of diet;basal diet + phytase + 5 μg of 1-α(OH)D3 and 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 IU of cholecalciferol kg-1of diet. The highest final body weight and the best feed conversion ratioobtained in the group supplemented with 1,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet (p < 0.05). Supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with phytase and phytase and different concentration of cholecalciferol could improve tibia parameters (p < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of 1-α(OH)D3 alone to Ca-P deficient diet could maximize tibia mineralization, whereas it couldn't maximize performance, performance criteria were maximized by supplementation of 1,000 IU cholecalciferol kg-1 of diet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to evaluate the supplementation of yellow natural pigment levels based on Marigold Flower extract (2%) and yellow synthetic pigment (Carophyll Yellow 10%) in sorghum-based rations for commercial laying hens and their influence on bird performance and egg quality. A completely randomized design was adopted with 5 treatments, 6 replicates, and 5 laying hens in each repetition. The treatments evaluated were: Sorghum based diet without supplementation with pigmentant - Negative Control; 150 g t-1 of Yellow Natural Pigment feed; 300 g t-1 of yellow natural pigment feed; 450 g t-1 of yellow natural pigment feed; 25 g t-1 of yellow industrial pigment feed. The Tukey test was applied at 5% for the analysis of the variables of performance and quality of the eggs. The variables related to external and internal egg quality and poultry yield performance did not present significant results (p > 0.05). Only the variable color of the yolk obtained significance (p < 0.01), with an increase according to the number of pigments included in the diet. Sorghum can be used together supplementation of natural and synthetic pigments in the diet to improve yolk pigmentation. It is recommended to include 450g t-1 of natural marigold flower pigment feed (2%) in sorghum-based diets for better pigmentation of the yolk in place of 25 g t-1 of yellow synthetic pigmented, by improving the color of the yolk and not interfering in the productive performance of the laying hens and the quality of the eggs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Three hundred 1-day old broiler chickens were used to assess the effects of Mucuna leaf meal (MLM) dietary supplementation on the performance, haemato-biochemical indices, oxidative status and meat of broiler chickens. Five experimental supplemented diets were formulated: diets: 1 (0% supplement), 2 (1.1 % OXYT), 3 (0.5% MLM), 4 (1.0 % MLM) and 5 (1.5% MLM). The final weight gain of the birds fed diets 2 and 5 was higher (p < 0.05) than those birds fed the control and other diets. The relative weights of the lung were affected (p < 0.05) by dietary supplementation. Serum cholesterol concentration reduces (p < 0.05) with increased dietary MLM supplementation levels from 1.0% to 1.5%. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels increased (p < 0.05) in the broiler chickens fed a 1.5% MLM supplemented diet, compared to those fed the control and other diets. Meat cholesterol of the chickens fed 1.0%, and 1.5% MLM supplemented diets were lower (p < 0.05) than the experimental birds fed the rest diets. In conclusion, the 1.5 % MLM dietary supplementation improves body weight gain, reduces the serum cholesterol concentration, increases the serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities of the chickens and reduced the meat cholesterol.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of weaning and concentrate supplementation on the characteristics of carcass cuts and longissimus muscle of Suffolk lambs finished on a Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) pasture. Weaning and concentrate supplementation strategies were evaluated in four finishing systems: i) non-weaned and non-supplemented lambs; ii) non-weaned lambs supplemented with concentrate in creep feeding; iii) weaned and non-supplemented lambs; and iv) weaned lambs supplemented with concentrate. In the systems with weaning, lambs were weaned at 46 ± 6 days of age. In the systems with supplementation, the concentrate was offered daily at 2% of lambs’ body weight. Weaning led to a decrease, whereas supplementation led to an increase in carcass cut weights. Supplemented lambs had lower yields of neck and uncovered ribs, and higher yields of breast + flank and loin. The characteristics of loin eye and fat thickness over the longissimus muscle presented lower values in weaned lambs and higher values in supplemented lambs. Keeping lambs with their dams and offering concentrate supplementation until slaughter are strategies recommended to obtain heavier cuts with increased muscularity and fat content.
Abstract in English:The purpose was to evaluate the effect of extruded roughage Foragge® with different additives on intake, digestibility nutrients and nitrogen balance of sheep. Twenty adults, non-pregnant ewes with average weight 68 kg were used. The treatments were extruded roughage with additives (essential oil, virginiamycin, unpurified inactive yeast, tannin and purified inactive yeast). The design was in randomized blocks. The means were contrasted by SNK test, and the fecal score was tested by the Kruskal Wallis test (1952), at 5% significance. There was no difference in the intake of dry matter, crude protein, nitrogen, water, water in relation to dry matter, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (p > 0.05). As well as the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, the fecal weight, fecal nitrogen, retained nitrogen and nitrogen retained in relation to nitrogen ingested (p > 0.05). However, dry matter intake as a function of body weight and metabolic weight, urinary nitrogen, hemicellulose intake, and hemicellulose as a function of NDF, were higher in the Foragge Factor® treatment (p < 0.05). The inclusion of different additives in the extruded roughage improved nutritional parameters, without causing disturbances.