Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage systems and groundcover crops intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities. The experiment was performed in an Ultisol soil in northwestern Paraná State. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated [conventional tillage (CT) across the entire area and strip tillage (ST) with a 2-m strip width] in combination with various groundcover vegetation management systems. Soil samples were collected after five years of experimental management at a depth of 0-15 cm under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space in the following treatments: (1) CT-Calopogonium mucunoides; (2) CT-Arachis pintoi; (3) CT-Bahiagrass; (4) CT-Brachiaria humidicola; and (5) ST-B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and groundcover crops influenced the soil enzyme activities both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola provided higher amylase, arylsulfatase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase than other groundcover species. Strip tillage increased enzyme activities compared to the conventional tillage system.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid or alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse for the production of fermentable sugars. The first step consisted of selection of commercial enzymes presenting the highest cellulolytic activities. After selection of four enzymes: HPL, CL, P1 and P4, their performances were tested in the bagasse pretreated with acid and alkali. The sugar content of the hydrolysates was analyzed by anion exchange liquid chromatography. Data showed that the joint action of 0.5% acid pretreatment, 121ºC, 30 minutes and enzyme CL provides the best results, 67.25 g of hexose and 148.13g of pentose per kg of dry bagasse.
Abstract in English:The present study aimed to evaluate xylitol's antimicrobial and anti-adherence activities on Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and on another clinical strain enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). In vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and adhesion assays were performed using 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0% xylitol. It was found that xylitol did not have antimicrobial properties on these strains. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the slides treated with xylitol had a significant reduction in the number of bacilli and the inhibition of microbial adhesion was probably the xylitol's mechanism of action. Xylitol could be a possible alternative on the control of E. coli infections.
Abstract in English:The starches obtained from two different yam residues, which were treated with alkali(starch-A) or enzyme (starch-E), were studied and compared with yam starch isolated using ordinary method (starch-O) for morphological, crystalline pattern, thermal, and pasting properties. The results revealed that the amylose content of three starches ranged from 19.47 to 22.17%. The granule surfaces of starch-A and starch-E were as smooth as that of starch-O. The crystalline pattern of the three starches was a C-type. The transition temperatures (To, Tp and Tc) varied from 70.11 to 73.64, 79.23 to 81.74, and 84.30 to 86.65 ºC, respectively. The starch-E showed the highest Δ Hgel, followed by the starch-A, while it was lowest for the starch-O. According to the viscosity measurement, starch-O had the lowest pasting temperature, highest peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity, which were contrary to those of starch-E.
Abstract in English:Endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) production by Aspergillus niger T0005/007-2 in solid medium with 170 mm of height was evaluated in a cylindrical double surface bioreactor in 96-h experiments. Cell concentration close to 92 mg.g -¹ dm (mg per g of dry medium) in the standard condition (static) was achieved, whereas in tests under forced aeration of 1.4 and 2.8 L.min-1. Kg-1 mm (L of air per minute per Kg of moist medium) and with the central shaft fungal biomass attained approximately 100 mg.g-1 dm. Superior endo-PG activity was obtained with the central-shaft system, 78 U.g-1 dm (units per g of dry medium). Forced aeration and pressure pulse showed no positive effect on the production of endo-PG, 45 U.g-1 dm and 28 U.g-1 dm, respectively. None of the conditions evaluated was efficient for medium temperature control. Endo-PG was stable up to 40ºC. The activity decreased in 50% after 120 minutes at 50ºC, which is a temperature normally found during this process.
Abstract in English:Marine water was used for the biofilm forming bacterial isolation. A biofilm forming device was made by using PVC pipes with sterile glass slides. Five morphologically different bacteria were isolated from the scrapping of glass slides from the device after a month period of time. The efficiency of EPS production was checked for all the isolates. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM), the morphology of microbial cells and colonies was studied. The maximum EPS was produced by the strain B3, which was analyzed and characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra. B3 EPS displayed a strong absorption band of - OH at 3415.31 cm-1 and COOH at 1631.48 cm-1 showing it to be polysaccharide.
