Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the biochemical constituents of seven species of cyanobacteria namely, Calothrix fusca, Gloeocapsa livida, Lyngbya limnetica and Scytonema bohneri isolated from Panekal sulfur spring. The species namely, Oscillatoria acuminata from petrochemical refinery, O. calcuttensis from dairy effluent and O. foreaui from a sewage drain located in the Western Ghats of Southern India under laboratory culture conditions. The biochemical constituents were analyzed in terms of total carbohydrates, total protein, total free amino acid, total lipid, fatty acid and mineral contents. The analysis showed that maximum amount of total carbohydrate in S. bohneri (28.4% dry weight) and minimum in O. foreaui (8.0% of dry weight). Maximum amount of total protein and total free amino acid were in O. foreaui (7% of dry weight). O. calcuttensis showed higher amount of total lipid (20% dry weight). A total of 12 types of fatty acids were detected among which lauric acid was in highest quantity in all the seven species. Among the polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid was present in all the species ranging from 1.68 to 3.89%. O. foreaui showed highest quantities of copper, manganese, ferrous and zinc. Nickel was maximum in S. bohneri (11.05 µgmL-1). O. acuminata showed highest quantity of magnesium (21.050 mg g-1) and it was least in O. foreaui (12.812 mg g-1).
Abstract in English:The goal of this study was to investigate the molecular characterization of A. macrostachyum genotypes grown in the Western coast of Syria using RAPD and ISSR techniques. PCR amplifications with 20 RAPD primers gave an average of 9.25 selected markers/ primer, with a maximum of 17 (OPG05) and a minimum of four (OPA02). Percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 40 to 100% according to RAPD primers tested. Among the 185 selected bands, 160 (84.96%) were polymorphic. The amplification with seven ISSR primers generated 88 bands, and 80 (90.91%) were polymorphic. (CA)8RG and (AG)8GTG ISSR primers tested in this study yielded highly informative patterns. RAPD and ISSR fragment sizes ranged from 0.2-3 kb. Based on this study, the use of RAPD and ISSR fingerprints could be a powerful tool to assess the genetic diversity in A. macrostachyum. Both the techniques gave similar results regarding the degree of relatedness among the genotypes tested, with genotype 2 being suggested to represent a distinct subspecies from that of genotypes 1 and 3.
Abstract in English:Extra-cellular isoamylase was produced by Rhizopus oryzae PR7 in solid-state fermentations of various agro wastes, among which millet, oat, tapioca, and arum (Colocasia esculenta) showed promising results. The highest amount of enzyme production was obtained after 72 h of growth at 28°C. The optimum pH for enzyme production was - 8.0. Among the various additives tested, enzyme production increased with ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and also with cysteine, GSH, and DTT. The enzyme synthesis was reduced in the presence of thiol inhibitors like Cu2+ and pCMB. The surfactants like Tween-40, Tween-80 and Triton X-100 helped in enhancing the enzyme activity. The production could be further increased by using the combinations of substrates. The ability to produce high amount of isoamylase within a relatively very short period and the capability of degrading wastes could make the strain suitable for commercial production of the enzyme.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity and the anti-adherent property of xylitol (0.5, 2.5 and 5.0%, w/v) on two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (ATCC 9027 and clinical). The assay of antimicrobial activity was performed to determine a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the adhesion test was performed, by which the parameters regarding, growth in the culture medium, number of colony forming units (CFUs) released and slide evaluation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were analyzed. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed for statistical analysis. Results showed that xylitol had no antimicrobial activity on these strains; however, the inhibition of bacterial adherence was observed in microphotographs obtained by SEM. These results indicated that xylitol could be a future alternative to combat bacterial colonization.
