Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Volume: 41, Issue: 3, Published: 1998
  • Plant breeding in the turn of the millennium Review

    Borém, Aluízio; Milach, Sandra Cristina Kothe

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A transição da fase de coleta e caça para a agricultura ocorreu há cerca de dez mil anos independentemente e em vários locais no mundo. Naquela época iniciou-se a domesticação da maioria das espécies cultivadas, dando início às atividades agrícolas. Os melhoristas foram responsáveis pelo fenomenal progresso genético de um vasto número de espécies. Incluem-se os híbridos, a introgressão de genes de ancestrais silvestres e a própria Revolução Verde iniciada com os cereais na década de 60. As novas variedades desenvolvidas pelo melhoramento genético, associadas ao uso de tecnologia adequada (fertilizantes, preparo do solo etc.), permitiram que importadores de alimentos se tornassem exportadores. A despeito das contribuições do melhoramento genético e do ambiente, as perspectivas de contribuição no futuro são ainda maiores. Na virada do milênio o melhoramento no mundo globalizado enfrenta novos desafios, tendo a sua disposição novas tecnologias. Acredita-se que ele deva continuar evoluindo em direção a progressos genéticos mais previsíveis de forma gradativa, com o uso da biotecnologia. A parceira estabelecida entre melhoristas e biotecnologistas resultará em benefícios para a sociedade. Atualmente, variedades desenvolvidas via biotecnologia estão sendo cultivadas em grandes áreas em diversos países. Todavia, alguns possíveis impactos negativos da biotecnologia tem sido considerados, a exemplo da vulnerabilidade biotecnológica interespecífica, passível de ocorrer quando, por exemplo, um gene da resistência a uma praga fosse introduzido em várias espécies simultaneamente, resultando na possibilidade de uma suscetibilidade endêmica na eventualidade de quebra desta resistência. A corrida da biotecnologia certamente criará novas perspectivas para o melhorista mas, eventualmente, poderá estabelecer platôs de rendimentos com as restrições impostas pela piramidação de genes para as características criadas via biotecnologia, resultando no que se denomina de arresto gênico.

    Abstract in English:

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming happened about 10,000 years ago, independently and diffusely in several places in the world. Plant breeders were responsible for genetic progress in a number of crop species. It included hybrids, the introgression of wild species genes and also the Green Revolution, which started in the 1960's with the cereals. The varieties developed by breeding, along with the use of new crop technology (fertilization, soil tillage, etc.) changed the status of some countries from importers to exporters of food. In the turn of the millennium,, plant breeding, faces new challenges in a globalized world, but it has new tools to deal with them. Notwithstanding the present contributions of plant breeding and crop management, its future contributions may be even greater. The partnership being developed between plant breeding and biotechnology will assure a more consistent and predictable genetic progress. Current contributions of biotechnology have arrived for many crops in different places of the world. Varieties developed by transformation are grown in large acreage in some countries. Some concerns have also arisen from the use of GMOs. For example, the introgression of a gene for insect resistance 4 into many different species could result in an undesirable endemic risk, here called interespecific biotechnological vulnerability. Another concern is that biotechnology race may create yield plateaus in programs using genes pyramiding for all new traits made available by biotechnology, resulting in what is called genetic gridlock. Nevertheless, the benefits of using biotechnology will substantially enhance the contributions of plant breeding to human life
  • Evaluation of sequential aerated treatment of wastewater from hardboard mill

    Videla, S.; Isaacs, C.; Diez, M. Cristina

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Água residual proveniente de uma indústria de tabuleiro de fibra dura caracterizada por ter um elevado conteúdo orgânico (15-30 g/L DQO) foi estudada utilizando um sistema arejado seqüêncial de forma a definir uma estratégia de start up. A concentração de DQO na entrada do sistema variou na faixa de 0,5-25 g/L e o tempo de residência hidráulico foi mantido em 5 dias. O sistema seqüêncial proposto reduziu DBO, DQO, SST e fenol sobre 90% quando a concentração de DQO na entrada foi menor a 25 g/L.