Abstract in English:The Cattleya genus has a great importance in the flower agro-business market. Fusarium wilts, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cattleyae, is considered one of the main factors of decline and death of plants of this genus. Using seven hybrids (intra and intergenerics) of Cattleya, tests of resistance and susceptibility to F. oxysporum were performed in conditions of greenhouse for 12 months, using, as evaluation criterion, a scale of the disease severity ranging from one (resistant) to eight (highly susceptible). High susceptibility to the fungus by Cattleya Nobile's Wax Toy, Cattleya Orquidacea's Mister Fast intrageneric hybrids and Potinara Orquidacea's Havana Brown intergeneric hybrid, related to Brassocattleya Orquidacea's Melody intergeneric hybrid, high resistance to the pathogens was observed.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to analyze the Brazilian and Chinese strains of Ganoderma lucidum with molecular RAPD markers. A similarity matrix was elaborated and the RAPD profiles of G. lucidum strains were also compared to two other Ganoderma spp: G. applanatum and G. lipsiense in order to produce genetic similarity among the species. Based on the primers used, it was possible to determine that the Brazilian strains and Chinese strain CC-22 are alike. The method and the primers selection showed to be appropriate for the genetic identification of G. lucidum strains, enabling them to be improved and used in research, as well as in the world market.
Abstract in English:Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins able to bind, specifically and reversibly carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Considering this ability, the utilization of Caesalpinia pulcherrima seeds polysaccharides as an affinity matrix was tested. The endospermic gum were solubilized in distinct concentrations of NaOH and treated with different amounts of epichlorohydrin (ECH) forming affinity gels with variable capacity for interaction with galactose- binding lectins. The gel with an ECH/gum ration of 6.0mmol/g was selected as the best affinity matrix. The matrix presented different efficiencies in terms of isolating galactose-binding lectins. C. pulcherrima endospermic galactomannans were purified by ethanol precipitation and the purified galactomannan was crosslinked with the best formulation of gel. The Artocarpus incisa, Ricinus communis and Abrus precatorius lectins showed interactions of 11.5, 17.7 and 47.2mg of retained protein in 1g of gel, respectively; the Artocarpus integrifolia lectin showed the highest affinities (79.7mg/g). The heamaglutination assays confirmed the activity and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis confirmed the isolation of the lectins in a single-step procedure.
Abstract in English:In this work a different type of formulation, as disc, containing a selected mucoadhesive polymer, fillers, and binders were investigated for their potential as a mucoadhesive gastroretentive delivery system to deliver famotidine in the stomach. Various types of hydrophilic diluents were evaluated for their swelling and mucoadhesive property and one (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) was selected to combine with the selected mucoadhesive polymer (polyethylene oxide, PEO). Discs with different ratios of PEO and PVP were prepared and evaluated for swelling, dissolution, and mucoadhesion. The swelling property of the discs increased as the concentration of PEO was increased and also did the mucoadhesion. These discs retained their integrity and adherence onto gastric mucosa for more than 10 h under in-vitro conditions. The PEO, in combination with PVP, yielded a non-disintegrating type mucoadhesive dosage form which was suitable for gastroretentive applications to achieve the desired release profile of the drug.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS ) within each population and inter population variability F IS , testing relationship among five genetic groups to establish the genetic distance among them. The high level of observed heterozygosity values varied between 0.537 and 0.7871. Generally, F IS was low, suggesting that the endogamy did not exist between the tested animals.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) on male Swiss mice livers receiving diets based on linseed oil (LO) for up to 56 days. The mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 days and FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 13 FA were identified on LO feeds presenting alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) contents of 26.97 %. A total 22 FA were identified in the livers of the mice. Part of the LNA was converted into n-3 FA (20:3n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid-EPA, 22:5n-3, and docosahexaenoic acid-DHA), and some of the LNA was stored in the liver. LNA, EPA and DHA concentrations (mg/g total lipids ) from 0 days for up 56 days increased from 1.29 to 18.90 (LNA), 0.20 to 18.90 (EPA) and 41.26 to 99.17 (DHA).The concentration of n-3 FA in the livers varied with the duration of the LO diet. During LO feed, n-6 FA concentration fell and n-3 FA concentration rose through the experimental period.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the pellets, containing a highly soluble drug (ascorbic acid), by the extrusion-spheronization process and coated with a release controlling polymer. The coating (undertaken in a fluid bed) was applied to three batches of the pellets with a dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30 D, with each batch of pellets receiving a different level of polymer (5.07; 8.26 and 10.35%). The coated pellets were evaluated for sphericity by imaging analysis and comparative dissolution profile with a product commercially available in Brazil. All of the evaluated samples presented adequate physical properties and the dissolution profile of those coated with 5.07% of polymer proved to be similar to that of the commercially available brand name.
