Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to determine the yield, chemical composition, specific rotation (SR), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and the effect on bacterial growth of a crude sulfated polysaccharide (SP) from the red marine alga G. ornata (Go). Go-1 (25°C), Go-2 (80°C), and Go-3 (80°C) were sequentially extracted and yielded 9.2%. The contents of sulfate (5.88-10.3%) and proteins (0.1-3.7%) were small. The values of SR were [µ]D20°f -19.0, -51.0, and -56.5, respectively. IR spectrums showed the presence of galactose-4 sulfate and absence of 3,6-anydrogalactose-2 sulfate, galactose-6 sulfate and galactose-2 sulfate. SR and IR techniques confirmed SPs. Go-3 was tested on the growth of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonela choleraesuis and Salmonela typhi), but only E. coli was inhibited.
Abstract in English:The enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste by commercially available enzymes and the subsequent ethanol fermentation of the hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerecisiae H058 were studied in this work. The optimum batch enzymatic conditions were found to be saccharification pH of 4.5, temperature of 55!, glucoamylase concentration of 120 u/g, α-amylase concentration of 10 u/g, solid-liquid ratio of 1: 0.75 (w/w). Fed batch hydrolysis process was started with a solid-liquid ratio of 1: 1 (w/w), with solid food waste added at time lapse of 2 h to get a final solid-liquid ratio of 1: 0.5 (w/w). After 4 h of reaction, the reducing sugar concentration reached 194.43 g/L with a enzymatic digestibility of 93.12%. Further fermentation of the batch and fed batch enzymatic hydrolysates, which contained reducing sugar concentration of 131.41 and 194.43 g/L respectively, was performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058, 62.93 and 90.72 g/L ethanol was obtained within 48 h.
Abstract in English:An experiment was carried out from 2005 to 2008, to calibrated NIR-based instrumentation and explore within field grape quality variability and map potential grape quality descriptors along vineyards, as a subsidy for differential harvesting,. The quality indicators (anthocyanin content, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids) were subject to geo-spatial modeling. Subsequently, the data set was utilized to delineate "within-field" grape quality zone and to determine the timing of the harvest. Differential machine harvesting was implemented and segregation of wine grapes was done "on-the-go". The approach for field prediction of grape quality parameters and zone delineation allowed for separated fermentation for at least two wine styles.
Abstract in English:This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of temperature and dry storage on the postharvest longevity of Epidendrum ibaguense flowers previously treated with silver thiosulfate (STS). The flowers were harvested and pulsed for 30 minutes with 2 mM STS. Then both, the STS treated and untreated flowers were packed in perforated low density polyethylene bags, packed in cardboard boxes and stored at 5 and 10°C, where they remained for four and eight days. After this period, the flowers were kept in vase with distilled water at 25ºC, and analyzed at every 24 h. The experiment was arranged in a complete random design 2 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates, containing four inflorescences each, except for the determination of transpiration and water rates uptake, composed by sixteen replicates of one stem. The vase life of the flowers of the E. ibaguense was increased to 6.5 days when pulsed with 2 mM STS for 30 minutes, followed by storage at 10ºC for a maximum period of four days. The STS applied before the cold storage reduced the rate of flower abscission and improved the ratio between the transpiration and water uptake.
Abstract in English:The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the effects of organic and mineral fertilizers at sowing (without fertilizers, organic poultry litter fertilizer on the surface and mineral NK + reactive natural phosphate from Arad and NK + triple superphosphate in the furrow) and topdressing (without fertilizers, organic poultry litter fertilization and urea) on chemical attributes of a no-till Oxisol and nutrition and yield of maize landrace (Zea mays L.), Carioca variety in a field experiment. Results revealed that P content (Mehlich 1 and resin) was increased in the soil surface layer with organic poultry litter fertilizer on the surface at sowing. Mineral fertilizer in the sowing furrow could be replaced by organic fertilizer with poultry litter on the surface, but topdressing fertilization with urea resulted better N nutrition for the plants and higher grains yield than the organic poultry litter fertilization.