    Abstract in English:

    Wastewater from a hardboard mill characterized by a high organic content (15-30 g/L COD) was studied in a bench scale sequential aerated system in order to define a start up strategy. Inlet COD concentration varied from 0.5 to 25 g/L and the hydraulic retention time was maintained at 5 days. The sequential system proposed could reduce BOD, COD, TSS and phenol over 90% except when the inlet COD concentration was lower than 25 g/L.
  • Purification and characterization of β-Fructosidase with inulinase activity from Aspergillus niger - 245

    Cruz, Vinícius D'Arcadia; Belote, Juliana Gisele; Dorta, Claudia; Santos, Luíza Helena Oliveira dos; Andriolo, Cláudia Regina; Khenayfes, Marcelo de Oliveira; Cruz, Rubens

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Aspergillus niger - 245, isolado do solo mostrou boa atividade de b-frutosidase meio formulado com extrato de tubérculos de dahlia. A enzima foi purificada por precipitação em sulfato de amônia e percolada em colunas de DEAE-Sephadex A-50 e CM-celulose, produzindo um único pico em todas as fases de purificação e mantendo a relação I/S entre 0,32 a 0,39. O pH ótimo para a atividade de inulinase (I) foi encontrado entre 4,0 - 4.5 e para a atividade de invertase (S) em 2,5 e 5,0. A temperatura ótima foi de 60O.C para ambas as atividades e nenhuma perda foi observada quando mantida nesta temperatura por 30 min. Os valores de Km foram de 1,44 e 5,0, respectivamente, para I e S e os valores de Vm de 10,48 e 30,55, respectivamente. A atividade I foi fortemente inibida por Hg2+, Ag+ e 2 x 10-3 M de glicose, mas não por frutose na mesma concentração. A enzima mostrou um mecanismo de exo-ação, atuando sobre a inulina de diferentes origens. Em condições de ensaio foi obtida hidrólise total de frutanas, apesar de ter mostrado maior atividade sobre a inulina de chicória que sobre as de alcachofra de Jesrusalém e dahlia, nos primeiros 30 minutos de reação. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a enzima apresenta bom potencial para aplicações industriais na preparação de xaropes de frutose.

    Abstract in English:

    Aspergillus niger - 245, a strain isolated from soil samples showed good β-fructosidase activity when inoculated in medium formulated with dahlia extract tubers. The enzyme was purified by precipitation in ammonium sulphate and percolated in DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and CM-cellulose columns, witch showed a single peack in all the purification steps, maintaining the I/S ratio between 0.32 to, 0.39. Optimum pH for inulinase activity (I) was between 4.0 - 4.5 and for invertase activity (S) between 2.5 and 5.0. The optimum temperature was 60O.C for both activities and no loss in activity was observed when it was maintained at this temperature for 30 min. The Km value was 1.44 and 5.0, respectively, for I and S and Vm value 10.48 and 30.55, respectively. The I activity was strongly inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+ and 2 x 10-3 M of glucose, but not by fructose at the same concentration. The enzyme showed an exo-action mechanism, acting on the inulin of different origins. In assay conditions total hydrolysis of all the frutans was obtained, although it has shown larger activity on the chicory inulin than that one from artichoke Jerusalem and dahlia, in the first 30 min. The obtained results suggested that the enzyme presented good potential for industrial application in the preparing the fructose syrups
  • Fishing activity in Northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) and its relation with small cetaceans

    Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira Di; Ramos, Renata Maria Arruda; Lima, Neuza Rejane Wille

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Investigação sobre a atividade pesqueira na localidade de Atafona, Norte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (21º25`S), foi conduzida entre 1987-96 com o objetivo de relacioná-la com a captura acidental e a dieta dos pequenos cetáceos. Dados sobre as operações pesqueiras foram obtidos na administração dos entrepostos de pesca, através de entrevistas com pescadores e observações pessoais. Os recursos pesqueiros mais representativos foram Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus, and Rhizoprionodon porosus. As redes de espera são responsáveis pela captura acidental de pequenos cetáceos na região, principalmente de Pontoporia blainvillei e Sotalia fluviatilis (forma marinha). Quatro tipos de redes de espera que são usadas na região ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha") foram mais perigosas para essas espécies pois são colocadas no seu hábitat preferencial. Não existe competição entre pescadores e pequenos cetáceos devido à seleção na captura dos peixes comercializados.