Abstract in English:In this work a field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of coloured plastic mulch on growth and yield of chilli from October 2005 to April 2006. The plastic mulches were transparent, blue, and black and bare soil was the control. Different mulches generated higher soil temperature and soil moisture under mulch over the control. Transparent and blue plastic mulches encouraged weed population which were suppressed under black plastic. Plant height, number of primary branches, stem base diameter, number of leaves and yield were better for the plants on plastic. At the mature green stage, fruits had the highest vitamin-C content on the black plastic. Mulching produced the fruits with the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total chlorophyll contents and also increased the number of fruits per plant and yield. However, mulching did not affect the length and diameter of the fruits and number of seeds per fruit. Plants on black plastic mulch had the maximum number of fruits and highest yield. Thus, mulching appears to be a viable tool to increase the chilli production under tropical conditions.
Abstract in English:The purpose of this study was to highlight the morphological components of the abdomen of the adults of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, ), seeking a comparative focus with other Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea. The most relevant morphological characters were: absence of post-espiracular bar in both the sexes, presence of superuncus in the males as a projection of the eighth tergum and saccus with a posterior projection, bursa copulatrix with approximately 2.3 times the length of the ductus bursae in the females.
Abstract in English:This work aimed to study the oxidation of leaves of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil, in a process similar to the oxidation of Camellia sinensis, with the purpose of developing new products based on yerba maté. So far, no previous systematic study about the oxidation of yerba maté has been found elsewhere. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used for the screening of the significant parameters that affected the oxidation. The oxidation was indirectly quantified by following the changes in the product color, water activity, and pH with the time of processing. The factors that most influenced the process were the age of the leaves and the relative humidity of the oxidation chamber. The differences between the treatments were more evident after 3, 6 12 and 24 h of oxidation. The results could contribute to the developing of new products based on I. paraguariensis St. Hil, increasing the profitability of cultivation of this native species.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of Brettanomyces custersianus on the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the tumultuous stage of wine production. The Cabernet Sauvignon grape must with the skin was inoculated with individual cultures of Sacch. cerevisiae and with mixed cultures of Sacch. cerevisiae and Br. custersianus. During the 6-day tumultuous phase of fermentation, the highest ethanol production and the highest sugar consumption were obtained with the strains without B. custersianus. Fermentations carried out with the addition of Brettanomyces metabolites, acetic acid and 4-ethylphenol, showed that only the former inhibited the growth of both Sacch. cerevisiae strains used. In some cases, Br. custersianus could affect the rate higher alcohols production and their final concentrations during the tumultuous phase of vinification.
