Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and reproduction of P. nigrispinus in laboratory when fed with T. arnobia reared on guava leaves. This predator showed nymphal stage of 21.11 days, survival of 60% and periods of pre-oviposition, number of eggs/mass and eggs/female and egg viability of 6.10 days, 26.24 eggs, 314.90 eggs and 82.65%, respectively. These results demonstrated that T. arnobia fed with guava leaves was an adequate supply of food to P.nigrispinus.
Abstract in English:In order to assess the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin isolates in controlling the sugarcane root spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), nine isolates obtained from a single geographical region were studied. 'Confirmed cumulative' and 'corrected cumulative' spittlebug mortality rates were measured for each of the isolates. Based on the confirmed mortality curve, the isolates URM5946, URM5951 and URM6033 were considered to be potentially the most effective in a biological control program for M. fimbriolata.
Abstract in English:In this work, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of N fertilization and residues of pearl millet, black oats and oilseed radish on pH and Ca, Mg, K, NO3-, and NH4+ distribution within the profile of a Distroferric Red Latosol. The equivalent of 8 t ha-1 of plant residues were placed on soil surface. Lime was applied on the soil surface and nitrogen was applied over the straw at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg kg-1, as ammonium nitrate. Corn was grown for 57 days. Calcium contents and pH in the soil profile were decreased by Pearl millet residue, while black oat and oilseed radish increased Ca contents and these effects are not related with Ca contents in residue tissue. However, the presence of plant residues increased nitrate, ammonium, and potassium contents in the deeper layers of the pots.
Abstract in English:A two-year field study was conducted to examine the capacity of spontaneous formation of long sylleptic shoots (LSS) in nursery trees of pear cvs. 'Abbé Fétel', 'Conference' and 'Starking Delicious' grafted on Quince MA (MA) and Quince BA 29 (BA 29) rootstocks in a nursery during the first year after bud grafting. Tree height (TH), trunk diameter (TD) - 10 cm above the bud union and number of LSS were measured at the end of each season. The TH was measured from the ground level. The highest number of LSS was developed by cv. 'Abbé Fétel' in both the seasons, and the lowest by cv. 'Starking Delicious'. Tree height and TD were highly significantly affected by the cultivar in both the years and by the rootstock in 2008. The interactions between them did not significantly affect the examined parameters. The study showed that the early growth and syllepsis of pear nursery trees during the first year after bud-grafting were incomparably more affected by the cultivar than by the rootstock under similar weather conditions and on the same soil in a crop rotation system.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of acerola seedlings to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with different levels of phosphorus (P) additions. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions, in a randomized factorial design with four treatments of AMF (control without AMF inoculation; Gigaspora margarita; Glomus manihotis; and Glomus clarum) and four phosphorus treatments (0, 30, 90, 270 mg kg-1 soil) in four replicates. The acerola plants were harvested after 120 days of the experiment. There were significant effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on the plant growth and nutrient contents in the plant shoots, mainly under lower P soil levels. Mycorrhizal plants presented a decrease of 55% of manganese content in the shoot.
Abstract in English:The effect of seed drying and imbibition was studied by differential protein expression using two dimensional gel electrophoresis. After drying to a range of water contents, seeds were germinated to assess the viability. Seeds of Magnolia ovata did not withstand the desiccation down to 0.10 g H2O · g-1 dw. The critical water content below which the desiccation sensitivity became apparent was around 0.18 g H2O · g-1 dw (-26.5 MPa). Total protein was extracted and separated by 2D electrophoresis from fresh seeds (0.28 g H2O · g-1 dw), mild dried seeds (0.25 g H2O · g-1 dw) and seeds at low water content (0.10 g H2O · g-1 dw) before and after imbibition for 10 days. The proteome profile revealed the presence of 588 spots on each silver stained gel, from which 21 showed differential expression, correlated with desiccation and germination, by increased or decreased expression. After MS/MS sequencing, three protein spots produced spectra that matched to a Magnolia salicifolia legumin precursor. Results suggested an involvement of this protein in the events taking place during the drying and subsequent imbibitions of the dried seeds.