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance, gastrointestinal morphometry, carcass, and non-carcass traits in lambs finished on different levels of canola grain in the diet. Twenty-seven Santa Ines lambs with an average initial weight of 19.33 ± 1.39 kg were given different levels of canola grain in the diet: 0, 8, and 16%. Weights and body condition scores were determined at the beginning, every 14 days and at the end of the experimental period. Animals were slaughtered to assess gastrointestinal morphometry, carcass and non-carcass traits. The statistical design used was completely randomized. The inclusion of canola grain showed a linear effect (0.723) for the width and height of ruminal papillae in the ventral region of the rumen. Intestinal villi and crypts showed a quadratic effect, with peaks of 0.62 µm and 0.43 µm, with the inclusion of 8 and 16%, respectively. When evaluating carcass traits, a decreasing linear effect was found for hot and cold carcass yield with 16% inclusion of canola. Canola grain can be used as an alternative in diets for finishing sheep up to 8% inclusion in the diet without affecting performance, ruminal and intestinal histometry, carcass, and non-carcass traits.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. We aimed to determine the effect of relocation of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) with different fermentation profiles on ingestive behavior of lambs. Twenty-four male Santa Inês lambs, were used in a completely randomized block design based on initial body weight (17.5 ± 1.8 kg) for the following treatments: CS: WPCS (not inoculated and not relocated); R-12h: WPCS relocated for 12h; IR-12h: WPCS inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and relocated for 12h; and R-24h: WPCS not inoculated and relocated for 24h. Ingestive behavior was observed as continuous (feeding, ruminating, and idling) and specific (urination, defecation, and water and salt access frequency) activities for 48h (3h intervals for a total of eight periods in 24h). The behavioral activities were affected only by periods (p = 0.0001). Feeding peaks was high at 8:00-11:00am (54.2%) and 5:00-8:00pm (54.9%) in compare to ruminating and idling at the same period. Rumination time was intense at night, at 63.7% (2:00-5:00am) and 69.7% (5:00-8:00am). Idling time (49.7%) was long after silage supply. The specific activities were intense during the morning periods. Supply of WPCS relocated up to 24h did not alter the ingestive behavior.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective was to evaluate the performance and ingestive behavior of grazing sheep in the finishing stage, with supplementation in the period of water restriction. Fifteen male crossbred sheep were used in continuous pasture in Massai grass and supplied supplement formulated with 18% of crude protein in three levels (0.0; 0.3 and 0.6% of body weight), individually. Bromatological and fodder production analyses were performed, as well as foliar mass production, stem mass and senescent material mass. The performance and ingestive behavior of the animals were evaluated. The design was in four randomized blocks for the variables measured in the fodder. For the biometry, weight gain and behavior variables measured in the animals, the design was entirely randomized with five repetitions. The total forage mass production was 5512.41 kg ha-1, with 6.58% of crude protein, 79 38% of neutral detergent fiber and with 65% of foliar mass. The total weight gain and daily weight gain were higher in animals that received a supplement of 0.6% of body weight. In general, the animals grazed more in the morning period and the supplemented ones destined more time for rumination and leisure than the ones not supplemented.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The study investigated meat quality of bulls fed concentrate feeds and hay. The treatments were hay ad libitum + dried cafeteria leftover 4 kg DM d-1 (D1); hay ad libitum + wheat bran 4 kg DM d-1 (D2); hay ad libitum + 4 maize grain 4 kg DM d-1 (D3); hay ad libitum + mix 4 kg DM d-1 (1:1, wheat bran to maize grain, respectively (D4)); hay ad libitum + scrambled whole groundnut 4 kg DM d-1 (D5); and hay ad libitum + mix of each ingredient 4 kg DM d-1(D6)). Samples from longissimus lumborum muscle were taken in triplicate. Beef from bulls fed D5 had highest (p < 0.05) protein and fat than those fed other treatments. However, bulls finished in D3 had similar fat to those fed with whole ground nut. Highest meat tenderness (p < 0.05) recorded at 24th followed by 16th d than those aged on other periods. Beef from D6 produced lean meat, which is acceptable to consumer and market demand than D3, produced carcass with highest fat coverage This study confirmed that meat from D6 had an acceptable quality attribute suggesting the breed could serve as a potential source in red meat industry.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of completely replacing soybean meal (SM) with castor cake detoxified (DCC) with two alkaline products on the nitrogen balance and hepatic and renal function in goat kids. Goat kids of two breeds, Saanen and Anglo Nubian, with an initial body weight of 16.2 ± 0.67 kg, and confined during the growth phase, were used. The treatments consisted of three diets: one based on SM and the other two based on castor cake detoxified with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH. Twenty-four goats kids were distributed in a completely randomized design using a 3 x 2 factorial scheme (diet x breed) with four replicates per combination. The experimental period lasted for 270 days. Consumed nitrogen, fecal nitrogen, urinary nitrogen, retained nitrogen, and nitrogen balance were influenced (p < 0.05) by diets. There was significant effect of diets (p < 0.05) on creatinine, direct bilirubin, urea, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase blood levels, however without any negative changes involving renal or hepatic dysfunction. Inclusion of castor cake in the diet of goats kids in confinement is an attractive option, considering that goats kids use does not cause hepatic and renal alterations, suggesting that SM can be completely replaced. NaOH DCC stands in the substitution of soybean meal, because in spite of decreasing the consumption of nitrogen provides the same retention of soybean meal.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The cashew pseudo fruit can be used to animal feeding in tropical and subtropical countries as Brazil, Ivory Coast and Vietnam. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance of dehydrated cashew apple by-product to sheep. The experiment was carried out with 24 sheep in a completely randomized design with the treatments distributed in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme to test the inclusion (11, 21, 28 and 33% dry matter basis) and the grinding sizes (3 and 19 mm diameter) of dehydrated cashew apple by-product. To grinding sizes there was no effect to intake and digestibility, suggesting the use of dehydrated cashew apple by-product either finely or coarsely milled. The inclusion up to 33% of dehydrated cashew apple by-product inclusion did not affect voluntary intake and nitrogen balance. However, when including above 21%, there was a reduction of ether extract digestibility and more than 28% reduced dry matter and organic matter digestibility.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. To evaluate the ingestive behavior of sheep confined and fed with substitution levels of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor cake (DCC). We adopted a completely randomized design, with four levels of substitution (0; 33; 67 and 100%) with five replicates (sheep). We estimated the percentages of total times of intake of feed, time of rumination, in ‘other activities’, in idle agreed and in idle sleeping, dividing the day into eight periods (5h00 to 8h00; 8h01 to 11h00; 11h01 to 14h00; 14h01 to 17h00; 17h01 to 20h00; 20h01 to 23h00; 23h01 to 2h00 and 2h01 to 5h00). No interaction was observed between levels of substitution of the SM by DCC and period of the day to go. However, the isolated effect period of the day, there is more time to go from 8h00 to 11h00. The time rumination was not influenced by the levels of substitution of the SM by DCC. As for the variable other activities, the level of 67% DCC was superior to that of 100%. Regarding the variables idle agreed and idle sleeping, were not observed effects of substitution levels of SM by DCC. The DCC provides no changes in the behavior of the sheep, but the period of the day exerts influence on the behavioral pattern of such animals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of corn processing and protein level on the feeding, lying, and post milking standing (PMS) behavior in high producing cows. Eight Holstein cows were randomly assigned to diets containing either finely ground (FGC) or steam flaked (SFC) corn based on either low (LP) or high (HP) protein content. Cows receiving LP had lower milk yield than cows receiving HP with similar DMI. Moreover, FGC-fed cows had higher DMI than SFC-fed cows with similar milk yields. Eating and rumination time tended to be lower and chewing time was lower in HP-fed cows than LP-fed cows. Cows fed SFC tended to have higher laying rumination interval and lower lying rumination bouts than cows fed FGC. Total and average PMS were lower in cows fed HP than LP. Cows fed LP had higher chewing activity in the daytime than cows fed HP. Our results suggested that the protein level and corn processing affect the standing and lying behavior of high producing dairy cows, although, this effect is marginal. Results also indicated that probably any change in the diet that increases the rumination and eating times could also improve the PMS.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The physicochemical characteristics of the meat from lambs fed diets containing whole or disintegrated cottonseed, associated or not with calcium lignosulfonate (LignoCaSO3), were evaluated. Thirty non-castrated Dorper x Santa Inês lambs, with an average of 24.9 ± 3.6 kg and four months of age were confined for 60 days in collective stalls and distributed in a completely randomized design with six replications. After slaughter, by means of contrasts, the averages of the parameters of the semimembranous and semitendinosus muscles were analyzed. The cottonseed increased cooking loss and ash, and reduced muscle weight, water holding capacity and red intensity. The disintegration of the cottonseed reduced the shear force in diets without LignoCaSO3, increased the protein and the loss by cooking and reduced the pH in the diets with the additive. The luminosity values increased with the disintegration of the cottonseed in diets with and without LignoCaSO3. The addition of LignoCaSO3 increased the weight of the muscle, protein, ash, pH, shear strength and the intensity of red. Moisture, lipids and yellow intensity were not influenced by the diets. Even changing the physical-chemical characteristics, the cottonseed with or without LignoCaSO3 does not change the quality of the meat.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Palm heart processing generates a large amount of residues like leaves, sheath and stems that have potential for ruminant feeding. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of in natura peach palm heart (Bactris gasipaes Khunt.) residues on performance, dry matter (DM) digestibility and intake of ruminants. External sheath was the most suitable residue for sheep, cattle and buffaloes feeding, although sheep presented rejection of 43.5 g kg-1. Thereby, assays of apparent and in vitro dry matter digestibility were done under four feeding treatments, which were the exclusive peach palm sheath, and that one mixed with residues of banana and rice, besides citrus pulp. The experiment was carried out under randomized complete design, with five replications. Greater DM intake (p < 0.05) were observed in animals fed with peach palm sheath mixed with rice (1.12 kg day-1) and mixed with citrus pulp (0.91 kg day-1), however there were no difference among treatments regarding the sheep final weight (p > 0.05). Cattle and buffaloes accept different types of peach palm residues, unlike sheep that present a low rejecting for them. Citrus pulp and rice residue raise the roughage quality. Peach palm residues can be an alternative roughage source to feed ruminants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacement of corn with pre-dried cassava root silage (CRS) on intake, ingestive behavior, production and composition of goat milk. Five lactating Saanen goats were used, with 42.5 ± 4.2 kg body weight and production of 2 kg milk day-1, distributed in a 5 x 5 Latin square with five treatments: 0, 28.6, 58.0, 81.6 and 100% replacement of corn with CRS in the diet dry matter. Goats were monitored for five periods of 15 days each. The intake of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (p <0.05) with the replacement of corn with CRS. Feeding (348.5 ± 62.1 min.) and rumination (468.8 ± 83.8 min.) times were not influenced (p >0.05) by the replacement of corn with CRS, but the ingestion and rumination efficiencies had a linear increase (p > 0.05). Milk production (2.17 ± 0.45 kg day-1), fat (3.49 ± 0.42%), protein (3.11 ± 0.13%) and lactose (4.47 ± 0,11%) of goat milk were not influenced (p >0.05) by the replacement of corn with CRS. Therefore, it is recommended the total replacement of corn with pre-dried cassava root silage in the diet for dairy goats with an average production of 2 kg day-1.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the productive performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with different types of carbohydrates associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thirty castrated male lambs (20.5 ± 7.6 kg) were used, distributed in a randomized block design under three experimental diets: High proportion of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) diet; High NFC diet + spineless cactus (high proportion of NFC and spineless cactus) and Low NFC diet (low proportion of NFC), in a 60 day experimental period. The variables of nutrient intake, performance, and carcass characteristics were evaluated. The animals fed the High NFC + spineless cactus diet presented a higher dry matter intake, organic matter, mineral matter, crude protein, and total carbohydrates intake (p <0.05). Carcass characteristics and weight of commercial cuts were improved in High NFC and High NFC + spineless cactus diets (p <0.05), on the other hand we observed a total fat weight reduction in animals fed with High NFC + spineless cactus. The results indicate that high levels of NFC positively influence animal performance, where the type of carbohydrate influences nutrient intake, also affecting carcass characteristics.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The study evaluated the performance, carcass characteristics, tissue composition, and meat quality of goats raised on pasture in the Caatinga rangeland supplemented with Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Sabiá (Mimosa caesapiniifolia) hays associated or not with spineless cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera), and without supplementation. Thirty male castrated goats, no defined breed, with an average body weight of 15.5 kg ± 0.64 were used, distributed in a randomized block design, according to the initial weight of the animals. The experimental period lasted 105 days. The highest intake of DM, OM and CP occurred in the animals supplemented with Leucena hay associated or not with spineless cactus. The intake of NDF was higher (p <0.05) for animals fed only with Leucena and Sabiá hays. The highest intake of TDN was observed for diets, only grazing, and hays associated with spineless cactus. The daily weight gain for goats fed with Leucena hay and spineless cactus was 68.5% higher (p <0.05) than on grazing alone. Consequently, they obtained the highest (p <0.05) weights and yields of carcasses, shoulder, loin, and leg cuts, conformation and finishing scores, leg muscle index, and % fat in the leg of goats. The meat quality did not differ. The supplementation with Leucena hay associated with spineless cactus improves performance, weights, and yields of the carcass, commercial cuts, leg muscle of goats grazing in the Caatinga rangeland.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding exogenous enzymes to the diet on nutrient intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance, ingestive behavior and rumen movement of ewe lambs. Five ewe lambs, Dorper x Santa Inês crossbred, with an average age of 7 ± 1 months, average weight of 36.40 ± 2.36 kg were assigned in a 5x5 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of adding exogenous enzymes to the concentrate: Allzyme, Fibrozyme®, Amaize®, Mix and Control. Analyses of variance were applied and means were compared by the SNK test, and non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test at 5% significance. The dry matter intake in relation to body weight, crude protein intake and nitrogen intake were higher with the use of amylolytic enzyme compared to the other treatments (p <0.05). Nitrogen balance was higher with the use of amylolytic enzymes and the Allzyme® enzyme complex (p <0.05). A longer time spent in total chewing was observed with the inclusion of fibrolytic and amylolytic enzymes without changes in rumen movement. The use of exogenous enzymes promotes better use of nutrients, with high digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and crude protein.