Abstract in English:Pentachlorophenol (PCP) removal by Pleurotus pulmonarius grown in submerged cultures in the presence and absence of laccase inducers was studied in this work. When PCP was added to a final concentration of 25 mg·L-1 in submerged cultures actively producing laccase, 70% of the PCP was removed after 96 h. The removal of PCP was less than 20% in the cultures with low laccase activity. The results suggested that laccase played an important role in the biodegradation of PCP by P. pulmonarius and that for bioremediation purposes the fungus must be cultured under the conditions of active laccase production.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of broiler breeders' age and yeast wall (YW) levels on broilers' performance and macrophage activitys. The experiment consisted in a completely randomized design and a 2 X 5 factorial arrangement and two controls of two broiler breeders age (34 and 57 weeks of age) and five YW levels (zero, one, two, three or four kg of YW/ton of diet). They received sorghum diet compared to a control corn/soybean meal diet. The age of the broiler breeders influenced the performance, but did not affect macrophage activity. At 34 weeks age broiler breeders' progeny, all diets were similar considering the average weight. For 57 weeks age broiler breeders' progeny, at 21 days, only average weight of sorghum diet supplemented with 4 kg/ton was similar to corn diet results. The optimum level of YW for maximal macrophage activity was 2.06 kg/ton of meal.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds identified in rice, their antioxidant activity and their potential beneficial effects on health. In vitro and in vivo studies evaluating the rice grains with different pericarp colour (light brown, red and black) showed potential beneficial effects on health related to the polyphenol content of the grain, such as reduction of oxidative stress, aid in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and complications of diabetes, among others.
Abstract in English:The present study investigated with the distribution of mercury chloride in muscle, liver and gills of Hoplias malabaricus contaminated through intraperitoneal injection (6 µg in 0.1mL of PBS) for a period of 24, 48, 72 and 96h. The liver, gill and muscle were analyzed for mercury content in an ICP/AES (Varian Liberty II) with vapor generating accessory (VGA 77). The muscle and liver tissues presented the same contamination pattern increasing concentrations in 24 h of exposure with a decrease in Hg concentration with 72 h and a new increase in Hg concentrations with 96 h of exposure. The Hg concentrations in contaminated organisms were always higher than the control although only for liver samples the difference was statistically significant. Liver samples always presented higher Hg contents when compared with gill and muscle samples.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to investigate the post-dam conditions of the loads and yields of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), orthophosphate (DIP, silicate (DSi) and total phosphorous (TP) in the Lower São Francisco river estuary (NE-Brazil) after the river was regulated to a constant flow by the dams. Loads and yields of monthly measurements performed from November 2000 to March 2002 at a gauging station downstream of the dams (80 km from the coast) showed 4.1 x 10³ t/yr and 0.006 t/km² /yr of DIN, 0.2 x 10³ t/yr and 0.002 t/km² /yr of DIP, and 448 x 10³ t/yr and 0.71 t/km² /yr of DSi, respectively. Over the last 15 years, DIN loads reduced by 94 % and DSi by 31%. The river turned into an oligotrophic system with primary production limited by nitrogen and nutrient yields being among the lowest of Brazilian coastal rivers.
Abstract in English:In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolated in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Vertical flow constructed wetlands, planted with and without Spartina alterniflora, were tested for the treatment of mariculture wastewater. Wetlands with and without the emergent macrophyte produced reductions of 89 and 71% for inorganic solids, 82 and 96% for organic solids, 51 and 63% for total nitrogen, 82 and 92% for ammoniacal nitrogen, 64 and 59% for orthophosphate, and 81 and 89% for turbidity, respectively. Wetlands with S. alterniflora showed denitrification tendencies, while wetlands without S. alterniflora had higher oxygen levels leading to nitrification. The results suggest the fundamental role of oxygen controlling the purification processes as well as the potential of constructed wetlands to treat mariculture effluents.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to analyze the seasonal variations in habitat selection and abundance of Ciconiiformes species in four foraging habitats (rivers, channels, connected and disconnected lagoons) on the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil, and to conduct the surveys of wading birds in 2002 and 2003. The largest number of species and highest abundances of most species were observed in the connected lagoons. Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula), Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), Roseate Spoonbills (Platalea ajaja), and Jabirus (Jabiru mycteria) frequently used connected lagoons (habitat with the highest fish abundance) and abandoned the areas during floods, suggesting that they were able to find high quality patches for foraging. Cocoi Herons (Ardea cocoi), Great Egrets (Ardea alba), and Rufescent Tiger-Herons (Tigrisoma lineatum) used habitats with lower fish abundance and did not totally abandon these areas during floods, suggesting they were not dependent on high quality patches. Differences in foraging techniques and social behavior explained the difference between the two groups. The results showed that opportunism did not totally explain the foraging habitat selection and in low water level seasons there were higher differences in foraging behavior among the species.