Abstract in English:This study investigated the microbial metabolism in Bermuda-grass Tifton 85 areas after potable-water and effluent irrigation treatments. The experiment was carried out in Lins/SP with samples taken in the rainy and dry seasons (2006) after one year and three years of irrigation management, and set up on an entirely randomized block design with four treatments: C (control, without irrigation or fertilization), PW (potable water + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1); TE3 and TE0 (treated effluent + 520 kg of N ha-1 year-1) for three years and one year, respectively. The parameters determined were: microbial biomass carbon, microbial activity, and metabolic quotient. Irrigation with wastewater after three years indicated no alteration in soil quality for C and ET3; for PW, a negative impact on soil quality (microbial biomass decrease) suggested that water-potable irrigation in Lins is not an adequate option. Microbial activity alterations observed in TE0 characterize a priming effect.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present work was to study the clinical aspects and relevance of molecular diagnosis in late mucocutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Parana, Brazil. Twenty one suspected cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) in patients from the endemic areas of leishmaniasis were assessed. Different methods used in diagnosing the disease and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique were compared in order to establish the sensitivity of each method. Out of the 21 patients analyzed, 14.3% presented other etiologies such as vasculitis, syphilis, and paracoccidioidomycosis, with all tests negative for leishmaniasis. Out of the remaining 15 patients, 6.7% cases were confirmed for leishmaniasis by direct examination; 46.67% were positive for culture, which allowed isolating and identifying the parasite and - with the PCR technique - it was possible to diagnose 100% MCL patients for all the three repetitions of exams. The PCR optimized for the present work proved to be an auxiliary method for diagnosing leishmaniasis applicable in the patients carrying MCL due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and did not need culture to be performed, resulting in a faster diagnosis.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like) cells from the inner cell mass (ICM) of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35%) ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.
Abstract in English:This work aimed to evaluate the toxicity of some insecticides compounds on Aedes aegypti and Artemia salina larvae. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the toxic effect after of 24 and 72 h using the compounds or associations. The LC10, LC50 and LC90 values were obtained and utilized for toxicity comparations. For Ae. aegypti, LC50 were 32.65 mg L-1 in 24 h for Na2[EDTA-Cu(II)] and total mortality in 72 h for SAP-Na2[EDTA-Cu(II)].
Abstract in English:The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo anti-metastatic activity of the red pigments of red yolk eggs laid by the ducks dieting on Potamogeton cripus L on the mammary carcinoma (4T1). The pigments were extracted with petroleum ether and acetone (2:1, v/v). BALB/c mice were divided into three groups (n=6), fed with the extracts at 150 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day (DEYE-H) or at 50 mg/kg BW/day (DEYE-L) and identical buffer without the extract (control group). The extracts were administered for 34 days. The treatment significantly inhibited the growth of orthotopical 4T1 tumour (DEYE-H vs control, 1:2; DEYE-L vs control, 2:3) and reduced the metastasis of tumour in the lungs (DEYE-H vs control, 4:7; DEYE-L vs control, 5:7), without statistical difference of body weight among the three groups.
Abstract in English:The aim this study was to compare two protocols of induction for ovulation by desloreline acetate and hCG in Quarter Horse mares. The choice of the animals was based on the observations by the estrus, by rectal palpation of the ovaries and by ultrassonography of the follicular dynamics. After estrus detection and follicle control, the measurement of the follicles and the classification of uterus were carried out. The animals that had dominant follicle (diameter more than 35 mm) and swollen uterus were used. In these conditions, the mares received hCG or desloreline acetate. Once ovulation occurred, the artificial insemination was carried. Two groups were performed: G1 (20 animals) received 1.5 mg desloreline acetate and G2 (20 animals) received 1700 IU of hCG. Following 6h intervals, the control follicular was performed by ultrasonography. The follicular average diameter was 42.6 cm for the groups and set up a score of 0 to 3 of uterine edema displayed by the device as well as the time of ovulation. In conclusion, the desloreline acetate showed better performance than hCG, because the ovulation was induced in less time (nine hours than hCG) (p<0.05).The pregnancy rate was 80 and 75 %, respectively in G1 and G2.
