Efficacy of Probiotics Supplementation on Growth Performance, Carcass Composition and Hematological Parameters of Cyprinus carpio Fingerlings Fed Corn Gluten Meal-Based Diet

Syed Makhdoom Hussain Maria Bashir Shabab Nasir Syed Zakir Hussain Shah Nosheen Aslam Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad Shimron Ahsan Saba Hanif Majid Hussain Nisar Ahmad About the authors

Abstract

Plant based protein sources are one of the best, cost effective and easily available protein sources being used in fish feed. But due to a lower number of micro-biota in fish gut plant meal based diets cannot be digested and absorbed well in fish body. Probiotics were supplemented at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 gkg-1 levels in fish feed for formulating one control and five test diets. In this study, three replicates of each treatment were used and number of fingerlings was 15 in each replicate. The C. carpio (common carp) fingerlings were fed at 5% of live wet weight on their prescribed diet twice daily. The results revealed that supplementation of probiotics in corn gluten meal based diets significantly (p<0.05) improved growth performance, carcass composition and hematological parameters. Most optimum values of growth performance parameters were noted at 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics supplemented diet. C. carpio fingerlings fed corn gluten meal based diet supplemented with 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics indicated significant (p<0.05) improvements in crude protein (17g) crude fat (9g) and gross energy (3 kcalg-1) whereas higher red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) was also recorded in fish blood when fed 2 gkg-1 probiotics level diet. From these results, it was concluded that 2 gkg-1 probiotics supplementation in corn gluten meal based diet is optimum for improving growth performance, body composition and hematology of C. carpio fingerlings.

Keywords:
probiotics; body composition; hematology; common carp

INTRODUCTION

Cyprinus carpio (Common carp) is locally cultured in Asia, Eastern Europe and all around the world. Being a top cultured member of Cyprinids, its annual production range is over 4 million metric tons [1717 FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Yearbook of Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics. Rome: Italy; 2018.]. It is a freshwater fish and can tolerate a broad range of temperature, pH and salinity. It is one of the most-willingly farmed species in the world and characterized by the fast growth rate and a good source of protein for humans. It is the third most culturable specie in the world representing 71.9% of the freshwater species [11 Abdel-Tawwab M, Monier MN. Stimulatory effect of dietary taurine on growth performance, digestive enzymes activity, antioxidant capacity, and tolerance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fry to salinity stress. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2018;44(2):639-49.]. Aquaculture industry is providing proteinaceous food to the developing and under-developed countries at the rate of >20 and 50%, respectively [66 Awad E, Awaad A. Role of medicinal plants on growth performance and immune status in fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2017;67:40-54.]. It is the fastest growing food producing sector to fulfill the requirements of protein [1818 FAO, Food and Aquaculture Organization. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome:Italy; 2012.197p.]. Fishmeal is considered as a superior ingredient in fish feed because it has largest portion of protein content, beneficial lipids, essential amino acids, minerals, vitamins and several growth elements [1111 Cho JH, Kim IH. Fish meal–nutritive value. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2011;95(6):685-92.]. To provide such nutritious feed to the fish, it is favored by fish farmers, but there are inadequate FM resources [3535 Oniszczuk T, Oniszczuk A, Gondek E, Guz L, Puk K, Kocira A, et al. Active polyphenolic compounds, nutrient contents and antioxidant capacity of extruded fish feed containing purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.). Saudi J Biol. Sci. 2019;26(1):24-30.]. To encounter this problem, fish nutritionists are in continuous struggle to find substitutes of animal protein with novel and low-cost plant proteins. Plant derived proteins fulfill nutritional supplies of fish and simultaneously increase fish culture worldwide [2828 Kaur R, Shah TK. A review on role of plant waste products on fish growth, health and production. J Entomol Zool Stud. 2017;5:583-9.].