Abstract in English:This work aimed to evaluate the Coffea arabica cultivars for aluminum toxicity tolerance, in modified Hoagland solution. A completely randomized design with five repetitions in a factorial 4 x 4 (cultivar x combinations of aluminum) was used. After 44 days of the sowing, were transferred ten seedlings each cultivar germinated in the absence of Al3+ to solution without Al3+, and ten for solution with Al3+; ten seedlings each cultivar germinated in presence of Al3+ to solution without Al3+, and ten for solution with Al3+. In the treatment with aluminum, the element was added to the nutritive solution in the concentration of 0.83 mmol L-1 as Al2(SO4)3.16H2O. The cultivars Catuaí Amarelo IAC 62 and Iapar 59 were tolerant to the aluminum; cultivar Oeiras presented intermediate tolerance, while cultivar Obatã IAC 1669-20 was sensitive. The tolerance of the coffee cultivars to the aluminum during the initial development of the seedlings did not depend on the presence of aluminum in the germination phase.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the development and evaluation of a hydrolphilic matrix as a buccoadhesive system containing diclofenac sodium. Eleven formulations were prepared containing the following bioadhesive polymers: hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, polycarbophil, guar gum and xanthan gum individually and in combination. All the formulations were evaluated for the swelling index, adhesive index, and the time of adhesive and drug release profile (%). The results showed that the formulations that presented the most swelling index were the F3 (PAA/GX) and F6 (GG/GX). The smaller index swelling was for F1 (PAA/CM) and F10 (HPCMC/CM). The F4 (PAA/HPMC) formulation presented the best adhesive index and F10 (HPMC/CM) the worst. F1 (PAA/CM) was the best matrix hydrophilic adhesive for controlled release. The hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, guar and xanthan gum when used individually presented low adhesiveness.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC), an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8) or water (n=9). Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC) decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the effect of Halymenia floresia (Hf) on duodenum contractility, and on experimental protocols of gastric compliance (GC) in rats. Fraction Hf2s exhibited a concentration-dependent myocontractile effect (EC50 12.48 µg/ml), and an inhibitory effect after consecutive washing. The contractile response promoted by Hf2s in the duodenum strips was completely inhibited by verapamil, and the effects were prevented in the presence of Ca2+-free medium. The pretreatment with atropine prevented the Hf2s myocontractile effect. Hf2s was also capable to decrease the GC (from 3.8±0.06 to 3.4±0.13 ml, P<0.05), which did not return to basal levels after more 50 min of observation. These results indicated that the algal polysaccharide possessed in vitro and in vivo gastrointestinal effects.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to assess the transit tolerance of potential probiotic dairy Lactobacillus strains in human uppergastrointestinal tract in vitro, and to evaluate the effect of EPS production on the viability and adhesion of these strains. Survival and adhesion of two exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains (B3 and B2) and E. coli ATCC11229 were assessed after the exposure of different pH (gastric juice) and gastric plus pancreatic juice challenges. In the artificial gastric juice (pH 2), both the viability of the strain B3 and B2 was decreased. Artificial juice treatments significantly reduced the adhesion to caco-2 cells (P< 0.05). High EPS-producing B3 survived better in the adverse gastrointestinal conditions and showed better ability of adhesion to Caco-2 cells when assessed for competition with E. coli ATCC 11229 compared to low EPS-producing B2. This investigation showed that EPS production could be affected or be involved in the viability, adherence and competition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and support the potential of B3 strain for development of new probiotic products.
Abstract in English:Among all the transgenic mammalians produced so far, goats have represented an excellent model of transgenesis when considering the factors such as the market demand for protein, volume of milk produced per lactation and reproductive rate. Various recombinant proteins have been obtained from the transgenic and non-transgenic goats, and among these, human antithrombin, produced by the transgenic goats, was the first recombinant protein of animal origin to be released as a drug for the clinical use in humans. This review reports the aspects inherent to the production of recombinant proteins in the goats, from the production of the animal bioreactors up to the expression of these proteins in their milk.
Abstract in English:Orchids are valuable pot plants and Cattleya intermedia is a promising species underused in breeding programs. Recently, breeding work with this species produced superior plants that are believed to be not the true species owing to the morphological differences from wild plants. The aim of this study was to estimate the level of genetic diversity and interrelationships between wild and bred Cattleya intermedia collected at three different Brazilian states and from commercial breeders with RAPD markers. A total of 65 polymorphic bands were used to generate a genetic distance matrix. No specific groupings were revealed by the cluster analysis as bred materials were not different from wild plants. The genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.01626) was very low indicating a high gene flow in C. intermedia due to artificial crosses and a high differentiation between populations. The genetic variability available within this species is high enough to allow genetic progress in flower shape and size.
Abstract in English:In this work, the density of bacterioplankton, bacterial biomass and environmental variables were monitored in two seasons (summer and winter), two times each month (spring tide and neap tide sampling), over a 12 h period, comprising a tidal cycle (semidiurnal), from subsurface and bottom waters, in a fixed station in the Estuarine Turbidity Maximum Zone (ETMZ) of Paranaguá Bay, Brazil. The data were treated with multivariate analyses methods in order to indentify the key controlling factors of the bacterial community dynamics. The microbial community seemed to be structured by a close relationship with the nutrients concentration, mainly by total phosphorous and nitrate. Regardless of variations throughout the tidal cycles, free-living bacteria had a dominant role on the Paranaguá's Bay ETMZ.