Abstract in English:This article reports a first contribution for the elucidation of catalytic mechanism of Lipase from porcine pancreas, type VI-s (PPL), in hydrolyzing an ester substrate in aqueous media. The conclusions were based on the pH-profiles of Michaelis-Menten parameters k cat/Km, k cat and Km, as well as on the absolute temperature profile of k cat/Km, obtained during the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl laurate by PPL. It was found that (a) PPL performs catalysis by means of ion pairs formed either as Ser152-Ο-/His263-Im+H and/or Carbonyl-Ο-/His263-Im+H, (b) the parameter k cat/Km equals to k1 and thus ES is formed and destroyed in the course of a series of consecutive reactions governed by the dynamic constant K S = k2/k1, and (c) the hydrolysis of substrate is assisted by a hydrogen bond developed between deprotonated Asp176 and the positively charged imidazole of His263 across a pKa-value 3.85, necessary for efficient catalysis.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at collecting data of masseter myofascial tension, related to the joint hyperactivity by electromyography activity of masseter muscle at rest, isotonic and isometric chewing. 08 patients living in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, volunteers, aged between 22 and 62 years, both sexes were evaluated. The electromyography data collection at rest had reported that 50% showed differences in masseter muscle tension increased in the left for the right masseter; in isometric contraction, 50% had a difference in masseter tension right; in isotonic contraction 62.5% there was a difference in increased tension in the left masseter. Anthropometry of the face was suggested, where 25% showed significant variance of 01 cm of discrepancy on the right, in relation to the left. It is possible in the future, an early diagnosis and treatment, thus avoiding a source of pain, speech disorders and problems in the mastication system. For this we need to establish a direct follow-up control of at least one year after the treatment strategy.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to analyze the cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes on the 18th and 21st days of pregnancy of diabetic rats and to correlate with maternal glycemia and perinatal outcomes. Placentas from 20 Wistar rats were collected and divided into four experimental groups: control and diabetic of 18 and 21 days of pregnancy. The cell proliferation was analyzed using the PCNA expression and apoptosis by the TUNEL method. It was observed that PCNA and TUNEL indexes decreased from day 18 to 21 of pregnancy in the placentas of diabetic rats and these values were lower than control groups. Diabetic dams presented higher percentage of small for pregnancy age (SPA) fetuses. However, there was no difference between the PCNA and TUNEL indexes in SPA and N-SPA fetuses in all the groups and these indexes were not correlated to maternal glycemic. Thus, placental cell proliferation and apoptosis did not interfere in the intrauterine growth restriction.
Abstract in English:The aim of this sstudy was to evaluate the liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats presenting neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetes and to establish a relation with glycemia and insulin levels. Wistar rats were divided in to two groups: 1) Mild Diabetes (STZ) - received streptozotocin (glycemia from 120 to 300 mg/dL), 2) Control - received vehicle (glycemia below 120 mg/dL). At days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy, body weight and glycemia were evaluated. At day 21 of the pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized for blood and liver collection so as to determine insulin and liver glycogen, which showed no changes in the STZ group as compared to the controls. In the STZ group, maternal weight gain were lower as compared to those in the control group. Significantly increased glycemia was observed at days 0 and 14 of the pregnancy in the STZ group. Therefore, neonatally induced diabetes in the rats did not cause metabolic changes that impaired insulin and liver glycogen relation in these rats.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the male reproductive system. Adult male rats were exposed to NaF in drinking water for 30 days at three concentrations: 1.54 (control, tap water), 50 and 100 ppm. Body and organ weights, daily sperm production, sperm number and morphology were investigated. No difference was observed on the sperm number and morphology among the groups, as well as body weight and organ absolute and relative weights. Overall, despite the presence of a mild degree of dental fluorosis in the higher dose group, the results indicated that exposure to NaF at the doses used in the present study did not adversely affect sperm production and morphology of male rats.
Abstract in English:The success of revascularization procedures is limited by recurrent stenosis, which is a narrowing of a blood vessels that results from neo-intimal hyperplasia. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neo-intimal hyperplasia, and a role for angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation has been proposed. There are at least two high-affinity subtypes of angiotensin II receptors, AT1 and AT2, both of which are seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. We investigated the effect of losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation using the A7r5 smooth cell line derived from rat aorta. Losartan was shown to prevent angiotensin II-induced cell proliferation, thereby suggesting that the effect of angiotensin II was mediated via AT1 receptors. These data strengthen the concept that inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system can effectively prevent recurrent stenosis.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the formulation and in vitro characterization of hydro dynamically balanced floating matrix tablets using Cefuroxime axetil (CA) as model drug. Different excipients such as hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K15M, E5LV (gelling agent), sodium bicarbonate (gas generating agent) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (solubility enhancer) were used in order to optimize the drug release profile as well as floating property. Decrease in release characteristics with high viscous polymer were observed due to increased gel strength, tortuosity and length of drug diffusion path. Significant difference (p<0.5) in release rate was found at different concentration of SLS. The release mechanisms were explored and explained with zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer and Hixson-Crowell equations. The release rate, extent and mechanism were governed by the content of polymer. The polymer content and amount of floating agent significantly affected the time required for 50%of drug release (t50%), mean dissolution time (MDT), release rate constant, and diffusion exponent (n).Kinetic modeling of dissolution profile revealed that the drug release mechanism could range from diffusion controlled to case II transport, which was co-dominated by diffusion polymer erosion in the release mechanism.