    Abstract in English:

    Research on fishing activity at Atafona village, in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21°35'S), was carried out between 1987-96 for the purpose of relating it to the accidental capture of small cetaceans and of estimating the relationship between fishing activity and the diet of small cetaceans. Data on fishing operations were obtained at the cold storage plants management, from interviews with fishermen and personal observations. The most representative fishing resources were Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus,and Rhizoprionodon porosus. Gillnets are responsible for the accidental capture of small cetaceans in the region, mainly Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia fluviatilis (marine form). Four types of gillnets that are used on the region ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha") were dangerous to these species because they are placed in their preferred habitat. There is no competition between fishermen and small cetaceans due to the selection in the capture of commercialized fishes
  • Morphological and histochemical analysis of the antennal gland of Macrobrachium Potiuna (Muller, 1880) (Crustácea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    Moraes, Neci; Scaff, Rejane Cirra

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of our study was to describe by histologic methods the structural organization of the antennal gland of M. potiuna as well as the location through histochemical methods of the neutral and sulfated polissacharides that exist in these regions. This study showed that the gland is composed of the a non-secretive tubular portion and a secretive portion which is formed by a cubic simple epithelium, sub-epithelium layer and cellular chains
  • Induced reproduction and reproductive characteristics of Rhinelepis aspera Agassiz, 1829 (osteichthyes: Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    Sato, Yoshimi; Fenerich-Verani, Nelsy; Verani, José Roberto; Godinho, Hugo Pereira; Sampaio, Edson Vieira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Rhinelepis aspera é a espécie que atinge maior porte dentre os Locariidae da bacia do rio São Francisco onde é hoje raramente capturada. Reprodutores mantidos em viveiros foram hipofisados com extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa (EBHC). Aproximadamente 82% das fêmeas responderam positivamente ao tratamento. Seus ovos eram opacos, demersais, arredondados, amarelados e adesivos. A extrusão dos ovos foi feita a 212 horas-graus (= 8,2 h) após a aplicação da segunda dose de EBHC (temperatura da água = 25-26 ºC). A eclosão das larvas ocorreu a 1022 horas-graus (= 42,2 h) após a fertilização dos ovos (temperatura da água = 24-25 ºC). A taxa de fertilização dos ovos foi de 72%. Fecundidade absoluta (AF), fertilidade inicial (IF) e fertilidade final (FF) em relação ao peso corporal das fêmeas foram expressa, respectivamente, pelas equações: AF = - 33993 + 122308 Wt (r² = 0,88), IF = - 14823 + 58619 Wt (r² = 0,71) e FF = - 6553 + 29741 (r² = 0.61).

    Abstract in English:

    Rhinelepis aspera is the largest Loricariidae species found in the São Francisco river basin where it is now rarely caught. Brooders kept in tanks were hypophysed with crude carp pituitary extract (CCPE). Approximately 82% of the females responded positive to the treatment. The egg was opaque, demersal, round, yellow and adhesive. Egg stripping was done at 212 hour-degrees (= 8.2 h) after application of the second dose of CCPE (water temperature = 25-26 ºC). Hatching of the larvae occurred at 1022 hour-degrees (= 42.2 h), after fertilization of the eggs (water temperature =24-25 ºC). Fertilization rate of the eggs was 72%. Absolute fecundity (AF), initial fertility (IF) and final fertility (FF) in relation to the females' body weight are expressed, respectively, by the equations: AF = - 33993 + 122308 Wt (r² = 0.88), IF = - 14823 + 58619 Wt (r² = 0.71) and FF = - 6553 + 29741 (r² = 0.61)
  • Effects of fatty acids on carbohydrates and lipids of canola seeds during germination