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. We evaluated various sieving methods to estimate particle size (PS) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of ground corn. The corn had been previously divided in six fractions and each one ground in a hammermill (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- or 12-mm sieves). The stacked sieving method, with prior drying at 105ºC without agitators was the reference. We evaluated eight sieving methods, distributed in a factorial design (2 x 2 x 2 x 6), consisting of the following treatments: i) with and without agitators (two 25-mm rubber spheres), ii) with and without previous drying, iii) with a nest of test sieves set in a stacked or reverse, and iv) employing six ground corn degrees, totaling 48 treatments (four replicates). There was a linear increase in PS estimation for methods without drying and stacking and quadratic increases for the others. Reverse, drying, and agitator methodologies gave better sieving of corn, and consequently gave the lowest PS and highest GSD. The results were more pronounced for high-intensity grinding (hammermill sieve with small apertures) in which the differences between the reference method with the drying and reverse methods were up to 210 µm. Reverse sieving combined with agitators allowed the greatest passage of corn particles through the test sieves and promoted better characterization of ground corn.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate the internal and microbiological quality of eggs submitted to different types of shell treatments. One hundred and forty-four fresh red eggs were distributed in a scheme of 4 treatments (no washing; washing and immersion in chlorine; washing and immersion in peracetic acid; and washing and spraying of propolis extract) x 5 storage periods (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days), stored at 25°C, in each period 6 eggs per treatment were analyzed. The parameters to assess were: weight loss; shell weight; yolk weight; albumen weight, yolk diameter; yolk height; albumen height and Haugh unit (HU). The microbiological quality of eggs was evaluated at 35 days through analysis for aerobic mesophilic bacteria, thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp. and molds and yeasts. The treatment with propolis extract was the only effective one to maintain the high HU quality of the eggs until 21 days of storage at 25°C and was effective against microbiological contamination of all bacterial groups. The results presented showed greater effectiveness of the propolis extract for maintenance of internal and microbiological quality of eggs, it can be an alternative product to chemical sanitizers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to evaluate forage yield, tiller population density, canopy height, nutritional value as well as cattle performance in alternate stocking from three tropical forage cultivars. The experiment followed a randomized block design, in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme with three replications. Three forage cultivars (Marandu, Massai and Xaraés) distributed in nine hectares were evaluated in three dry season periods (transition wet/dry, dry, and end of dry season), with repeated measures over time. The following variables were evaluated: canopy height, leaf: stem ratio, forage mass, leaf mass, stem mass and dead material mass. Total digestible nutrients, crude protein and in vitro dry mass digestibility were evaluated regarding forage nutrition. Animal performance, using 36 eleven-month-old animals (half-blood Nelore), was evaluated by the daily average gain and weight gain by area. During pre-grazing, canopy height presented interaction among forage cultivars and the evaluated periods. The average daily gain showed no interaction among cultivars and period of the year the similarity in animal performance among the cultivars Marandu and Massai show that the Massai grass can be used as an alternative for forage diversification under an alternate management system.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of the addition of condensed tannins (CT) in the efficiency of digestion, methanogenic potential and energy distribution between the fermentation products of two forages. An assay was carried out using the in vitro gas production technique in which extracts of Quebracho (Schinopsis balansae) and Lotus corniculatus were evaluated with fermentation patterns of derived products from Ryegrass (RG, Lolium perenne) and a tropical forage, Megathyrsus maximus (MM). Tannins were added to the substrate at a concentration of 30 mg g-1. MM presented higher and delayed gas production (GP), and in vitro dry matter, organic matter and fiber digestibilities (ivDMD, ivOMD and NDFD, respectively) were relatively high but lower than RG. In addition, MM presented higher CH4 production (CH4p) than RG in 24 and 48h. Even though CT of Quebracho induced a decrease in the NDFD, contrary to what was expected, CH4p was greater, although this effect could not be attributed to the presence of CT. The stoichiometric evaluation indicated that while the highest CH4p in Quebracho treatments were associated with acetogenic profiles, CH4p with Lotus did not show any relationship with the volatile fatty acids (VFA) profile, but it did show a relationship with the highest total VFA production and the highest GP.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the influence of the quantitative traits measured by real-time ultrasound (adjusted longissimus muscle area [AdjLMA], adjusted rump fat thickness [AdjRFT], and adjusted marbling [AdjMAR]) as well as age at first breeding [AFB] and adjusted weight [AdjWeight], on the probability of occurrence of early pregnancy (EP) in 55 Nellore heifers, and also performed an economic analysis. All calves received supplementation in creep-feeding (ad libitum), and at weaning (average age= 210 ± 30 days; average weight= 241 ± 33 kg) until first breeding by artificial insemination (May to November) all heifers were managed in the same group (two paddocks of 25 ha each evenly covered with Urochloa Marandu Grass) and received protein-energy supplementation (1% of average BW per animal/day). The quantitative variables were collected immediately after timed artificial insemination (average age= 392 ± 27 days; average weight= 431.90 kg), and the pregnancy diagnosis was completed at 30 days following insemination. For economic analysis, two