One of the major alternative sources is corn gluten meal (CGM), which have high protein contents (60-70% on dry matter basis), very low anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) and high ratio of essential amino acids [2727 Jafaryan H, Sahandi J, Bagheri Dorbadam J. Growth and length-weight relationship of Trichopodus trichopterus (pallas, 1770) fed a supplemented diet with different concentrations of probiotic. Croatian J Fish. 2014 Sep 25;72(3):118-22.]. It is found highly digestible for many fishes [3737 Pereira TG, Oliva‐Teles A. Evaluation of corn gluten meal as a protein source in diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) juveniles. Aquacult Res. 2003 Nov;34(13):1111-7.,2929 Köprücü K, Özdemir Y. Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquacult. 2005 Nov 14;250(1-2):308-16.,2222 Hansen AC, Karlsen Ø, Rosenlund G, Rimbach M, Hemre GI. Dietary plant protein utilization in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Aquacult Nutr. 2007 Jun;13(3):200-15.]. Plant meal-based diets are difficult to digest and absorb in fishes as they have smaller number of micro-biota in their gut [1515 Egerton S, Culloty S, Whooley J, Stanton C, Ross RP. The gut microbiota of marine fish. Front Microbiol. 2018 May 4;9:873.,4949 Wedemeyer GA, Yasutake W. Clinical methods for the assessment of the effects of environmental stress on fish health. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service; 1977.]. Probiotics are living microorganisms that may improve the overall fish performance by developing immunity [2020 Gatesoupe FJ. The use of probiotics in aquaculture. Aquacult. 1999 Oct 1;180(1-2):147-65.] and enhancing digestibility of plant meal-based diets [2626 Irianto A, Austin B. Use of probiotics to control furunculosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2002 Jun;25(6):333-42.]. These micro-organisms help to metabolize the nutrients that cannot be digested by fish without them [2323 Hoyoux C, Zbinden M, Samadi S, Gaill F, Compère P. Wood-based diet and gut microflora of a galatheid crab associated with Pacific deep-sea wood falls. Mar Biol. 2009 Nov 1;156(12):2421-39.,4545 Suzer C, Kamaci HO, Coban D, Saka Ş, Firat K, Özkara B, Özkara A. Digestive enzyme activity of the red porgy (Pagrus pagrus, L.) during larval development under culture conditions. Aquacult Res. 2007 Dec;38(16):1778-85.]. The microbial breakdown of starch, protein, lipids and cellulose helps in fish digestion process [3333 Mondal S, Roy T, Ray AK. Characterization and identification of enzyme‐producing bacteria isolated from the digestive tract of bata, Labeo bata. J World Aquacult Soc. 2010 Jun;41(3):369-77.,3939 Saha S, Roy RN, Sen SK, Ray AK. Characterization of cellulase‐producing bacteria from the digestive tract of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambica (Peters) and grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes). Aquacult Res. 2006 Mar;37(4):380-8.]. [51] reported that fish growth performance response depends on type of probiotics used in fish feed. Mostly used microbiota as probiotics in freshwater fish species include Plesiomonas, Aeromonas, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Fusobacterium [1313 Das S, Mondal K, Haque S. A review on application of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic for sustainable development of aquaculture. Growth. 2017;14:5.]. So, this study was carried out to find the optimum level of probiotics supplementation in CGM based diet for improving the growth performance, hematological parameters and carcass contents of C. carpio fingerlings.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This experimental trial was conducted in the Fish Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad. C. carpio fingerlings (average weight 7.145±0.045) were purchased for experimental trial from Government Fish Seed Hatchery, Faisalabad and kept in V-shaped water tanks (70 L) which are specifically designed for collection of feces. Fingerlings were acclimatized for two weeks to adjust with the experimental conditions and fed on basal diet [33 Allan GL, Rowland SJ. Development of an experimental diet for silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Austasia Aquacult. 1992;6(3):39-40.]. Before starting the trial, fingerlings were treated with NaCl solution (5gL-1), to ensure ecto-parasites and fungal free fingerlings [3838 Rowland SJ. Diseases of Australian native freshwater fishes with particular emphasis on the ectoparasitic and fungal diseases of Murray cod (Maccullochella peeli), golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) and silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Dept. of Agriculture, New South Wales; 1991.]. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, temperature and conductivity were monitored through DO meter (Jenway 970), pH meter (Jenway 3510), thermometer and electrical conductivity (EC) meter (HANNA: HI. 8633) on daily basis. Water quality parameter ranges were maintained as pH 7.4–8.6 dissolved oxygen 5.8–7.3 mgL−1, electrical conductivity 1.30–1.52 dSm−1 and temperature 24.9–28.7°C. Capillary system was used for providing (24 h) aeration to all experimental tanks.