Abstract in English:This work studied the effects of β radiation of Ho-166 embedded in ceramic seeds on HeLa cells. Methodology consisted in the production of ceramic seeds with holmium-165 by sol-gel route. Chemical and physical characterizations of the seeds were performed. Subsequently, nuclear characterization was performed by gamma spectrometry. Experimental and theoretical activities were defined and initial dose rate were evaluated by MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee) methodology. The seeds were placed in confluent culture flasks and remained for six radionuclide half-lives. Biological results were represented by a clean 6 mm diameter area around the seed where the tumour cells were killed. The initial dose rate was 15.5 Gy. h-1. The maximum absorbed dose was 591.3 Gy. The features of the Ho-166 seeds suggested that such ceramic seeds were suitable for high dose rate brachytherapy.
Abstract in English:The combined effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the solubility of pyrimethamine (PYR) was studied. Equimolar PYR-HPβCD solid systems, in the presence or the absence of 0.25% (w/v) PVP or 0.10% (w/v) CMC were prepared by coevaporation or freeze-drying, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis and dissolution profile. Phase-solubility analysis was used to investigate the interactions in aqueous solution between PYR and HPβCD, in the absence or presence of polymers, which showed a linear increase of PYR solubility depending on the concentration of HPβCD. The presence of polymer did not alter the stoichiometry of the complexes. DSC results were indicative of complexation, due to the loss of the characteristic endothermic peak of PYR. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the DSC results. Binary and ternary complexes showed higher dissolution rate when compared with the pure drug.
Abstract in English:The present work aimed at studying the operational parameters of an Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor (AHR) removing organic matter of coffee wastewater with low concentration. The AHR was built similar to an UASB reactor, however the interior was filled with mini-filters composed by two types of support materials: expanded clay and rolled pebble. Three start-ups were accomplished in order to achieve the stationary state (steady-state). Three hydraulic retention times were appraised: 28.5; 24.0 and 18.0 h, obtaining a volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 0.70; 0.56; 0.54 kg COD m-3 d-1 and a biological organic loading rate (BOLR) of 0.0156; 0.0103 and 0.01213 kg BOD5 kg TVS-1 d-1. Due to the decrease in the concentration of organic matter in the influent, the endogen process started to occur on the biomass lowering the methanogenic process.
Abstract in English:The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different potato cultivars and storage temperatures on the specific activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in minimally processed potatoes. Potato cultivars Agata, Asterix and Monalisa were selected, washed, peeled, diced, sanitized, centrifuged, vacuum- packed and stored at 5 and 15°C for 9 and 5 days, respectively. There was an increase in the enzymatic activity in all the cultivars stored at 15°C. The cultivars 'Agata' and 'Asterix' stored at 5ºC did not differ significantly between them for the PAL, PPO and POD activities. The PAL, PPO and POD activities were also influenced by the storage temperature. The cultivars Agata and Asterix were more suitable in minimal processing than 'Monalisa', which was more susceptible to oxidative browning.
Abstract in English:The antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of shiitake mushrooms were evaluated in four isolates of Lentinula edodes. Mushrooms were cultivated on artificial logs, based on eucalyptus sawdust enriched with 20% rice, wheat, or soybean bran, or combination of 10% of two of these supplements. The substrates were humidified with a 0.1% mate tea extract or water. Logs of Eucalyptus grandis were also used to cultivate the shiitake mushrooms. The antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract, corresponding to 40 mg of mushroom dry matter, was in some cases, depending on the isolate, able to inhibit both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K-12, independent of substrate composition or the growth stage of the mushrooms. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations varied according to the substrate on which the mushrooms were cultivated, being, generally, higher with cultivation on artificial rather than natural eucalyptus logs. It could be concluded that, in addition to the fungal isolate, substrate composition and, processing methods must be considered during the production of antimicrobial substance(s) as well as in the mushroom nutritional composition.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to evaluate the oil extracted from Moringa oleifera (fam. Moringaceae) seeds from the nutritional standpoint. Nutritional evaluation of crude or degummed moringa oil or soybean oil (as a control) involved the determination of the Food Efficiency (FE) in male Fisher rats and the fatty acid composition of the moringa oil. Hepatic and renal functions were assessed by measuring serum transaminases activity and urea and creatinine concentrations, respectively. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins and albumine were also measured. Results showed that FE was slightly increased by the crude moringa oil while no differences were found between the soybean and degummed moringa oil regarding this parameter. Renal or hepatic injures as well as major alterations in serum proteins were not induced by the tested oils. These results suggested that degummed M. oleifera oil possessed adequate biological quality as compared to the crude oil.