Abstract in English:Glycolytic activities of eight enzymes in size-fractionated water samples from a eutrophic tropical reservoir are presented in this study, including enzymes assayed for the first time in a freshwater environment. Among these enzymes, rhamnosidase, arabinosidase and fucosidase presented high activity in the free-living fraction, while glucosidase, mannosidase and galactosidase exhibited high activity in the attached fraction. The low activity registered for rhamnosidase, arabinosidase and fucosidase in the attached fraction seemed contribute to the integrity of the aggregate and based on this fact, a protective role for these structures was proposed. The presented enzyme profiles and the differences in the relative activities probably reflected the organic matter composition as well as the metabolic requirements of the bacterial community, suggesting that bacteria attached to particulate matter had phenotypic traits distinct from those of free-living bacteria.
Abstract in English:Biovolume calculation of micro algae is commonly used for the assessment in relative abundance (as biomass or carbon) of coexistent algae that vary in shape and/or size. Periphyton samples were obtained within a more general program, in fishery tanks and streams situated in the upper basin region of Tibagi River, nearby Londrina, Paraná state, south of Brazil. The present work proposes new algorithms for the determination of algal species volume. Results showed that Gyrosigma scalproides (Rabenhorst) Cleve 1894 and Tetraedron gracile (Reinsch) Hansgirg 1889 were exceptions inside their genus and the present new formula for biovolume and area gives more adequate results. In addition, new formulas applied for Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin 1841 and Kirchneriella lunaris (Kirchner) Möbius 1894 also showed much more accurate results than in the previous works. The difference in the calculations of biovolume between the present method and others was not small and could not be neglected.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the phytochemical and antifungal activity of anthraquinones and root and leaf extracts of Coccoloba mollis on phytopathogens. The chemical analysis of ethanolic extracts showed a mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons, carboxyl esters and 3-taraxerone in the leaf extract. Two anthraquinones (emodin and physcion) were isolated and identified from the root extract. Phytochemical screening using the pharmacognostic methods revealed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the leaves and roots. Anthraquinones were only found in the root extract, no alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and simple phenolics were present. The antifungal activity of C. mollis extracts and anthraquinones isolated from the root of this plant against Botryospheria ribis, B. rhodina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium sp showed promising results for their use as fungicides, where emodin was the most active compound, which inhibited the microorganisms tested up to 44%.
Abstract in English:The annual cycle of marine cladocerans was studied over six years from 1994 to 1999 within the frame of the monitoring Project ECOMALAGA at a nine stations in the NW of the Alboran Sea, with the aim of assessing seasonal patterns and interannual trends in distribution and abundance of marine cladocerans. Seven species (Penilia avirostris, Evadne nordmanni, Evadne spinifera, Pseudoevadne tergestina, Pleopis polyphemoides, Podon leuckarti and Podon intermedius) were detected in the northwest Alboran Sea. Total cladoceran relative abundance varied from 0 to 89 % of the total cladocerans. The abundance of cladocerans was higher in summer-autumn than in winter-spring (7012 - 4711.100 and 743 - 217.100m-3 , respectively). The species composition was very different in terms of seasonality. P. polyphemoides, P. leuckarti and P. intermedius appeared mostly during the spring. P. tergestina, E. spinifera and E. nordmanni predominantly occurred during the winter. P. avirostris occurred mostly during the summer and autumn.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7); 4.42 x 10(7) and 8.66 x 10(7) cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.
Abstract in English:In this work, glucoamylase was produced by Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation. The enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. Its molecular mass was estimated as 118.17 kDa by electrophoresis. The partially purified enzyme had an optimum pH range of 4.5-5.0 and an optimum temperature of 60 °C, with average activity 152.85 U mL-1. Thermal and pH stability assays with the crude extract showed that more than 60 % of the activity remained at pH 4.6 and 60 °C, even after an exposition to these conditions longer than 24 h. Yet, after purification, the enzyme was stable at these for at least 4 h, which indicated that its purification for use in starch saccharification was inadvisable. K M and Vmax were 0.34 mg mL-1 and 160.22 U mL-1, respectively.