    Ferrarese, M. L. L.; Baleroni, C. R. S.; Ferrarese-Filho, O.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos dos ácidos caprílico (C8) oleico (C18) sobre carboidratos e lipídeos durante a germinação de sementes de canola. Os resultados mostraram que ácido oleico influencia a concentração de carboidratos mas não altera a concentração de lipídeos. Resultados significativos foram encontrados com ácido caprílico que afetou tanto carboidratos como lipídeos, nos cotilédones, após três dias de germinação.

    Abstract in English:

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8) and oleic acid (C18) on carbohydrates and lipids during canola seed germination. The results showed that oleic acid influence carbohydrate concentration but did not influence lipid concentration. Significant results were found with caprylic acid that affected carbohydrates and lipids in cotyledons after three-day germination.
  • Mechanical and permeability properties of milk protein films

    Folegatti, Marília I.S.; Antunes, Aloísio José; Marcondes, Jorge A.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Filmes comestíveis representam uma alternativa potencial para a substituição de filmes plásticos .empregados em embalagem de alimentos. Uma de suas maiores vantagens relaciona-se com o problema de poluição ambiental por não gerar material residual. Filmes elaborados com outros materiais comestíveis não protéicos têm encontrado aplicação comercial e muitos outros ainda estão sendo pesquisados, usando uma grande variedade de componentes alimentares. Este trabalho estuda algumas características importantes dos filmes produzidos com caseinatos de sódio e de cálcio. Os efeitos do tipo e concentração de caseinato, concentração de plastificante e do pH são investigados. Os parâmetros pesquisados foram a solubilidade, propriedades de tração e permeabilidade a vapor de água e oxigênio. Filmes de caseinato apresentaram alta solubilidade na faixa de pH entre 6.0 e 8.0 e completa insolubilidade em pH 3.0 e 4.0. Maior resistência à tração e menor percentagem de alongamento no ponto de ruptura foram observados para os filmes de caseinato de cálcio, comparados aos de caseinato de sódio. Não houve diferença significativa entre os filmes de caseinato de sódio e de cálcio, no que se refere à permeabilidade a vapor de água e oxigênio.

    Abstract in English:

    Edible films present a potential alternative for replacing plastic films used for packaging in food industry. One of the major advantages is the environmental appeal of this technology, which produces no packaging waste. Some films made with other edible materials have found commercial applications, and many more are being developed using a myriad of food based components. This paper focuses on some important characteristics of films produced with sodium and calcium caseinates. The effects of caseinate type and concentration, plasticizer concentration and pH were studied. Major parameters investigated were solubility, tensile properties, water vapour and oxygen permeabilities. Caseinate films showed high solubility at pH range 6.0-8.0 and complete insolubility at pH 3.0 and 4.0. Calcium caseinate films had a higher tensile strength and a lower % elongation at break than sodium caseinate films. There was not significant difference in water vapour and oxygen permeabilities between sodium and calcium caseinate films.
  • Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Sucrose by Klebsiella pneumoniae NRRL B199 in Batch and Fed-Batch Reactors

    Silveira, Mauricio M.; Berbert-Molina, M.; Prata, A. M. R.; Schmidell, W.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Em regime descontínuo, o crescimento celular e a formação de 2,3-butanodiol/acetoína por Klebsiella pneumoniae sofrem inibição por concentrações iniciais de sacarose (S0) acima de 60 g/L. Sob condições não inibidoras, uma velocidade máxima de consumo de sacarose de 1,5 g/L/h foi observada. Entretanto, com S0 = 204 g/L, esta velocidade decresceu para 0,15 g/L/h. A fermentação de 204 g/L de sacarose por K. pneumoniae levou à formação de 84,3 g/L de mistura 2,3-butanodiol/acetoína, com uma conversão de 0,41 g/g e uma produtividade de 1,06 g/L/h. Um maior suprimento de oxigênio aumentou a velocidade global do processo mas reduziu a conversão em produto. Em regime descontínuo alimentado, a inibição foi evitada, tendo sido atingida uma concentração final de produtos de 80,0 g/L, com uma produtividade de 2,63 g/L/h e uma conversão de 0,37 g/g.