systems were compared (age at first breeding at 13 and 24 months). The greater adjusted weight on the first breeding increased the probability of occurrence of early pregnancy, while the greater adjusted longissimus muscle area reduced. In addition, intensive meat production systems provide greater economic return throughout cow-calf operation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to observe the attractiveness efficiency of trap boxes installed in collective shelters of stingless bee colonies (Melipona flavolineata, Melipona fasciculata and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis), as an alternative method for non-chemical control of tracuá carpenter ants (Camponotus atriceps). The study was conducted at Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, in Belém, Pará, Brazil, from March to August 2015. The results showed that the efficiency of this technique depended on the presence of bee colonies and on the bee species in the collective shelter. Overall, an efficiency of 40.6% was found in the capture of C. atriceps individuals, which rose to 75% considering only collective shelters of M. fasciculata colonies, and to 87.5% for collective shelters of M. flavolineata. Trap boxes installed in collective shelters of S. depilis did not attract any C. atriceps group or individuals. The use of trap boxes in collective shelters of stingless bee colonies of the genus Melipona (M. flavolineata and M. fasciculata) is an efficient alternative method of non-chemical control of tracuá carpenter ants (C. atriceps).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Regarding the lack of standardized methods for beak trimming to reduce feather pecking in Japanese quail, the present study aimed to compare two ages and 3 methods of beak trimming, evaluating the performance, egg quality and feather pecking. One-day-old Japanese quails (n = 770; 22 birds cage-1), at the initial phase, and 36-day-old (n = 630; 18 birds cage-1), at the production phase, were assigned to a completely randomized design, consisting of 7 treatments with 5 replicates. The treatments were: non-trimmed (NT), cauterization of approximately 1/3 at 14 days-of-age (CAUT 14) and at 28 days-of-age (CAUT 28), moderately trimmed to approximately 1/3 beak at 14 days-of-age (MOD 14) and at 28 days-of-age (MOD 28), severely trimmed to 1/3-1/2 beak at 14 days-of-age (SEV 14) and at 28 days-of-age (SEV 28). Data were analyzed using Minitab®. The results indicated that beak trimming methods applied did not influence the performance and egg quality. Quails subjected to MOD 28 and SEV (14 and 28) presented lower feed conversion per egg mass compared to NT. However, MOD 14 and SEV were more efficient in preventing feather pecking behavior.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to investigate direct and indirect correlations of methodologies of bone quality analysis from brown egg layers, at final of the production cycle. Twelve femurs of Dekalb Brown laying hens, euthanized at 85-week-old, were assessed to evaluate breaking strength (BS), Seedor index (SI), mineral matter (MM), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents, besides cortical (CorD), medullar (MedD) and epiphysis (EpiD) diameters. Correlations and path analysis were obtained with the aid of SAS® University (p ≤ 0.05). The BS directly represented the bone quality and was compared to other methodologies. Greater linear correlations occurred between BS and MM (r = 0.82), MM and Ca (r = 0.72), and BS and Ca (r = 0.70). The MM content displayed the greatest direct effect on the BS (r = 0.53). The Ca content showed a reduced direct effect on the BS (r = 0.18), with indirect effects through MM content (r = 0.44) and EpiD (r = 0.15), however, presented a great total correlation (r = 0.78). Determination of mineral matter content is the main methodology associated with femur breaking strength from brown egg layers at final of the productive cycle. Because of that, this methodology is more reliable to determine bone quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Amantadine and rimantadine are used for prevention and treatment of influenza A virus (IAV) infection. The rates of resistant IAVs have been increasing globally. However, amino acid substitutions in the M2 transmembrane channel lead to amantadine resistance. The residues of 26, 27, 30, 31 or 34 are marker of amantadine resistance in IAVs. In this study, 15 pooled tracheal samples collected from 15 chicken farms with severe respiratory sign and mortality in 2016-2018. After identification of influenza A and H9 subtype, the 1027 bp fragment of M gene was sequenced for molecular evaluation of amantadine resistance in AIV strains. Results showed 12 out of 15 pooled samples were positive for IAV and H9 subtype. Based on M2 gene analysis, 8 out of 12 (66.66%) were resistance to amantadine. Four out of 8 (50%) showed S31N substitution (serine to asparagine) and four out of 8 (50%) have V27A substitution (valine to alanine). There was no dual amantadine resistance mutation in any specimens. In conclusion, the emergence of amantadine resistance variants of AIV in Iran, can raise concerns about controlling of the seasonal and the future pandemic influenza. Therefore, greater caution is needed in the use of adamantanes.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to analyze and determine the economic loss from the main causes of whole bovine carcass condemnation in slaughterhouses that are inspected by the Federal Inspection Service in the state of São Paulo for the period from 2010 to 2019. Economic loss was calculated from multiplication of the number of whole carcasses condemned by the mean yield of meat per carcass and the mean annual price of beef. The monetary values were updated to the year 2019, using the IGP-DI [General Price Index]. The results indicated an economic loss of R$ 4.06 billion from the whole condemnation of bovine carcasses and the main causes were contamination (R$ 1.73 billion), abscess (R$ 283.20 million), urinary cyst (R$ 194.14 million), emphysema (R$ 107.00 million) and nephritis (R$ 107.52 million). The main factors associated with the whole condemnation of bovine carcasses are failures in the pre-slaughter management and in the slaughter stages, as well as nutritional disorders. Consequently, to minimize such losses in beef production in São Paulo state it is recommended to adopt good production practices and train slaughterhouse employees.