Abstract in English:This work investigated the effects of different packaging methods (air and vacuum) combined with irradiation (0.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy) on the preservation of chicken breast fillets stored at 1ºC for up to 18 days by sensorial test, determination of pH and bacterial growth. The findings indicated that the post-irradiation lag phase increased with the dose, leading to an extension in shelf-life. Vacuum-packed samples irradiated at 3.0 kGy exhibited the longest shelf life. Among the analyzed bacteria, coliforms and Listeria spp. were most sensitive to gamma radiation. All the fillets acquired more attractive coloration and better overall impression with irradiation. The combined use of vacuum packaging and irradiation (3.0 kGy) reduced the microbial populations without causing change in pH and yielded a significant shelf-life extension of refrigerated fillets, besides improving its appearance.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the drying curves and equilibrium isotherms of extruded fish feed. The drying curves were determined at air temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80°C and airflow velocities of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 m/s). The equilibrium isotherms of relative humidity of air were obtained between 10 and 80% at 30, 40, 50, and 70°C. The experimental data were fitted for non-linear regression by using Statistica® to the models reported in the literature. The results showed that the drying curves and the equilibrium isotherms were significantly influenced by variations of the air temperature in a similar way to solid materials as described in the literature. The statistical results for models of Page and Peleg showed that the fitting of the experimental drying curve and isotherm data were satisfactory.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the nutritional requirements of Zymomonas mobilis CCT 4494 for levan production in three chemically defined media. During the optimization of the fermentative process for the production of the exopolysaccharide, different concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose as carbon source and yeast extract as vitamin source were tested. Variations of incubation temperature and initial pH of the medium were observed. The results showed that medium containing 20.0% sucrose and 0.5% yeast extract, with initial pH of 7.0, incubated at 30°C gave a 43.0% yield of the biopolymer.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the production of functional protein in yeast culture. The cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Embrapa 1B (K+R+) killed a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Embrapa 26B (K-R-)in grape must and YEPD media. The lethal effect of toxin-containing supernatant and the effect of aeration upon functional killer production and the correlation between the products of anaerobic metabolism and the functional toxin formation were evaluated. The results showed that at low sugar concentration, the toxin of the killer strain of Sacch. cerevisiae was only produced under anaerobic conditions . The system of killer protein production showed to be regulated by Pasteur and Crabtree effects. As soon as the ethanol was formed, the functional killer toxin was produced. The synthesis of the active killer toxin seemed to be somewhat associated with the switch to fermentation process and with concomitant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the contamination by chromium in the sediments of the Monte Alegre stream and in the larvae of Odonata and the possible impact caused by them on the stream macroinvertebrates community. It was found that chromium contaminated the sediments and the aquatic biota. Although, the stream macroinvertebrates community structure did not appear to be modified.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the degradation and detoxification of three textile azo dyes (Reactive Red 198, Reactive Red 141 and Reactive Blue 214) by mixed fungal cultures from semi-arid region of Brazilian Northeast. Sediment samples of twenty water reservoirs in the surroundings of Serra da Capivara National Park, area of environmental preservation in the caatinga in the State of Piauí, with semi-arid climate, were evaluated in order to select the consortia of fungi capable to degrade and detoxify these dyes. The mixed fungal culture from Caldeirão Escuridão (CE) reservoir was the most efficient in the degradation and detoxification of the dyes tested.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to identify the pollination and dispersal systems among the species in a disjunct marginal cerrado area and to compare the frequency of these systems to those found in other Neotropical vegetation. The floral and diaspore traits and the pollination and dispersal systems of 176 species were analysed in a cerrado remnant in Southeastern Brazil. The most frequent pollination system was melittophily (63% of the studied species) with the remaining 37% distributed among diverse pollination systems. Zoochory was the predominant system of dispersal (44.9%). The frequencies of melittophily and zoochory observed in diverse tropical areas were the main feature that allowed the formation of distinct groups in the dendrograms generated by cluster analysis.