Diet formulation and Experimental design

Corn gluten meal (CGM) having 30% protein was used to formulate diets by using varying levels of probiotics (Ecotec®). (Ecotec contains 2.0g of >8 billion CFU). The feed ingredients were procured from commercial feed mill and further analyzed for chemical composition ensuing standard methods [55 Association of official analytical chemists – AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Washington DC; 1995.] before formulating the experimental diet (Table 1). The feed ingredients were ground and then sieved to attain required particle size. Feed ingredients were blended as per formulation (Table 2) for 10 minutes to prepare basal diet and kept on adding fish oil gradually. Commercially prepared Ecotec TM (a multi-strain probiotic) was used in this trial that contains 4 billion CFU (4×109 CFUg-1) in 1g having standardized freeze-dried cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp, Streptococcus thermophilus STY-31, Bifidobacterium BB-12 and Bulgaricus LBY-27. Probiotics were added at the level of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 gkg-1 in CGM based basal diet to prepare six test diets. Water (10 to 15%) was added for the formulation of suitable dough [3232 Lovell T. Nutrition and feeding of fish. New York: 1989. 260 p.]. Lab Extruder (SYSLg30-IV Experimental Extruder) was used to prepare floating pellets (3mm). Prepared diets were dried in an oven and stored at 4°C throughout the trial. C. carpio fingerlings were fed with test diets in triplicate twice daily. Fifteen fingerlings were stocked in each replicate. Total 18 water tanks and 270 fingerlings were used to conduct this research work. After two hours of feeding time, the remaining uneaten diet was washed out from the tank and filled with fresh water again. Experimental duration was 70 days.

Table 1
Ingredient composition (%) of CGM based diets supplemented with probiotics
Table 2
Chemical composition (%) of feed ingredients (Dry matter basis)

Chemical analysis of carcass

After 70 days, four fish were randomly selected for carcass analysis from each replicated tank, dried in oven at 60oC, ground and were chemically analyzed. Standard methods were used for analyzing the proximate composition of whole-body samples [55 Association of official analytical chemists – AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Washington DC; 1995.]. The moisture content was analyzed by oven drying process (105°C for 12 hours), while micro kjeldahl apparatus was used for measuring crude protein (N×6.25). Soxhlet system was used for obtaining ether extracts from petroleum ether. Crude fiber was obtained as a loss on combustion of lipid-free dry residues after digestion with 1.25% H2SO4 and 1.25% NaOH. Crude ash was determined by ignition in electric furnace (Eyela-TMF 3100) at 650oC for 12 hours. Gross energy was calculated by an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter (Parr Instrument Co., Moline, USA). Total amount of carbohydrates was calculated by following formula:

Total carbohydrates ( % ) = 100 ( crude protein % + crude fat % + crude fiber % + ash % ) (1)

Hematological study

For hematological study, fingerlings were anesthetized by using clove oil (Sigma; 60 mg/L) by dissolving in ethanol was used for anesthetizing fingerlings [1212 Coyle SD, Durborow RM, Tidwell JH. Anesthetics in aquaculture. Texas: Southern Regional Aquaculture Center; 2004 Nov.,3636 Peake S. Sodium bicarbonate and clove oil as potential anesthetics for nonsalmonid fishes. North Am J Fish Manage. 1998 Nov;18(4):919-24.]. A heparinized syringe was used for taking blood samples from the caudal vein of fish. For analyzing hematological indices, blood samples were sent to the Molcare Lab of Biochemistry department, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Hematocrit was determined with Micro-hematocrit technique by using capillary tubes [1010 Brown BA. Hematology: Principles and Procedures. Philadelphia: 1988. 7-122 p.]. White blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) were counted with a hemocytometer and approved Neubauer counting chamber [99 Blaxhall PC, Daisley KW. Routine hematological methods for use with fish blood. J Fish Biol. 1973;5(6):771-81.]. Haemoglobin (Hb) was determined by ensuing the method of [5050 Zhou QC, Tan BP, Mai KS, Liu YJ. Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture. 2004 Nov 26;241(1-4):441-51.]. To compute mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell volume (MCV) following formulae were used:

M C H C = H b / P C V × 100 (2)
M C V = P C V / R B C × 10 (3)
M C H = H b / R B C × 10 (4)

Growth study

Growth parameters (weight gain, weight gain%, FCR and SGR) of C. carpio fingerlings were calculated by using standard formulae:

Weight gain ( % ) = (Final weight - Initial weight) × 100 Initial weight Feed conversion ratio (FCR) = Total dry feed intake (g) Wet weight gain (g) Specific growth rate (SGR) = ( ln final weight ln initial weight ) × 100 No .of days of experiment (5)

Statistical analysis

The data of growth, hematology and carcass composition were subjected to one-way analysis of variance ANOVA [4343 Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA. Principles and procedures of statistics. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill International Book Co Inc; USA. 1997. p. 336-352.]. Differences among means were compared ensuing Tukey’s honesty significant difference test and considered significant as p<0.05 [4242 Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical methods, 8th ed. Ames: Iowa State Univ. Press Iowa. 1989.]. For statistical evaluation, Co-Stat computer software (version 6.303, PMB 320 and Monterey, CA, 93940 USA) was used.

RESULTS

Highest protein, fat and gross energy contents were observed in fish fed 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics supplemented diet while the second highest level of these parameters were recorded at 3 gkg-1 in comparison to other groups (Table 3). The lowest protein, fat and gross energy values were noted in fish fed with 5 gkg-1 level based diet. Minimum ash contents were observed when fingerlings were fed at 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics diet and it was statistically alike to ash contents obtained at 3 gkg-1 level. The lowest moisture contents were recorded in fish fed 2 gkg-1 followed by 3 gkg-1 probiotics supplemented CGM based test diet. Whereas, highest values were found in fish fed 5 gkg-1 probiotics and it was statistically alike with the control group.

Table 3
Carcass composition of C. carpio fingerlings fed CGM based test diets supplemented with probiotics

Highest values of RBCs and WBCs were noted when fish fed on 2 gkg-1 probiotic level diet, followed by 3 gkg-1 level that were statistically different (p<0.05) from the control group values as shown in figure 1. Lowest values of RBCs and WBCs were found in fingerlings fed at 0 gkg-1 probiotics level (control diet). Highest platelets (PLT) and Hb values were observed in fish fed on 2 gkg-1 probiotics level supplemented diet while the second best value was noted at 4 gkg-1 level (Table 4). These values were significantly (p<0.05) different in contrast to values found on other levels (0, 1, 3 and 5 gkg-1 probiotics). The highest values of packed cell volume (PCV) were found in fingerlings fed diet containing 4 gkg-1 probiotics level, while the second best level was 3 gkg-1 (Figure 1). The highest values for MCHC and MCV were recorded in fingerlings fed diet having 3 gkg-1 probiotics level and the lowest values were noted in fish fed at 1 gkg-1 probiotics level.

Figure 1
Relationship between probiotics and hematological parameters of C. carpio fingerlings fed corn gluten meal based diets
Table 4
Hematological parameters of C. carpio fingerlings fed CGM based test diets supplemented with probiotics

The maximum weight gain and SGR were recorded in fish fed at 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics supplemented CGM based diet followed by fish fed at 1 gkg-1 probiotics level (Table 5). These values were statistically different (p<0.05) from control and other experimental groups. Lowest weight gain, weight gain% and SGR values were recorded at 0 and 5 gkg-1 probiotic level. Optimum feed conversion ratio (FCR) and weight gain% of C. carpio fingerlings was observed at 2 gkg-1 probiotics supplementation level and it was significantly different (p<0.05) from remaining test and control diets as presented in Figure 2. Second best FCR value was found in fish fed 1 gkg-1 probiotics level whereas poor FCR was found in fish fed 5 gkg-1 probiotics supplemented diet and it was statistically alike with the values obtained at control diet.

Table 5
Growth performance of C. carpio fingerlings fed on CGM based test diets supplemented with probiotics
Figure 2
Relationship between probiotics and various growth parameters of C. carpio fingerlings fed corn gluten meal-based diets