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. Meat and meat products are highly perishable as they can provide an appropriate environment for microbial growth due to their high water activity and proper pH level. Quality, safety, sensory and nutritional properties of meat products are highly influenced by pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. To prevent microbial growth, artificial antimicrobials have been used in food matrices, however safety concerns regarding the use of synthetic preservatives is a challenging issue. Additionally, consumer’s trend towards natural mildly processed products with extended shelf life necessitates the identification of alternative additives originating from natural sources of new acceptable and effective antimicrobials. Although the effectiveness of some natural antimicrobial agents has already been reported, still, there is lack of information regarding the possibility of using lysozyme as a preservative in meat and meat products either alone or in combination with other hurdles. In the present review the applications and beneficial effects of applying lysozyme in meat products, considering its limitations such as allergic problems, interactions with food constituents, reducing sensory changes and toxicity due to high required concentrations to prevent spoilage and oxidation in foods will be discussed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the principal component analysis (PCA) to guide technical assistance regarding several dairy farms’ issues, which includes improving microbiological quality and physical-chemical composition of raw refrigerated milk. Data of monthly analysis of fat, protein, lactose, dry defatted stratum, somatic cell count, total bacterial count, milk temperature of 8,101 samples of milk from expansion tanks and production of 78 farms located in the northern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil were processed. Descriptive statistical measures and Pearson correlation coefficient were estimated involving all evaluated traits during the dry and rainy seasons. In addition, multivariate analyses were performed using PCA. The results showed that two farm sites were negatively related to milk quality in both seasons. One farm stood out positively, being able to be used as a herd management model to drive technical assistance actions. Thus, PCA is efficient in simplifying large amounts of data, allowing simpler and faster technical herd management interpretation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The present investigation was undertaken to highlight the histomorphometric changes of testicular tissues according to season and age in donkeys (Equus asinus) under northern Algeria conditions. The experiment was conducted from February 2019 to January 2020. A total of 21 sexually mature donkeys were selected randomly. The testis were immediately collected after slaughter for the histological observation. The analysis of the correlation coefficients shows negative correlations between DL and other parameters such as DST, GCEH, TTA and ITSA, ranged between -0.24 and -0.79. Also, there were a high negative correlations between season and the histomorphometric parameters, except DL was revealed positive (r=0.65). On the other hand, there were positive correlations between age and testicular histomorphometrics parameters. The results indicated that DST, GCEH, TTA and ITSA values were significantly higher in winter and autumn seasons than in spring and summer seasons. It is also noteworthy that DST, GCEH, TTA and ITSA values were significantly higher in adult and aged donkeys than in young donkeys. Our comparative analysis of histological parameters, suggests that the sexual activity usually occurs during winter and autumn in local donkeys of Algeria. In addition, our results of histomorphometric of testicular tissues are correlated with age of donkeys.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study aimed to carry out bioclimatic zoning based on the historical series of climatic variables such as air temperature, maximum, minimum and relative humidity collected in six conventional meteorological stations in the state of Paraíba, Brazil and from this to determine whether or not the animals are in thermal comfort by comparing with the results obtained in scientific research in each mesoregion in the rainy and dry periods. Then based on this the comfort conditions for small ruminants in the rainy and dry seasons of the mesoregions of Paraíba were observed using data from the literature, and demonstrated in spatial distribution maps. The variables air temperatures, maximum and minimum and relative humidity varied throughout the state for the rainy season between 22 to 27, 18 to 21, 25 to 31ºC and 64 to 82%, respectively, and in dry season is 23 to 27, 28 to 35, 19 to 23ºC and 49 to 76%, respectively. However, it is concluded that raising sheep and goats is viable in all mesoregions of the state of Paraíba in both periods.