Abstract in English:The optimization of autolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from brewery was studied aiming at the maximum ribonucleic acid extraction and yeast extract production. The best conditions for yeast autolysis was 55.2ºC, pH= 5.1 and 9.8% NaCl for 24h of processing, without the NH3 use. In these conditions, the RNA yield was 89.7%, resulting in 51.3% of dehydrated yeast extract with 57.9% protein. The use of 12.2% NH3 at 60ºC after autolysis (8h) and plasmolysis (8h) was not viable due to the reduction in the RNA yield from 89.7to78.4%. On the other hand, the thermal shock at 60ºC for 15 minutes prior to autolysis provided an increase in the yield from 89.7 to 91.4%. The autolysis, including NaCl plasmolysis in the optimized conditions was efficient, economic and with short time, thus usable for industrial purpose to obtain more valuable products such as yeast extract enriched in RNA and/or protein, for different applications.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present work was to isolate and select strains with potential to perform the biotransformation of terpenic substrates. Microorganisms obtained from a collection culture and also isolated from a natural source of terpene substrate were tested. Seventeen strains were selected by their resistance to terpenes in potato dextrose agar containing up to 1% of limonene or α-pinene and β-pinene (1:1). Subsequently, 10 strains were selected by their capacity of using these terpenes as sole carbon source in a mineral medium. The biotransformation capacity of these strains was tested and the products obtained were identified by GC-MS.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work was to study the production of biomass with copper bioaccumulation in submerged fermentation using sugarcane molasses. Candida pelliculosa BARU 05 isolated from Baru (Dipteryx alata) was selected for its good capacity to accumulate the copper. Fermentation was carried out using the medium composed by sugarcane molasses at 5 °Brix enriched with (g/L) CuSO4.5H2O 0.1; yeast extract, 10.0; (NH4)2SO4, 5.0 ; KH2PO4, 5.0 MgSO4, 0.5, inoculum 10 % of total volume (100 ml), pH 6.0, and incubation at 30 °C, 120 rpm for 120 h. After three steps of optimization an uptake of 95.04% and 13.397 g/L biomass were obtained. The kinetics of copper bioaccumulation and biomass production was followed in a 10- liter bioreactor in a batch and fed-batch fermentation which showed copper accumulation of 91.98 and 100 %, respectively, and biomass production of 38.85 g/L (24 h) and 57.54 g/L (48 h), respectively.
Abstract in English:The present study aimed to describe the bacterial community present at an anaerobic up flow bioreactor with ANAMMOX activity, inoculated with the sludge from the anaerobic pond of a swine slurry treatment system. The description was based on the molecular DNA techniques using primers for amplification of complete 16S rRNA gene and also new primers to amplify smaller fragments from 16S rRNA. During the bioreactor operation time, the bacterial community changed significantly, increasing the nitrogen removal efficiency, reaching after 500 days a removal rate of 94%. The complete PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene generated 17 clones, where three presented similarity with Candidatus Jettenia asiatica (97%), twelve with Janthinobacterium (99%) and two with uncultured clones. The PCR amplification of 436 base pairs had generated 12 clones, of which eight presented 96-100% similarity with Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus, Planctomycete KSU-1 and one with Pseudomonas sp. (99%) and three with uncultured clones.
Abstract in English:Biodegradable foams made from cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sugarcane bagasse fibers and chitosan were obtained by extrusion. The composites were prepared with formulations determined by a constrained ternary mixtures experimental design, using as variables: (X1) starch / PVA (100 - 70%), (X2) chitosan (0 - 2%) and (X3) fibers from sugar cane (0 - 28%). The effects of varying proportions of these three components on foam properties were studied, as well the relationship between their properties and foam microstructure. The addition of starch/PVA in high proportions increased the expansion index and mechanical resistance of studied foams. Fibers addition improved the expansion and mechanical properties of the foams. There was a trend of red and yellow colors when the composites were produced with the highest proportions of fibers and chitosan, respectively. All the formulations were resistant to moisture content increase until 75% relative humidity of storage.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work was to study the poultry litter composting and evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological transformations as a time-function. At the end of composting, an increase of humification matter, a decrease of microbial diversity and the elimination of pathogens were observed. Results showed that poultry litter was liable of composting, without any nutritional complementation or inoculation and the process occurred similarly to other kind of organic residues.
Abstract in English:In this work, the structural and ecophysiological alterations (chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments), and quantification of Cr, Pb and Zn in the leaf limb, petiole and younger and older roots of water hyacinth from the lower, medium and upper Paraíba do Sul river (PSR) and Imbé river were evaluated. The plants from the medium and upper PSR (more industrialized and populated regions) exhibited lower turgid cell in the root cortex, less root hairs and leaf epidermis, chloroplasts with plastoglobules and increased stroma volume. Higher concentrations of metals were observed in the younger and older roots from the medium PSR plants. The results suggested that the plants from more anthropized regions were able to maintain the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) which was a result from the metabolic fitting, increasing the non-photochemical quenching, reducing total chlorophyll/carotenoids and leading to the structural modifications.