    Abstract in English:

    In batch mode, Klebsiella pneumoniae growth and 2,3-butanediol/acetoin formation are increasingly inhibited by initial sucrose concentrations (S0) over 60 g/L. At non inhibitory conditions, a maximum sucrose consumption rate of 1,5 g/L/h was measured. With S0=204 g/L however, this rate decreased to 0.15 g/L/h. K. pneumoniae fermented 204 g/L sucrose to produce 84.3 g/L of a mixture 2,3-butanediol/acetoin with a yield of 0.41 g/g and a productivity of 1.06 g/L/h. Higher oxygen transfer rates improved the overall process rate but the product yield was reduced. Avoiding substrate inhibition, by performing the fermentation in fed-batch mode, a final 2,3-butanediol/acetoin concentration of 80.0 g/L was achieved. In this case, a productivity of 2.63 g/L/h and a product yield of 0.37 g/g were calculated.
  • Growth of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 on mixed substrate

    Gurgel, Patrick V.; Vieira, Délia C.; Furlan, Sandra A.; Mancilha, Ismael M. de

    Abstract in English:

    Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was grown on a mixed substrate comprising glucose and xylose. Inocula were grown using xylose or glucose as carbon source. Results showed that xylose utilization was delayed until glucose was utilized. Inoculum prepared on glucose showed a lag phase in xylose consumption. Cell mass production was higher when glucose was utilized during fermentation.
  • Variação nos hábitos alimentares da mosca de estábulos Stomoxys calcitrans L

    Gonçalves, Neuza Maria Ferraz de Mello; Veiga, L. A. S.

    Abstract in English:

    During the course of a study on the behaviour, of Stomoxys calcitrans a research on the feeding habits of this fly was carried out. A total of 27l4 flies were caught in three poultry ranches from Araucária, Paraná. The source of the flie's sucked blood has been established by precipitin test. . The results showed that although almost all the flies usually feed mammal blood, some of them gave positive precipitin test for birds blood. Although all flies were caught on poultry ranches, none had feed on chickens but 2,7% of the total had feed on ducks, 0.7% on geese and 0.37% on turkeys.
  • Padrão de vascularização do rizoma de gengibre (Zingiber Officinale R)

    Santos, Gedir de Oliveira; Silva, Eldo A. Monteiro da

    Abstract in English:

    The vascular system in the rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is arranged in three distinct systems: an inner system that form the principal vascular system of the rhizome, an intermediated system originating a thin camada of anastomosing vascular strands, having direct contact with the inner system and an outer system free of the anastomosis with the another vascular systems. The intermediated and inner system are associated with the root insertion and whole systems are relacioned with the formation of bud adventicious maintaing the same pattern of the rhizome and the communication between the outer and inner system occurs through the bridging to inner system leaf traces.
  • O gênero Erythroxylum P. Browne (Erythroxylaceae) do estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Mendonça, Joalice de Oliveira; Cervi, Armando Carlos; Guimarães, Olavo Araújo

    Abstract in English:

    An inventory of the Erythroxylum's species from the State of Paraná, Brazil, was done and the following species were found: E. ambiguum Peyr., E. amplifolium (Mart.) O.E. Schulz, E. anguifugum Mart., E. argentinum O.E. Schulz, E. buxus Peyr., E. campestre A. St.-Hil., E. cuneifolium (Mart.) O.E. Schulz, E. cuspidifolium Mart., E. deciduum A. St.-Hil., E. gonocladum (Mart.) O.E. Schulz, E. nanum A. St.-Hil., E. pelleterianum A. St.-Hil., E. microphyllum A. St.-Hil., E. myrsinites Mart. and E. suberosum A. St.-Hil.. All of then are taxonomically revised and a new synonym is presented: E. cuneifolium (Mart.) O.E. Schulz var. squarrosum O.E. Schulz as synonym of E. cuneifolium (Mart.) O.E. Schulz. Is also discussed the validity of the genus name Erythroxylon Linnaeus against Erythroxylum P. Browne.
  • Controle de flebotomíneos com DDT, em àrea endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar no estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil

    Teodoro, Ueslei; Galati, Eunice A.B.; Kühl, João Balduíno; Lozovei, Ana Leuch; Barbosa, Orlando Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Evaluation of DDT insecticide used to sand flies control in domiciles and domestic animal shelters in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collections of sand flies were made with Falcão traps in houses, in one pigsty and in one tree in Jussara Farm, municipality of Jussara, State of Paraná, Brazil, between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. during 7 days from March 24 to April 1, 1992. In May, 1992 DDT insecticide (Dicloro Difenil Tricloro Etano) (1 g/square meter of area) was applied internally and externally on houses and in pigsty. After this, new collections of sand flies were made from July 1992 to February 1993, once a month, with Falcão traps installed in the same hour and conditions mentioned above. Before DDT insecticide application 12,960 sand flies were collected (Hourly Average=463) and it was observed the prevalence (61,8%). of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939) After the DDT application only 589 sand flies were collected (Hourly Average=18,4) and also L. whitmani predominated again (90,8%). The decrease of sand flies number after the DDT insecticide application in domiciles and in pigsty prove that this measure can help cutaneous leishmaniasis control in Northern Paraná.
  • Redescrição de Cymodoce madrasensis (Srinivasan, 1959) combinação nova (Sphaeromatidae: Isopoda: Crustacea) de Madras, Índia

    Silva, Jayme de Loyola e

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O autor estudou quase todas as espécies da família Sphaeromatidae (Isopoda), da Coleção de Crustacea do USNM, e a espécie constante do catálogo 102151 USNM, na época, não possuia identificação razão pela qual o autor enquadrou no gênero Cymodoce. Hoje está classificada como Exosphaeroma madrasensis Srinivasan, 1959. Este gênero não condiz com as características da espécie motivo pelo qual o autor procedeu a transferência para o gênero Cymodoce Leach, 1814, e estabeleceu nova combinação Cymodoce madrasensis (Srinivasan, 1959).

    Abstract in English:

    The author studying a male of Exosphaeroma madrasensis Srinivasan, 1959, catalog 102151 Division of Crustacea - USNM, describes and transfers the species to the genus Cymodoce Leach, 1814 establishing a new combination Cymodoce madrasensis (Srinivasan, 1959).
  • Uso da taxocenose de peixes como indicadora de degradação ambiental no rio Paraíba do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    Abstract in English:

    An adaptation of index of biotic integrity (IBI) was performed for the first time in Brazil at the Rio Paraíba do Sul, between Barra Mansa and Barra do Piraí, a very important extent of this river because of the high pollution levels, and for being the main abstraction source of Rio de Janeiro city water supply. A monthly standardised sampling programme, from March-1995 to February-1996, was carried out at four sites. Seines, casting nets and net trays were used for catching fishes. IBI was obtained by integrating 12 ecological and environmental attributes of fish taxocene, populations, and individual organisms to assess biological integrity based in Species Composition, Trophic Structure and Fish Condition. Overall, water quality was classified between poor and fair and an improvement was detected between the high polluted Barra Mansa site and the less polluted Barra do Piraí site, showing the capacity of restoration of the river over this 50 km. Seasonally, the best conditions were reached from March to August, and the worse, from September to February, when most aloctone materials are brought to the river.
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