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the polymorphism of the FASN gene with fatty acid content in Awassi sheep. A total of 100 male Awassi sheep between the ages of one and two and a half years old were used in this study. Phenotypic measurement was recorded at slaughter, and from each animal, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were taken to analyze the fatty acid profile. Genotyping, sequencing reactions, and in silico tools were performed to confirm the variants in amplified fragments. The result of genotyping revealed two genotypes (AA and AB) of the ovine FASN gene (exon 3). Novel SNP (L46Q) was discovered only within the FASN gene (AB genotype). All utilized in silico tools revealed remarkably deleterious effects for the L46Q on the mutant protein structure, function, and stability. Association analysis revealed that the AB genotype has significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of animal length and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with lower amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) content than the AA genotype. In conclusion, novel SNP (L46Q) was discovered within the FASN gene (AB genotype), made the animals that has the AB genotype associated with good meat quality traits and this polymorphism may serve as markers for meat quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The study characterized the lactoferrin (Lf) mRNA gene in different goat breeds in the Philippines and determined its association with subclinical mastitis (SCM). The study involved collection of milk at second week of lactation (n=75) and blood samples (n=5) to obtain extracted RNA and using cDNA to amplify Lf gene through polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences were determined and used as reference in the evaluation of phylogenetic relationship. Amplified products were utilized for RFLP analysis before determining the association of the gene with SCM. Results of the study demonstrated that Lf gene in goats registered a molecular weight of 2135. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of Lf gene revealed high similarity (99%) in Saanen, Anglo-Nubian and Philippine native goats with that of Capra hircus (U53857) Lf gene submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic studies showed that Lf gene of Anglo-Nubian, Saanen and Native goats clade together with Lf gene of C. hircus (U53857). Three genotypes in goats were documented using the restriction enzymes AluI and HaeIII. Based on the Statistical analysis, association (comp 5.65, p = 0.0308) has been established between the Lf genes of goats with genotype BB to SCM using HaeIII restriction enzyme.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The study determined immunological indices of Giant African Land snail (Archachatina marginata) improved with fixed dose of vitamin C under acute heat stress (AHS). Prior to the AHS, vitamin C was administered for four weeks to two treatment groups, while other two treatment groups were not. Each treatment was monitored, haemolymph collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes exposure times. Immunological cytokines: interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2); and total haemocyte counts (THC) were determined. Under AHS, vitamin C elevated (p <0.05) IFN-γ production (606.33 ± 302.86) compared to other groups with or without vitamin C administration (7.20 ± 1.58 vs. 73.20 ± 32.23 vs. 7.80 ± 1.36). IL-2 was not affected (p >0.05) by vitamin C under AHS. Highest (p <0.05) THC values was obtained with vitamin C administration under AHS, but reduced under no AHS. Exposure time affected (p <0.05) IFN-γ production and THC values, but not IL-2 (p >0.05). With fixed dose of vitamin C and exposure time, highest (p <0.05) IFN-γ values were obtained under AHS with vitamin C administration at 30 minutes and at 60 minutes in THC, compared to other groups. The study concluded that fixed dose of vitamin C at 150 mg kg-1 of feed was appropriate under AHS to boost the immune system of the animals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. The present study was carried out to evaluate the substitution of synthetic performance enhancers by ethanolic propolis extract (EPE) in the diet of broilers and their effects on performance, carcass yield, noble cuts, viscera and bed quality. A completely randomized design was used, with four treatments and six replicates each, totaling 24 experimental plots with 20 birds each. The experimental treatments were: negative control, without the inclusion of performance improvement and EPE-free; positive control, containing avilamycin performance enhancer; Inclusion of 0.1% of EPE and; Inclusion of 0.2% EPE. The analyzed data were submitted to analysis of variance and applied the SNK test at 5% probability. There was no effect of the inclusion of additives on feed intake and feed conversion in the periods from 1 to 7, 1 to 21, and from 1 to 42 days of age. Weight gain was lower in birds receiving feed with the inclusion of 0.1% EPE in the period from 1 to 7 days, not differing from the other treatments in the other evaluation periods. Carcass characteristics, cuts, and viscera and bed moisture were not influenced by the treatments used. The inclusion of ethanol extract from propolis as a performance enhancer up to 42 days of age provided similar results to the use of performance enhancers based on avilamycin, thus being an efficient substitute in poultry production.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT. A 10-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of enzyme complex + yeast (Maxigrain®, MXG®) supplementation of sun-dried yam peel meal (YPM) based diet of laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on performance and egg quality. A total of 240, seven-weeks old quails were distributed in a completely randomize design with four dietary treatments and five replicates of 12 quails each. Diet 1 served as the control diet without YPM while diet 2, 3, and 4 contained 25, 50, and 75% YPM with MXG® supplementation (1g per kg), respectively. MXG® supplementation in YPM diets improved (p < 0.05) egg mass and feed conversion per egg. Increasing levels of YPM with MXG® supplementation did not show any effect (p > 0.05) on internal and external egg quality attributes except for eggshell weight and thickness which was higher (p < 0.05) in quails fed 75% YPM diet. It was concluded, therefore, that the utilization of YPM as an alternative dietary ingredient with MXG® supplementation can be tolerated in the diets of laying Japanese quails up to 75% inclusion level without any negative effect on productive and egg quality performance.