DISCUSSION

Probiotics are live microorganisms that may be used as dietary supplements to enhance fish performance and immunity. Probiotics impart several benefits to the fish, like improved growth performance, enhanced feed efficiency, boosted immunity status and flourished beneficial intestinal microflora [22 Akhter N, Wu B, Memon AM, Mohsin M. Probiotics and prebiotics associated with aquaculture: a review. Fish Shellfish Immunol.2015;45(2):733-41.,2525 Huynh TG, Shiu YL, Nguyen TP, Truong QP, Chen JC, Liu CH. Current applications, selection, and possible mechanisms of actions of synbiotics in improving the growth and health status in aquaculture: a review. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;64:367-82.,4848 Wang AR, Ran C, Ringø E, Zhou ZG. Progress in fish gastrointestinal microbiota research. Rev Aquacult. 2018 Aug;10(3):626-40.,4747 Van HN. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: a review. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45(2):592-7.]. Probiotics produce digestive enzymes that enhance feed digestibility and absorption. The present results showed the highest amount of gross energy (2%), crude fat (9%) and crude protein (17%) in whole body when fish fed on 2 g kg-1 probiotic supplemented corn gluten meal-based diet while second higher level on these parameters was observed at 3 g kg-1 probiotic supplementation. Much like present findings, [1414 Dhanaraj M, Haniffa MA, Singh SA, Arockiaraj AJ, Ramakrishanan CM, Seetharaman S, et al. Effect of probiotics on growth performance of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). J Appl Aquacult. 2010 Sep 8;22(3):202-9.] observed better carcass composition of C. carpio fingerlings fed 0.5% Saccharomyces cervisiae supplemented soybean meal-based diet. Bisht and coauthors [88 Bisht A, Singh UP, Pandey NN. Bacillus subtilis as a potent probiotic for enhancing growth in fingerlings of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Indian J Fish. 2012;59(3):103-8.] observed lower level of moisture (6.75%), while higher protein (30%) and lipid (8%) contents in the body of C. carpio fed at 4×108 cells 100-1g B. subtilis supplemented (4×106 cells 100-1 g) rice bran-based diet compared to control group. Suprayudi and coauthors [4444 Suprayudi MA, Maeda M, Hidayatullah H, Widanarni W, Setiawati M, Ekasari J. The positive contributions of PowerLac™ supplementation to the production performance, feed utilization and disease resistance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquacult Res. 2017;48(5):2145-56.] recorded higher protein and lipids absorption in the body of Nile tilapia upon feeding of diet supplemented with 0.25 and 0.5 g kg−1 of dietary probiotics. Similarly, Hoyoux and coauthors [2323 Hoyoux C, Zbinden M, Samadi S, Gaill F, Compère P. Wood-based diet and gut microflora of a galatheid crab associated with Pacific deep-sea wood falls. Mar Biol. 2009 Nov 1;156(12):2421-39.] reported that the diet containing 1×107 CFUg-1 probiotics for fish showed highest protein, fat and gross energy contents in Nile tilapia. Sahandi and coauthors [4040 Sahandi J, Jafaryan H, Soltani M, Ebrahimi P. The use of two Bifidobacterium strains enhanced growth performance and nutrient utilization of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019;11(3):966-72.] observed improved apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein (68.33%), crude fat (9.55%) and gross energy (4516.80 cal/g) while using 1 × 107 of two probiotics strains (Bifidobacterium). Contrarily, Ayoola and coauthors [77 Ayoola SO, Ajani EK, Fashae OF. Effect of probiotics (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) on growth performance and hematological profile of Clarias gariepinus juveniles. World J Fish Mar Sci. 2013;5(1):01-08.] recorded highest values of moisture (8.20%), lipid (12.7%) and ash (4.34%) at control diet while higher crude protein (66%) in Clarias gariepinus group fed 1g commercially prepared probiotics (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium).

In aquaculture, fish hematology is used in monitoring fish health [2424 Hrubec TC, Cardinale JL, Smith SA. Hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals for cultured tilapia (Oreochromis hybrid). Vet Clin path. 2000 Mar;29(1):7-12.]. In our study fingerlings fed 2 gkg-1 probiotics showed greater value of RBCs (3.18×106mm-3), WBCs (8.02×103 mm-3) and PLT (68) whereas the second maximum value was recorded with 3 gkg-1 level of probiotic supplementation. It was unclear about the decrement of RBCs and WBCs values in fingerlings fed on higher levels of probiotics supplementation (3, 4 and 5 g/kg). RBCs numbers over 1.00×10-6 mm-3 in blood is considered high and show higher oxygen carrying capacity with increased metabolic activity [3131 Lenfant C, Johansen K. Gas exchange in gill, skin and lung breathing. Respir physiol. 1972 Mar 1;14(1-2):211-8.]. Similar to present results, [3030 Krishnaveni R, Palanivelu K, Velavan S. Effects of probiotics and Spirulina supplementation on haemato-immunological function of Catla catla. Int J Res Fish Aquacult. 2013;3(4):176-81.] observed high numbers of RBCs and WBCs at 3% probiotics supplementation in C. catla fingerlings.

Present results showed that PLT numbers improve with rising probiotics level up to 3 gkg-1. Suprayudi and coauthors [4444 Suprayudi MA, Maeda M, Hidayatullah H, Widanarni W, Setiawati M, Ekasari J. The positive contributions of PowerLac™ supplementation to the production performance, feed utilization and disease resistance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquacult Res. 2017;48(5):2145-56.] noticed significantly improved erythrocytes, leucocytes and phagocytic index while feeding O. niloticus upon 0.50 and 1.0 g of dietary probiotics. Similar to our results, Jafaryan and coauthors [2727 Jafaryan H, Sahandi J, Bagheri Dorbadam J. Growth and length-weight relationship of Trichopodus trichopterus (pallas, 1770) fed a supplemented diet with different concentrations of probiotic. Croatian J Fish. 2014 Sep 25;72(3):118-22.] studied that addition of probiotics (3×10-4 CFUg-1) in plant meal-based diet showed higher growth performance in Trichopodus trichopterus as compared to other fish groups. Probiotics supplementation at level of 108 and 1010 CFUg-1 in Labeo rohita diet improves the growth performance parameters such as growth, feed conversion ratio and SGR [2121 Giri SS, Sukumaran V, Oviya M. Potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum VSG3 improves the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of tropical freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013 Feb 1;34(2):660-6.]. Tan and coauthors [4646 Tan HY, Chen SW, Hu SY. Improvements in the growth performance, immunity, disease resistance, and gut microbiota by the probiotic Rummeliibacillus stabekisii in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019;92:265-75.] reported significant change in weight gain, FCR and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia when fed on 106 CFU/g of probiotics supplemented diet. Furthermore, Feng and coauthors [1919 Feng J, Chang X, Zhang Y, Yan X, Zhang J, Nie G. Effects of Lactococcus lactis from Cyprinus carpio L. as probiotics on growth performance, innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2019;93:73-81.] found out striking increase in weight gain and SGR of common carp while feeding the fish with different strains of probiotics at (5 × 108 CFU/g) for 8 weeks. Munir and coauthors [3434 Munir MB, Hashim R, Chai YH, Marsh TL, Nor SAM. Dietary prebiotics and probiotics influence growth performance, nutrient digestibility and the expression of immune regulatory genes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings. Aquaculture. 2016;460:59-68.] ended up with the significant results in terms of FCR (1.24), SGR (1.44) and weight gain (400.45%) by employing probiotics like Lactobacillus acidophilus in Channa striata. Same findings were also reported by Aly and coauthors [44 Aly SM, Mohamed MF, John G. Effect of probiotics on the survival, growth and challenge infection in Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquacult Res. 2008;39(6):647-56.] in O. niloticus when fed with 10-6 g-1 of probiotics. However, Sha and coauthors observed that FCR and SGR values did not show any improvement when rainbow trout was fed probiotics supplemented diet compared to control group [4141 Sha A, Jafaryan H, Farahi A, Ahmadvand S. Effect of frozen Daphnia magna diet mixed with probiotic Protexin on growth and survival of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry reared under controlled conditions. Online J Anim Feed Res. 2012;2(1):34-9.]. Similarly, Irianto and coauthors [2626 Irianto A, Austin B. Use of probiotics to control furunculosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2002 Jun;25(6):333-42.] observed non-significant differences in the growth performance of rainbow trout in response to probiotics supplemented plant meal-based diet.

CONCLUSION

Results suggested the usage of 2 gkg-1 probiotics as the optimal level for improving the carcass composition, growth performance and hematological parameters of C. carpio fingerlings fed CGM based diets.

Acknowledgments:

The authors are gratefully acknowledged to Fish Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad for providing all facilities and equipments to carry out this research work.

  • HIGHLIGHTS
  • • Maximum improvement in growth parameters was observed in Cyprinus carpio fingerlings fed corn gluten meal based diet supplemented with 2 gkg-1 level of probiotics supplementation.
  • • C. carpio fingerlings fed with 2 gkg-1 level based diet showed higher values of RBCs, WBCs and platelets whereas 3 gkg-1 level showed second higher concentrations of blood parameters.
  • • Highest carcass composition was noted when fingerlings were fed with 2 gkg-1 level while the second higher level of these parameters were noted at 3 gkg-1 level based diet.
  • Funding: This research received no external funding.

REFERENCES

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    24 May 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    31 Mar 2020
  • Accepted
    17 Feb 2021
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