Abstract in English:In this work, a recently proposed diversity index based on Patil and Taillie parametric diversity measure (or Tsallis entropy), Sq*, was applied to samples (presence-absence data) of macrophytes from the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil. This new index was the value of the family of indices Sq for a specific evenness of a sample. Results demonstrated that the Shannon index and species richness showed expressively high correlation with the Sq*; however, the evenness had low correlation coefficients with the index Sq*, indicating that Sq* was particularly sensitive to rarity and species richness. On the other hand, the weak correlations of this index with evenness demonstrated that it was less sensitive to species relative abundances.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of estradiol valerate in an attempt to feminize the male Astyanax altiparanae. One thousand newly-hatched larvae were randomly distributed in four incubators. During a period of 30 days, estradiol valerate was administered in different dosages (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of diet); the control group did not receive hormone in the diet. After 161 days of hatching, biometry was performed on 50 fishes per treatment group, and the gonads were analyzed. The hormone treatments were effective in feminizing A. altiparanae, achieving 70-76% of the desired sex, while the control treatment had 44% females. The hormone did not affect the growth of fish.
Abstract in English:Antifeedant and growth regulating activities of PONNEEM, an oil formulation containing neem and pungam (karanj) oils were evaluated along with individual neem and karanj oils and Nimbicidine, a commercial neem-based pesticide against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fab.). Among all the treatments, PONNEEM recorded the maximum antifeedant activity (88.6%) at 0.6%. Neem and karanj individual treatments as well as PONNEEM extended larval duration compared to control. Pupal weight and fecundity were significantly reduced and pupal period was greatly increased by PONNEEM treatment compared to other treatments. The PONNEEM was found to be compatible with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, an egg parasitoid of many lepidopteran pests, at 0.15, 0.3 and 0.5% concentrations. PONNEEM did not affect the parasitoid emergence significantly at 0.3% concentration compared to control. PONNEEM also showed growth disruption activity against fourth instar larvae.
Abstract in English:This work investigated the potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Astigmata: Acaridae) to control Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in the laboratory. L. serricorne is the most destructive insect pest ever found on stored tobacco. The experimental delineation had 33 arenas being each experimental unit with 11 arenas of experiments with eggs, larva of L. serricorne with the density of T. putrescentiae maintained constant, where from 11 of these arenas, eight were for the analysis of predation and three to evaluate the natural mortality of the insect. The highest predation rate was found during the larval stage with, approximately, 54, 68 and 78% mortality of L. serricorne from the fourth until the sixty day of predation. These results indicated that it was possible to use the predatory mite T. putrescentiae in pest management programs of L. serricorne in the storage units of tobacco.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work was to assess the flight capacity, parasitism and emergence of Trichogramma atopoviriliaand two strains of T. pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) (L1 and L2). The flight capacity of these species was assessed in test units consisting of a plastic PVC cylinder with a rigid transparent plastic circle on the upper part and an extruded polystyrene disk closing its bottom. A tube was placed in each test unit containing a card with 300 Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs parasitised by Trichogramma. These cards were assessed to determine the parasitism rate and adult emergence of these natural enemies. T. atopovirilia and T. pretiosum L1 presented adequate flight capacity and parasitism, in addition to high percentages of adults emerged.
Abstract in English:This study investigated the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts and peanut products marketed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. One hundred one samples of peanuts and peanut products were collected and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography with a charge-coupled device system. Aflatoxin B1 was present in 14% of the samples analyzed, in concentrations ranging from 24.0 to 87.5 µg/kg in the peanut samples and from 22.0 to 84.6 µg/kg in the peanut-product samples. These values exceeded the Brazilian regulatory limit (20.0 µg/Kg for aflatoxins B1+G1+B2+G2 ). These results suggest that although aflatoxin contamination in peanuts marketed in southern Brazil is lower than in other Brazilian regions, it is still a serious problem for human health and the economy.
Abstract in English:The purpose of this work was to study a rapid yeast DNA extraction by boiling and freeze-thawing processes without using chemical reagents or any purification procedures, to obtain a high grade PCR-product. A specific DNA fragment of the 18S region of Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen. The described boiling and freeze-thawing protocols generated the PCR-grade product preparations and could be used to process many samples. The amplification of the fragments could be observed after 30 and 35 cycles. These processes of extraction without using any kind of chemical reagents, especial water, and purification procedures proved to be efficient, reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive.